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02 ch22evolutiondarwin2008print


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  • Lamarck noted how well-adapted organisms were to their environments, and believed that fossils could be understood as less perfect forms which had perished in the struggle for increasing perfection. He explained adaptation as a result of change caused by environmental pressures.
  • What did Darwin say? What evidence supports Evolution by Natural Selection? What impact did Evolution have on biology?
  • After graduation Darwin was recommended to be the conversation companion to Captain Robert FitzRoy, preparing the survey ship Beagle for a voyage around the world. FitzRoy chose Darwin because of his education, his similar social class, and similar age as the captain. Darwin noted that the plants and animals of South America were very distinct from those of Europe
  • The origin of the fauna of the Galapagos, 900 km west of the South American coast, especially puzzled Darwin. On further study after his voyage, Darwin noted that while most of the animal species on the Galapagos lived nowhere else, they resembled species living on the South American mainland. It seemed that the islands had been colonized by plants and animals from the mainland that had then diversified on the different islands
  • Show Campbell videos!!!
  • Darwin noted that the plants and animals of South America were very distinct from those of Europe. Organisms from temperate regions of South America were more similar to those from the tropics of South America than to those from temperate regions of Europe. Further, South American fossils more closely resembled modern species from that continent than those from Europe.
  • Theodosius Dobzhansky: Integrating Genetics and Evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian geneticist who moved to the United States, provided laboratory evidence for natural selection and variation where previously there had been only field observation. Dobzhansky's work with Drosophila, or fruit flies, provided new evidence that supported Darwin's theory that natural selection, acting on genetic variation in populations, is a driving force in evolution.
  • Darwin noted that the plants and animals of South America were very distinct from those of Europe. Organisms from temperate regions of South America were more similar to those from the tropics of South America than to those from temperate regions of Europe. Further, South American fossils more closely resembled modern species from that continent than those from Europe.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Evolution by Natural SelectionAP Biology 2006-2007
    • 2. mya Quaternary Molluscs Anaerobic Bacteria Chordates Land Plants Jawless Fish Teleost Fish Photosynthetic Bacteria Green Algae Multicellular Animals Seed Plants Arthropods Amphibians Mammals Birds Flowering Plants Insects Reptiles 1.5 Tertiary 63 Cretaceous Dinosaurs 135 Jurassic 180 Triassic 225 Permian 280 Carboniferous 350 Devonian 400 Silurian 430 Ordovician 500 Cambrian 570 Ediacaran 700 Precambrian, Proterozoic, & Archarozoic 4500Life’s Natural History is a record of Successions & Extinctions AP Biology
    • 3. Life has changed over time & in turn has changed the Earth Living creatures have changed Earth’s environment, making other life possibleAP Biology
    • 4. Evolution as Change Over Time idea accepted Evolution! before Darwin Evolution! Evolution! Evolution!AP Biology
    • 5. LaMarck  Organisms adapted to their environments  through acquired traits  change in their life time  Use & Disuse organisms lost parts because they did not use them — like the missing eyes & digestive system of the tapeworm  Perfection with Use & Need the constant use of an organ leads that organ to increase in size — like the muscles of a blacksmith or the large ears of a night-flying bat  transmit acquired characteristics to nextAP Biology generation
    • 6. Charles Darwin  1809-1882  British naturalist  ________________ ________________ ________________  Collected clear evidence to support his ideasAP Biology
    • 7. Voyage of the HMS Beagle  Invited to travel around the world  1831-1836 (22 years old!)  makes many observations of nature  main mission of the Beagle was to chart South American coastline Robert FitzroyAP Biology
    • 8. Voyage of the HMS Beagle  Stopped in Galapagos Islands  500 miles off coast of EcuadorAP Biology
    • 9. Galapagos Recent volcanic origin most of animal species on the Galápagos live nowhere else in world, but they resemble species living on South American mainland.AP Biology 500 miles west of mainland
    • 10. Succession of types Armadillos are native to the Americas, with most species found in South America. Why should extinct armadillo-like species & living armadillos be found on the same continent?Glyptodont fossils are alsounique to South America. AP Biology
    • 11. Mylodon (left) Giant ground sloth (extinct) Modern sloth (right) This wonderful relationship in the same continent between the dead and the living will…throw more light on the appearance of organic beings on our earth, and their disappearance from it, than any other class of facts.AP Biology
    • 12. Unique speciesAP Biology
    • 13. Darwin found… birds C Finch? Sparrow? Thought he found very different kinds…AP Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?
    • 14. But Darwin found… a lot of finchesDarwin was amazed tofind out:All 14 species of birdswere finches…But there is only onespecies of finch on the Large Ground Finch? Finch? Small Ground Sparrow? Sparrow? Finch Finchmainland! How did one species of finches become so many different species now?AP Biology Warbler Finch Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Veg. Tree Finch Warbler? Warbler?
    • 15. Tree Thinking Large-seed eater? Large Ground Small-seed eater? Small Ground Finch FinchAP Biology Warbler? Warbler Finch Leaf-browser? Veg. Tree Finch
    • 16. Correlation of species to food source Rapid speciation: new species filling new niches, because they inherited successful adaptations.AP Biology
    • 17. Darwin’s finches  Differences in beaks  associated with eating different foods  ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Warbler finch Cactus finch Woodpecker finch Sharp-beaked finch Small insectivorous er Small ground tree finch Warbl finch finch Gr es Large Cactus ou ch insectivorous Medium nd fin eater tree finch ground finch fin ee Insect eaters Tr ch Seed eaters es Vegetarian Bud eater Large tree finchAP Biology ground finch
    • 18. Darwin’s finches  Darwin’s conclusions  small populations of original South American finches land on islands  variation in beaks enabled individuals to gather food successfully in the different environments  over many generations, the populations of finches changed anatomically & behaviorally  ___________________________________________  emergence of different speciesAP Biology
    • 19. Seeing this gradation & diversity of structure in one small, intimately related group of birds, one might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species has been taken & modified for different ends.AP Biology
    • 20. Darwin’s finches  Differences in beaks allowed some finches to…  ________________ ________________  ________________  ________________ ________________  ________________ ________________ ________________AP Biology
    • 21. More observations… Correlation of species to food source Whoa, Turtles, too! AP Biology
    • 22. Many islands also show distinct local variations in tortoise morphology… …perhaps these are the first steps in the splitting of one species into several?AP Biology
    • 23. This is not justa process ofthe past… It is all aroundAP Biology us today
    • 24. Selective breeding the raw genetic material (variation) is hidden thereAP Biology
    • 25. Selective breeding Hidden variation can be exposed through selection!AP Biology
    • 26. In historical context  Other people’s ideas paved the path for Darwin’s thinking competition: struggle for survival population growth exceeds food supply land masses change over immeasurable timeAP Biology
    • 27. A Reluctant Revolutionary  Returned to England in 1836  wrote papers describing his collections & observations  long treatise on barnacles  draft of his theory of species formation in 1844  instructed his wife to publish this essay upon his death  reluctant to publish but didn’t want ideas to dieAP Biology with him
    • 28. And then came the letter…. Then, in 1858, Darwin received a letter that changed everything… Alfred Russel Wallace a young naturalist working in the East Indies, had written a short paper with a new idea. He asked Darwin to evaluate his ideas and pass it along for publication.AP Biology
    • 29. The time was ripe for the idea! To Lyell— Your words have come true with a vengeance… I never saw a more striking coincidence…so all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed.AP Biology
    • 30. Voyage: 1831-1836 November 24, 1859, Darwin published“On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” AP Biology
    • 31. Essence of Darwin’s ideas  ______________________________  _____________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________AP Biology
    • 32. LaMarckian vs. Darwinian view  LaMarck  in reaching higher vegetation giraffes stretch their necks & transmits the acquired longer neck to offspring  Darwin   giraffes born with longer necks survive better & leave more offspring who inherit their long necks  genesAP Biology
    • 33. Stick your neck out… Ask Questions!AP Biology
    • 34. Slide & Image StorageAP Biology 2006-2007
    • 35. AP Biology
    • 36. Coherent explanation of observations "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." -- Theodosius Dobzhansky March 1973 Geneticist, Columbia University (1900-1975)AP Biology 2006-2007
    • 37. Essence of Darwin’s ideas (1) Variation exists in natural populations (2) Many more offspring are born each season than can possibly survive to maturity (3) As a result, there is a struggle for existence - competition (4) Characteristics beneficial in the struggle for existence will tend to become more common in the population, changing the average characteristics of the population - adaptations(5) Over long periods of time, and given a steady input of new variation into a population, these processes lead toAP Biologyemergence of new species the
    • 38. Stick your neck out… Ask Questions!AP Biology
    • 39. The Birds…  Galápagos birds  22 of the 29 species of birds on the Galapagos are endemic  found only on these islands  collected specimens of all  One particular group…  at first, he paid little attention to a series of small birds  some were woodpecker- like, some warbler-like, & some finch-likeAP Biology
    • 40. Darwin’s finches  Darwin was amazed to find out they were all finches  14 species  but only one species on SouthLarge-seed eater? Finch? Small-seed eater? Sparrow? American mainland  500 miles away  all the birds had to originally come How did from mainland one species of finches become species so many different ones now?AP Biology Warbler? Warbler? Leaf-browser? Wren?