Corral of westerners


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  • Self intro. NM RRs. Didn’t develop in a vacuum. Effected by local territorial and national events
  • Todays RRs are the continuing legacy of what began 136 y/a
  • Need a slide saying THEN CAME THE REGIONALS
  • Railroads named everything-not only towns, but sidings, switches
  • In addition to politics there were physical differences System standard book Standardization
  • Distinguish between class I const and short line depots
  • Railroads did not operate in a vaccuum. Local and national politics had an impact
  • San Francisco Chronicle
  • Harpers
  • Pope was Chief Justice of Territorial Supreme Court good friend of pres taft and roose
  • Bring a copy of the const
  • Consequently laws begin to change
  • Pullman Strike
  • Add Pope siding
  • Out get a promotional foto
  • Corral of westerners

    1. 1. Railroads in New Mexico 1878-2014 April 17, 2014 Albuquerque, NM 1 Their Continuing Impact and Legacy
    2. 2. 2 Today: New Mexico’s 12 Railroads in 2014 National Systems: -BNSF -Union Pacific Short Line Companies: -Southwestern RR -Texas-New Mexico RR -Arizona Eastern Ry. -Santa Fe Southern Ry. Private Railroads: -Escalante Western Ry. -Navajo Mine Railroad Passenger Railroads: -New Mexico Rail Runner -Cumbers & Toltec Scenic Railroad -Amtrak’s Southwest Chief -Amtrak’s Sunset Limited
    3. 3. 3 135 Years of Railroading in New Mexico: • RRs were the Space Program of the 1880’s • More than 120 Railroad companies • Over 3,000 miles of track • More than 1,500 miles of abandoned line exists today • Dozens of Railroad towns and railroad Town Companies • Lines located in every county • Second Transcontinental Railroad -- Deming: 1882 • Eighty-two historic depots remain • New rail issues continue to develop
    4. 4. Prior to 1878… Before the railroad’s arrival: NM was a trade destination via the Santa Fe Trail & the Camino Real Goods moving to the West Coast took three months… or Were routed completely around South America, or over Isthmus of Panama Cargo was restricted by size/weight  Prior to 1878, people traveled no faster than had the Egyptians or the Romans 4
    5. 5. 1753: First steam engine arrives in the colonies from England. 1826: First rail laid down at Quincy, Mass., 3 miles in length and pulled by horses. 1827: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is chartered to operate 1855: First land grant railroad in the U. S. is completed. 1862: Lincoln signs the Pacific Railway Act, authorizes construction of first transcon. RR 1869: Central Pacific & Union Pacific meet at Promontory Summit, Utah 1872: George Westinghouse patents the first automatic air brake. Still used today 1878: Railroad enters New Mexico Territory 1882 Second Transcontinental Railroad link established at Deming, NM The Railroad came relatively late to the Southwest and to New Mexico 5
    6. 6. 1870 50,000 miles of Rail network 1880 1900 Thirty Years of U.S. Rail Growth 93,000 miles of railroad 180,000 miles of railroad 6
    7. 7. • Alamogordo and Sacramento Mtn. RR • Alamogordo Lumber Company • Albuquerque and Cerrillos Coal Co. • Albuquerque Eastern Railway • Albuquerque Traction Company • American Potash Company • Arizona and Colorado RR of N. M. • Arizona and New Mexico Railroad • Arizona and Southeastern Railroad • Burro Mountain Railroad Company • Cerrillos Coal Railroad Company • Choctaw Oklahoma and Gulf Railroad • Choctaw Oklahoma and Tex Railroad • Cimarron and Northwestern Ry. • Cimarron and Taos Valley Railroad • Clifton and Lordsburg Railway • Clifton and Southern Pacific Railway • Colorado and New Mexico Railroad • Colorado and Southern Railway • Colorado Columbus and Mexican RR • Colorado Midland Railroad • Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad • Dawson El Paso and Southwestern RR • Denver Texas and Fort Worth Railroad • Domingo and Rio Grande Railroad • Eastern Railway Company of New Mexico • El Paso and White Oakes Railway • Hanover Railroad Company • Las Vegas & Hot Springs Railway • Las Vegas Electric Railway Light and Power Co. • Las Vegas Railway & Power Company • Lordsburg and Hachita Railroad • Mexican Central Railway • Navajo Mine Railroad • New Mexican Railroad Company • New Mexico and Arizona Railroad • New Mexico Central Railroad • New Mexico Central Railway • New Mexico Midland Railway Company • New Mexico Ry and Coal Co • Pecos Valley and Northeastern Ry • Pecos Valley Ry • Phelps Dodge Industrial RR • Pittsburg and Midway RR • Pueblo and Arkansas Valley RR • Rio Grande and El Paso Railroad • Rio Grande & Pagosa Springs RR • Rio Grande and Santa Fe RR • Rio Grande, El Paso, and Santa Fe Railway • Rio Grande Mexico and Pacific Railroad • Rio Grande Pagosa and Northern RR • Rio Grande and Pagosa Springs Railroad • Rio Grande Sierra Madre and Pacific RR • Rio Grande and Southwestern Railroad • Rio Grande Valley Traction Company • Rocky Mtn and SF Ry Co • Santa Fe Alb and Pac RR Co • Santa Fe Central RR • Santa Fe Cental Ry • Santa Fe Liberal and Englewood RR • Santa Fe Northern RR • Santa Fe Northwestern Ry • Santa Fe Pacific RR • Santa Fe Raton and Des Moines RR • Santa Fe Raton and Eastern RR • Santa Fe San Juan and Northern RR • Santa Fe Southern Railway • Santa Fe Southern Pacific • Burlington Northern RR • Burlington Northern Santa FE RR • Silver City and Northern RR Co • Silver city Deming and Pacific RR Co • Silver City Pinos Alton &Mogollon RR • Southern Plains and Santa Fe Ry • Southern Pacific Trans Co • Southwestern Railroad of NM • St. Louis Rocky Mountain & Pacific Ry • St Louis and San Francisco Ry • Star Lake RR Co • Texas and Pac RR • Texas NM Ry • Texas Santa Fe and northern RR • Union Pacific RR • Union Pacific Denver and Gulf Ry • Very Large Array Railroad • White Oakes Route Railroad • Zuni Mountain RR Territorial/State Authorized New Mexican Railroads 7
    8. 8. First - Came the Transcontinentals •Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe •Southern Pacific •Denver & Rio Grande (Western) •Chicago, Rock Island, & Pacific •Missouri Pacific •El Paso & Northeastern •El Paso & Southwestern National investors Money from outside NM System standard construction Prescribed construction Interstate railroads 8
    9. 9. Then - Came the Regionals, Locals & Short line Railroads Short Line Characteristics: •Generally “mixed” trains •Carried local produce from interior regions •Exchanged with the nationals •Structures were made with available material •Often moved from location to location •Mining railroads •Logging railroads •Cattle railroads •Agricultural railroads Included: •Burro Mountain Railroad Company •Cerrillos Coal Railroad Company •Lordsburg and Hachita Railroad •New Mexican Railroad Company •New Mexico and Arizona Railroad •New Mexico Central Railroad •Pecos Valley Railroad •Santa Fe Central Railroad •Zuni Mountain Railroad •Silver City & Northern Railroad 9
    10. 10. Railroads Towns 10
    11. 11. Railroad Town Companies ATSF: ----------------------------------------------------- The New Mexico Town Company El Paso & Northeastern Railroad: ------- New Mexico Land Development Company Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific:------------ Santa Rosa Townsite Company Southern Pacific-------------------------------------Tucumcari Townsite & Investment Company 1. Usually located at railroad division points 2. Multiple railroad facilities (ice houses, crew quarters, supt. buildings) 3. Anticipated development of secondary economic bases (farming, mining, etc.) Albuquerque, East Las Vegas, Raton, Socorro, Las Cruces—Lots cost $200- $2,500 Wagon Mound, Los Lunas, Rincon---Lots cost $75- $150 11 (Corporate subdivisions of the railroads) Railroad: Town Company:
    12. 12. Branch Line Development •Generally short distance •Economically built •Locally funded •Often single commodity - Agricultural - Potash - Coal - Logging - Passenger service D&RG’s “Chili Line” Cerrillos Coal RR Company Raton spurs Zuni Mountain RR Alamogordo Railway Coalora line Cloudcroft Montezuma Branch Lamy Branch 12
    13. 13. 13 Some Distinctions Between Short Lines & Transcontinentals
    14. 14. ATSF System-Wide Branch Line Depot Standard 14 ATSF Frame depot standard plan Larges systems had designers, architects, carpenters, & material
    15. 15. 15 Class I’s: -Standard plans and designs. -Materials imported -Exceptionally well-made Vaughn (ATSF) Mountainair Columbus Tucumcari (SP)
    16. 16. Short line depots •Available material •Usually wooden •Quick construction •Often moved, reused 16 Eldorado Moriarity (NMCRR) Elida (PVRR) Hachita
    17. 17. Conflicting Attitudes Toward Rail National Progressive Movement & Mistrust of Corporate Industry Territorial New Mexico ’s Desire for Rail Service & Statehood Major changes in New Mexico’s regulatory railroad laws 1890-1920’s 1880’s-1912 Changes in Land Use, Transport Law, Corporate Rules, Taxation, & Commerce 17
    18. 18. •Period of American social and governmental reform; 1890’s-1920’s •Reaction to corporate (including railroads) and political corruption •Suppport of Prohibition •Muckrakers-exposed waste/corruption •Sinclair Lewis novels •Labor unions •Womens’ sufferage •Political “rings” •Trust busting •Child welfare •Railroad strikes •Railroad regulation The National Progressive Period & Local Impacts 18
    19. 19. The National Mood 19
    20. 20. 20 Widespread Corporate Mistrust
    21. 21. Simultaneously, in New Mexico: Santa Fe Ring political group flourished John Tunstall murdered-Lincoln County War Maxwell & Colfax County War Government contracts flourished Lincoln County regulators Supplying army fort contracts Las Gorras Blancas organized Land companies prospered Desire for statehood 21
    22. 22. From the Incorporation Documents of the Texas, Santa Fe & Northern R.R. (Certificate of Incorporation 1882) Telegraphs The Railroad has the right to build telegraphs on all its lines Exemption from Taxation The Railroad is exempt from taxation for six years after the completion of its line Right of Way Free Through Public Lands The Railroad has right of way through public lands of the United States and through lands belonging to the Territory of New Mexico Right of Way Through Private Lands The Railroad can take land for right of way upon paying amount to be determined by Commissioners, who are appointed by the judge of the District Court. Proceedings are very simple and just. Delay in obtaining possession of land required, need not exceed ten days. Statutory Right & Privileges of Territorial Railroads 22
    23. 23. 1878 N.M. Territorial Statutes “To take, possess and enjoy, by purchase, donation, or condemnation, such materials, springs, and streams of water as maybe necessary for its uses and purposes in operating its railroads…” “To purchase and by voluntary grants and donations to receive and take by its officers, engineers, surveyors , and agents to enter upon, possess, hold and use all such lands and other property as its directors may deem necessary, proper and convenient for the construction, maintenance, & operation of its railroad and telegraph lines…” 23
    24. 24. RRs become required to: •Construct lines to towns/county Seats •To connect with nearby lines Elimination of passes to VIPs •Cease issuance of passes To elected officials At the Turn of the Century, Railroad Statutes Become Gradually Restrictive 24
    25. 25. Railroads & the NM Constitution Article IX, Section 14 [Anti-donation clause] “Neither the state, nor any county, school district or municipality, except as otherwise provided in this constitution , shall directly or indirectly lend or pledge its credit or make any donation to or in aid of any person, association or public or private corporation or in aid of any private enterprise for the construction of any railroad…” Article IV, Sec. 37. [Railroad passes.] It shall not be lawful for a member of the legislature to use a pass, or to purchase or receive transportation over any railroad upon terms not open to the general public; and the violation of this section shall work a forfeiture of the office. Railroad are singled out No RR passes for elected officials 25
    26. 26. 1912: Statehood Railroad Laws Amended Generally: •More restrictive regulations •Constitutional curtailments •More authority to NM CC •Rules for organization of RRs Specifically: •RRs required to fence right-of-way •Safety appliances required •Financial oversight from Territory •Contributory negligence established •Required to serve county seats 26
    27. 27. Conflict Railroad, Strikes, and Military Campaigns 27
    28. 28. Rough Riders Departing Las Vegas 28
    29. 29. 29 Wartime Posters
    30. 30. 30 Railroads After W.W. II 1950’s- Trucks begin competing with railroads End of steam era 1960’s- Airlines compete with rail for passengers Mergers: NYC & Penn Central Maintenance deferred 1970’s:- Famous lines begin to disappear-Amtrak created 1980’s- Penn Central becomes Conrail-Cabooses disappear 1990’s- Labor issues- crews reduced to 2 vs 4 and 5 Automation – remote switching
    31. 31. Railroad Tourism 31
    32. 32. Albuquerque-Alvarado Belen-Harvey House Carlsbad-Harvey House Clovis-Harvey House Las Vegas- Castenada Lamy-El Ortiz Deming Harvey House Gallup - El Navajo Las Vegas Cantenada Raton San Marcial Vaughn Courting Tourism 32
    33. 33. 1970’s: Abandoned of Lines Reduced freight Cost of Maintenance Changing markets Requires state/federal approval 2,500 miles of line abandoned Shipper/community impacts Zuni Mtn. RR Cumbres/Toltec Dawson Line Silver City branches El Paso & Southwestern Tucumcari/Amarillo Coalora Alamogordo-Cloudcroft Lordsburg-Clifton Branch Kelley-Magdelena Line Rock Island-Tucumcari Koehler Line Burro Mountain Junction Future Abandonments???? 33
    34. 34. New Mexico Central (1908-1922) Alignment Santa Fe South, toward Stanley 34
    35. 35. Cerrillos Coal Railroad Company Wye at Waldo 35
    36. 36. Twenty-First Century: A Renewal of Rail Interest 36
    37. 37. SANTA FE, N.M. — “The state Senate on Monday night voted to eliminate locomotive fuel taxes for Union Pacific, provided that it moves a rail center from El Paso to Santa Teresa. The bill passed in the committee in less than five minutes and carried 37-4, though many Democrats said they were skeptical about whether the deal was good for New Mexico taxpayers.” Elimination of fuel taxes for certain railroads… 4/5/2011-- El Paso Times 37
    38. 38. 38 Union Pacific Railroad Begins Construction of $400 Million Rail Facility in New Mexico El Paso Times: 8/8/2011 Amtrak Route in Jeopardy “East Las Vegas came to life with the railroad in 1879, but our city’s long association with trains could come to a screeching halt in the near future unless a deal can be reached to upgrade the tracks.” Las Vegas Daily Optic: September 9,2013 “Plan to Off-load Crude Oil in Lamy Fuels Backlash” The New Mexican; 12/14/2013 Rail Runner birthday bash mostly about troubles- The state’s first commuter rail project was approved a decade ago this month, but the initial years of fanfare and novelty have given way to declining ridership numbers and increasing costs. State DOT no longer subsidizes train operations. Abq. Journal 11/24/2013 Cyclical Nature of Railroad News in New Mexico
    39. 39. 39 New Mexico’s Railroading Future--