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C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2
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C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2

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macromolecule …

macromolecule
water,pH, enzymes

Published in: Education
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Transcript

  • 1. BIOLOGY NOTES CHAPTER 2 “ THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE”
  • 2. I. pH Scale
    • A. Measures how acidic or basic a solution is.
    • B. Scale ranges from
    • 0 – 14
    • 1. below 7 acid
    • 2. above 7 base
    • 3. at 7 neutral
    • C. Many chemical processes in living organisms require a certain pH level to function.
      • Ex: hydrochloric acid in stomach used in the process of digestion has a pH of about 2.
  • 3. II. Compounds of Life
    • A. Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon . Come from nonliving sources.
    • ex: water – a polar molecule with a + charge on one end and a – charge on the other.
  • 4.
    • B. Organic Compounds – contain carbon and come from living things.
    • 1. most organic molecules are polymers , which are large molecules made from small individual molecules called monomers .
  • 5.
    • 2. There are 4 major organic compounds (macromolecules)
    • a. Carbohydrates – include sugars and starches.
    • Composed of carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen .
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 chemical formula for the simple
    • sugar glucose made by plants.
  • 6.
    • b. Lipids – waxy, fatty, or oily compounds.
    • Store and release energy in the cell.
    • Many lipids are made by combining the
    • monomers fatty acids and glycerol .
  • 7.
    • c. Proteins – building blocks of cells.
    • Made of monomers called amino acids
  • 8.
    • d. Nucleic acids – carry information in the cell
    • Made of units called nucleotides .
    • DNA and RNA are the two nucleic acids.
  • 9. III. Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
    • A. Chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of substances into a new set of substances.
  • 10.
    • B. Enzymes – act as a catalyst , which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction.
    • 1. Substrate – the part of the reaction that binds to the enzyme.
    • 2. Active site – region on the enzyme where the substrate fits.
    • Can compare to a lock and key, with the lock representing the enzyme , the key representing the substrat e, and the active site is the place where the key fits into the lock.
  • 11.  

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