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Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
Metabolism protein and fat
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Metabolism protein and fat

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Metabolism of fat and protein is easier to learn if you take it as fun.

Metabolism of fat and protein is easier to learn if you take it as fun.

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  • 1. For Broadcasting Mixing your Video METABOLISM OF FOOD LOGO Dr. Daxaben N. Mehta Principal Smt. S.C.U.Shah Home Science andC.U.Shah Arts & Commerce Mahila College Wadhwancity – Dist: Surendranagar Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 2. For AMINO ACID BroadcastingMixing your Video METABOLISM LOGO ENVIRONMENT Bio- ORGANISM synthesis Protein Ingested protein AMINO ACIDS Purines c c Degradation Pyrimidines (required) Carbon Porphyrins Nitrogen skeletons (ketogenic) (glucogenic) Urea Used for pyruvate energy α-ketoglutarate acetoacetate succinyl-CoA acetyl CoA fumarate oxaloacetate Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 3. For BroadcastingMixing your Video TRANSAMINATION LOGO Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 4. For BroadcastingMixing your Video UREA CYCLE LOGO Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 5. For Broadcasting Mixing your LOGO Video6 Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 6. For BroadcastingMixing your Video FAT METABOLISM LOGO Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 7. β - OXIDATION For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO VideoBreakdown of fats intoAcetyl coenzyme A --> Krebs CycleFADH2 --> Oxidative PhosphorylationNADH--> Oxidative PhosphorylationBreaks off two carbons at a time to acetylCoARemaining goes another round Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 8. Prepares a Fatty Acid for transport and metabolism For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO Video CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH ATP PPi [CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CO-AMP] Fatty acyl CoA Ligase HS-CoA AMP CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CO~SCoA Fatty acyl CoA Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 9. For Broadcasting Beta-Oxidation of Fatty AcidsMixing your LOGO Video In reaction 1, oxidation:   • Removes H atoms from the  and  carbons. • Forms a trans C=C bond. • Reduces FAD to FADH2. Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 9
  • 10. For Broadcasting Beta-Oxidation of Fatty AcidsMixing your LOGO Video In reaction 2, hydration:  • Adds water across the trans C=C bond. • Forms a hydroxyl group (—OH) on the  carbon. Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 10
  • 11. Beta ()-Oxidation of Fatty Acids ForMixing your Broadcasting LOGO Video  In reaction 3, a second oxidation: • Oxidizes the hydroxyl group. • Forms a keto group on the  carbon. Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 11
  • 12. Beta ()-Oxidation of Fatty Acids ForMixing your Broadcasting LOGO Video In Reaction 4, acetyl CoA is cleaved: • By splitting the bond between the  and  carbons. • To form a shortened fatty acyl CoA that repeats steps 1 - 4 of -oxidation. Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 12
  • 13. For Broadcasting Mixing your Video MECHANISM LOGO CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CO~SCoA Fatty Acyl CoA FAD Fatty Acyl Dehydrogenase FADH CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CO~SCoA β Enoyl Co. A H2O Enoyl Co. A Hydratase OH CH3CH2CH2CHCH2CO~SCoA β Hydroxy Acyl Co. Aβ Hydroxy acyl Co. A Dehydrogenase NAD+ O NADH CH3CH2CH2CCH2CO~SCoA β Keto Acyl Co. A HSCo A Thiolase Fatty Acyl CoA CH3CH2CH2CO~SCoA CH2CO~SCoA Acetyl CoA Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 14. For BroadcastingMixing your Beta Oxidation LOGO Video 6 carbon Fatty Acid Acyl-CoA CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2C~SCoA O CH3C~SCoA O CH3C~SCoA O CH3C~SCoA O 3 two carbon Acetyl-CoAs Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 15. For Broadcasting Mixing your Video ENERGY PRODUCTION LOGO COMPARISON BETWEENHexanoic Acid C6H12O2 Glucose C6H12O6Hexanoic acid Glucose Hexanoil Co. A - 1 ATP Pyruvate 2 ATP 6 NADHHexanoil Co. A Pyruvate3 Acetyl-CoA 36 ATP 2 Acetyl-CoA 24 ATP2 FADH2 4 ATP2 NADH + H+ 6 ATP 2 NADH + H+ 6 ATP 45 ATP 38 ATP MW 116 MW 180 ATP per Gram 0.32 ATP per Gram 0.17 Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 16. For Broadcasting Oxidation of Unsaturated FattyMixing your LOGO Video Acids. • Oxidation of monounsaturated fatty acyl-CoA requires additional reaction performed with the help of the enzyme isomerase. • Double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acids are in the cis configuration and cannot be acted upon by enoyl-CoA hydratase (the enzyme catalyzing the addition of water to the trans double bond generated during β-oxidation. • Enoyl-CoA isomerase repositions the double bond, converting the cis isomer to trans isomer, a normal intermediate in β-oxidation. Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 16
  • 17. For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO Video Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 18. For Broadcasting Oxidation of polyunsaturatedMixing your LOGO Video fatty acids. • Requires two additional reactions and a second enzyme, reductase, in addition to isomerase. • NADPH-dependent 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase converts trans-2, cis-4-dienoyl- CoA intermediate into the trans-2-enoyl- CoA substrate necessary for β-oxidation. Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 18
  • 19. For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO Video Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 20. For Broadcasting Mixing your Oxidation of odd-chain LOGO Video fatty acids.• Odd-carbon fatty acids are oxidized by the same pathway as even-carbon acids until three-carbon propionyl-CoA is formed.• After that, three additional reactions are required involving three enzymes.• Propionyl-CoA is carboxylated by propionyl-CoA carboxylase (with the cofactor biotin) to form the D stereoisomer of methylmalonyl-CoA (The formation of the carboxybiotin intermediate requires energy from ATP).• D-methylmalonyl-CoA is changed into L-methylmalonyl-CoA by methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase.• L-methylmalonyl-CoA undergoes an intramolecular rearrangment to form succinyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle. This rearrangment is catalyzed by methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, which requires coenzyme B12, derived from vitamin B12 (cobalamin). Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 20
  • 21. For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO Video Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 22. For Broadcasting Mixing your Video Ketone Bodies LOGO A special source of fuel and energy for certain tissues• Some of the acetyl-CoA produced by fatty acid oxidation in liver mitochondria is converted to acetone, acetoacetate and -hydroxybutyrate• These are called "ketone bodies"• Source of fuel for brain, heart and muscle• Major energy source for brain during starvation• Synthesis in Figure 24.28• They are transportable forms of fatty acids! Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 23. For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO Video Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 24. For Broadcasting Ketone Bodies and DiabetesMixing your Video LOGO "Starvation of cells in the midst of plenty"• Glucose is abundant in blood, but uptake by cells in muscle, liver, and adipose cells is low• Cells, metabolically starved, turn to gluconeogenesis and fat/protein catabolism• In type I diabetics, OAA is low, due to excess gluconeogenesis, so Ac-CoA from fat/protein catabolism does not go to TCA, but rather to ketone body production• Acetone can be detected on breath of type I diabetics Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 25. For BroadcastingMixing your Connection to Krebs Cycle LOGO Video Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here
  • 26. For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO Video Don’t write anything here 26 Don’t write anything here
  • 27. For BroadcastingMixing your LOGO Video Don’t write anything here Don’t write anything here 27

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