1. Research In Home Science Yes! You CAN Do a Research Study A Presentation by Dr. Daxaben N.Mehta, Principal, Smt.Sadguna C.U.Shah Home Science and C.U.Shah Arts & Commerce Mahila College, Wadhwancity, District : Surendranagar
2. Definition of Research Research is the systematic process of collecting and analysing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested.
3. Why Do I Need to Know About Research?• As a graduate student... To be able to read and understand the empirical literature in your field; to become a critical consumer of information.• As a graduate student preparing for a thesis or dissertation… To be able to both design and implement your thesis or dissertation as well as future studies that interest you.
4. Why Do I Need to Know About Research?• As a future practitioner…To be able to intelligently participate in research projects, evaluations, and studies undertaken by your institution.• As an educated citizen ...To understand the difference between scientifically acquired knowledge and other kinds of information.
5. What is Research?Research is all about addressing anissue or asking and answering aquestion or solving a problem, so…Identify an issue, question, or problem.Talk with people who want or need yourstudy.Find out whats already known about it.Talk with experts and/or read theirreviews and the original research onthe topic.
6. What is Research?Plan, cost, and do your studyaccordingly.Write it up and submit it forassessment. Better still, do a good jobon it and submit it for publicationUndergrad projects are sometimesgood enough to publish.Your work will benefit more people ifyou publish it.
7. The scientific method HypothesisObservations Theory Predictions Hypothesis confirmation Hypothesis rejection
8. Research Procedure1.Select a topic2.Review existing research and theory that are relevant3.Develop a hypothesis or research question/s4.Determine the appropriate methodology/research design5.Collect relevant data6.Analyze and interpret the results7.Present the results in an appropriate form
9. The problem is the Y of any research project.Without a focused problem, there is no research. In order to be able to identify a research problem, a researcher needs to know what are the available sources. A research problem is usually posed as a question, preferably a direct and simple one.
10. Defining theResearch Problem ►State your research problem. ►Are there any sub-problems? ►What is the background (literature review) on this problem? ►What is good about tackling this problem? Why should we be interested in answering the research question?
11. Defining theResearch Problem ►Discuss your problem with peers and experts. ►Have you looked at this problem from all sides to minimize unwanted surprises? ►Think through the process. Are you capable of addressing the issue? Can you foresee any pitfalls in data collection and analysis? What tools are available for you to use? ►What research procedure will you follow?
12. Types of Research Problems:1.Descriptive research – asks “what is” and suggests a survey research design;2.Relationship research – asks what is the relationship between two or more variables and implies a correlational design.
13. 3. Difference research – asks what is the difference between two or more groups/ approaches;There are generally two ways of stating a research problem:1. Declarative or descriptive – usually used in stating the main problem/ general objective2. In question form – usually used in stating the sub-problems/specific objectives
14. In any study, you need to define the key terms or concepts in the statement of the problem to avoid confusion or ambiguity.Two types of definitions:1. Conceptual definition – definition of a term as given by authoritative sources (e.g. Webster’s dictionary; a well-known research study; textbook, etc..)2. Operational definition – researcher’s own definition, based on how it will be used in the study
15. SEARCHING RESEARCH LITERATURE► Hard Copies and Soft Copies► Online and Offline - Internet► Research Databases - Websites► Search Engines► Institutional Repositories► University and Institutional Libraries► Research Scholars and University/College Teachers► Blogs - Groups and Networks
16. FORMATION OF HYPOTHESES►Hypotheses basically state the assumption on the basis of which analysis is undertaken.►There are two types of hypotheses►Research Hypotheses and Working Hypotheses►The Research hypotheses relate to the theoretical assumptions of the analysis While►The working hypotheses are the statistical hypotheses for statistical analysis of data.
17. To ensure the objectivity in the study of an identified problem, the researcher has to be clear as to what variables are to be examined or investigated.• A variable is a propertyor characteristic thattakes on differentvalues.• It is a symbol to whichnumbers or values canbe attached or assigned.
18. Types of variables:1. Independent variables – the cause supposed to be responsible for the bringing about change in a phenomenon or situation.2. Dependent variables – the outcome of change brought about by change in the independent variable3. Intervening variable – a variable whose existence is inferred but cannot be manipulated or controlled4. Moderator variable – a variable that may or may not be controlled but has an effect on the research situation/phenomenon.
19. 1.Independent variable: Education.2.Dependent variables: Behavior, knowledge of colour3.Intervening variable: Policies4.Moderator variables: civil status, age, years of work experience
20. One way of making a study on a problem more focused is by delimiting it.Delimiting research is giving full disclosure of what the researcher intends to do or does not intend to do.When a researcher is able to set the scope and delimitation of his study, he can make his research manageable. At the same time, this can direct him to the choice of research method to employ.
21. Points for delimiting study:1. Purpose of study2. Time coverage of investigation3. Geographical coverage of inquiry4. Variables to be studied5. Specific indicators of variables6. Types and size of respondents if the study7. Data collection tools
22. Research Proposal(More formal than Research Design) ►Title►Statement of research question Remember to stress why the problem is important!►Background/information►Literature review.►Aims and objectives.
23. Research Proposal(More formal than Research Design) ►Methods. ►Timetable. ►Data analysis. ►Ethical issues. ►In Funding applications ● Resources/Budge ►Dissemination?
24. Designing the ResearchAfter stating your researchproblem, you need to thinkAbout what approach you willuse to the problem.Will it be quantitative or qualitative?
25. Types of methodologies►QuaLitative Measures ● Descriptive ● Numbers not the primary focus ● Interpretive, ethnographic, naturalistic►QuaNtitative Measures ● N for numbers ● Statistical ● Quantifiable
26. QuaNtitative measures►CompareThings►Count Things►Survey People About Things
27. QuaNtitative measures►Comparison studies ● Experimental and control groups ● Instructional methodologies (Colaric; Cudiner & Harmon) ● Program assessment using before/after analysis of research papers(Emmons & Martin)
28. Basic steps of a research project►Find a topicWhat, When►Formulate questionsWhat, Why►Define populationWho, When►Select design & measurementHow►Gather evidenceHow►Interpret evidenceWhy►Tell about what you did and found out
29. The Sampling Design Process Define the Population Determine the Sampling Frame Select Sampling Technique(s) Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process
30. The Sampling Design ProcessImportant qualitative factors indetermining the sample sizethe importance of the decisionthe nature of the researchthe number of variablesthe nature of the analysissample sizes used in similar studiesincidence ratescompletion ratesresource constraints