Barranquilla is the largest city andport in the northern CaribbeanCoast region of Colombia, with apopulation of 1,885,500 as of 2011in its metropolitan area, whichmakes it Colombias fourth mostpopulous city after Bogotá,Medellin and Cali.BARRANQUILLA
Barranquillalies strategically next to the delta of theMagdalena River, 7.5 kilometer from itsmouth at the Caribbean Sea, serving asport for river and maritimetransportation within Colombia. The cityis the core of the Metropolitan Area ofBarranquilla, which is constituted by themunicipalities of Soledad, Galapa,Malambo, and Puerto Colombia.
NicknamesIn 1921, President Marco Fidel Suarez called thecity the Portico Dorado de la República (GoldenGate of the Republic) in recognition of itseconomic importance as a port since the late 19thcentury.Barranquilla is also known as La Arenosa(meaning The Sandy), as called by the presidentof New Granada, Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera,during his stay in Barranquilla in 1849.The thinker Agustín Nieto Caballero calledBarranquilla "Ciudad de los Brazos Abiertos"Enrique Ancízar, president of the ColombianSociety of Agriculture, called it "Faro de América"
FlagIt consists of three rectangles, red beingthe outermost, then yellow, and green inthe center. Red symbolizes the blood ofpatriots; yellow, the sun of freedom andhope; and green, a proud home. In theCentre, there is an eight point Silver Starwhich symbolizes the eight provinces ofthe confederacy. The flag was carried bySimon Bolívar during the campaign ofLower Magdalena in 1812. In 1910, theCouncil approved the flag forBarranquilla.
Coat of armsThe seal of the city was mentioned inthe decree that granted Barranquilla thestatus of a city by Manuel RodríguezTorices, the then President of theSovereign State of Cartagena de Indias,in reward for the determined andcourageous patriots who participated inthe defense of the independence ofCartagena de Indias against Santa Martain 1813.
AnthemThe music and lyrics of Himno deBarranquilla were chosen in competitionby the Sociedad de Mejoras Publica andofficially adopted as the anthem of thecity by the Municipal Council in ameeting on October 19, 1942.The lyrics are authored by the poetAmira de la Rosa (winner of the contestin 1942) and the music is of Panama, bySimón Urbina (1928).
GeographyThe city is located in the northeasterncorner of the department of theAtlantic, on the west bank of theMagdalena River, 7.5 kilometres(originally 25 km before rapid urbangrowth) from its mouth in theCaribbean. The municipality coversan area of 154 km 2, equivalent to4.5% of the area of the AtlánticoDepartment.
ClimateBarranquilla has a tropicalsavanna climate (Aw) according toKöppen climate classification; itis hot all-year-round, with highlevels of relative humidity. Theaverage temperature is 28.4 °C (85°F). Daytime temperature usuallyremains around 32 °C (90 °F).
FloraAccording to the Agustín CodazziGeographic Institute, Barranquilla has adry tropical forest vegetation (according tothe Hold ridge life zones), which includesspecies like cacti, mangroves, Opuntiaelatior, Acanthocereus, Prosopis juliflora,Divi-divi, Tabebuia rosea, Cordia alba andvarieties of acacia like Flamboyant orflame tree and Leucaena leucacephala.
FaunaSome animal species can be found inthe city such as birds like the owl ,wren , the parrot; fish such as mullet inthe marshes; insects such as butterflies ,flies , mosquitoes , gnats , cockroachesand termites ; mammals such as dogsand cats, monkeys and rodents likezorrochuchos; reptiles such as iguanas ,snakes, tortoises .
The Centro histórico is betweenCarreras 35 and 46 and Calles 30and 46, and includes parts of SanRoque and Downtown districts.It is part of the town historicalCentre and North-CentralDistrict.
The paseo de Bolívar, in theheart of Barranquilla, is the mostimportant avenue of the city andthe place from which itexpanded.Until the late nineteenth centuryit was called Calle Ancha (BroadStreet), but in 1886 MayorAntonio Abello renamed itAbello.
Plaza de San Nicolas,opposite the church of SanNicolas, was the center of thecultural, commercial andreligious Barranquilla inearly twentieth century.
Plaza de la Paz was built in1986 opposite theMetropolitan Cathedral towelcome Pope John Paul II.
Parque Tomás SuríSalcedowas named in honor ofthe Minister of Finance,and built in 1921.
Bocas de Cenizaand the Magdalena RiverBuilt in 1893 by the BarranquillaRailway & Pier Company underthe direction of Cuban engineerFrancisco Javier Cisneros, thepier in the neighboringmunicipality of PuertoColombia was once one of thelongest in the world.
Barranquilla ZooBarranquilla Zoo is a wildlifesanctuary which houses colorfulnative animal species and othercontinents, with an emphasis onColombian fauna and the protectionof endangered species. It has over 500animals of 140 species, from chickensto elephants or lions, to manydifferent mammals, fish, birds,reptiles, amphibians and primates.
Teatro Amira de la RosaHoused in a traditional strategic sectorof the city at the confluence of thedeep-rooted neighborhoods of ElPrado, Montecristo and Abajo, thistheatre, as well as venues such as theColiseo Humberto Perea and Casa delCarnaval Colosseum has had animportant role in cultural diffusionsince 1982, with space for gatherings,presentations, meetings, concerts andexhibitions.
Caribbean Cultural ParkParque Cultural del Caribe isambitious cultural complex,unique in its kind in theCaribbean Region and Colombia.Conceived in the framework ofthe restoration of the historiccenter of the city, it promotes thenatural, cultural and historicalaspects of the ColombianCaribbean.
CultureThroughout the year, the city hasconsiderable cultural activity; its bestknown is the Carnival of Barranquilla,one of the most famous festivals inColombia. In 2001 it was declared the"Cultural Patrimony of the Nation" bythe National Congress of Colombia andin 2003 "Masterpiece of Oral andIntangible Heritage of Humanity" byUNESCO.
LanguageIn Barranquilla, the peoplespeak a variant of Españolcosteño (“Coastal Spanish”)with well-defined localvariants and accents.
Folk musicCumbia is musical rhythmand dance most importantand representative of thecity, deeply rooted in theentire Caribbean region ofColombia
GastronomyBarranquilla serves a wide variety of cuisineto match its cosmopolitan population andtourists. Very characteristic of the local cuisineis a pigeon pea stew with salted meat (whicheven has its own annual festival), sausage ,cheese, fried arepas , caribañolas , pies ,cupcakes , Patacón, black bean rice, chipichipiand Cucayo ; noodles, drinks like raspao , boli, sugar water, tamarindo , zapote and níspero ,coconut candies and Easter candy, cake, fish,shrimp and oysters, beef, chicken, pork andchicken dishes and pork rinds.
SportsSports in Barranquilla are promoted atthe governmental level by the Ministryof Sports and Deportes de la AlcaldíaDistrital. Since the early twentiethcentury, the most important sports havebeen football, baseball and boxing. Alsopracticed are basketball, athletics,swimming, chess , cycling, skating ,bowling , tennis, golf, shooting, karate ,taekwondo , paragliding , BMX , go-karts, motor sports , fishing, squash , surfing ,weightlifting , softball and bowling .
Stadiums and venuesThe city has developed sportsinfrastructure, Estadio MetropolitanoRoberto Meléndez opened on May 11,1986, with capacity for 49,612 spectators.Estadio Romelio Martínez was built in1935 for the National Olympic III,capacity for 20,000 people. Estadio TomásArrieta was built in 1946 for the VCentral American and Caribbean Games,and ishome of Major League Baseballside Edgar Rentería.