Evolution                    by             Natural SelectionAP Biology                       2006-2007
mya Quaternary                                                                                                           M...
Life has changed over time       & in turn has changed the Earth                              Living creatures have       ...
Evolution as Change Over Time                        idea accepted             Evolution!                        before Da...
LaMarck   Organisms adapted to    their environments      through acquired traits      change in their life time       ...
Charles Darwin    1809-1882    British naturalist    ________________      ________________      ________________     ...
Voyage of the HMS Beagle    Invited to travel around the world        1831-1836 (22 years old!)        makes many obser...
Voyage of the HMS Beagle     Stopped in Galapagos Islands            500 miles off coast of EcuadorAP Biology
Galapagos    Recent volcanic origin most    of animal species on the    Galápagos live nowhere else    in world, but they ...
Succession of types    Armadillos are native to the    Americas, with most species    found in South America.             ...
Mylodon (left) Giant                                        ground sloth (extinct)             Modern sloth (right)       ...
Unique speciesAP Biology
Darwin found… birds     C                           Finch?      Sparrow?     Thought he found     very different kinds…AP ...
But Darwin found… a lot of finchesDarwin was amazed tofind out:All 14 species of birdswere finches…But there is only onesp...
Tree Thinking                   Large-seed eater?                     Large Ground      Small-seed eater?                 ...
Correlation of species to food source                                      Rapid speciation:                              ...
Darwin’s finches    Differences in beaks          associated with eating different foods          _____________________...
Darwin’s finches   Darwin’s conclusions          small populations of original South American           finches land on ...
Seeing this gradation &                        diversity of structure in             one small, intimately related group o...
Darwin’s finches    Differences in       beaks allowed       some finches to…         ________________          ________...
More observations…   Correlation of species                             to food source                          Whoa,     ...
Many islands also show                  distinct local variations in                  tortoise morphology…              …p...
This is not justa process ofthe past…                   It is all                   aroundAP Biology         us today
Selective   breeding   the raw genetic   material (variation)   is hidden thereAP Biology
Selective breeding     Hidden variation     can be exposed     through selection!AP Biology
In historical context      Other people’s ideas paved the       path for Darwin’s thinking                               ...
A Reluctant Revolutionary    Returned to England in 1836          wrote papers describing his collections           & ob...
And then came the letter….   Then, in 1858, Darwin received a letter   that changed everything…      Alfred Russel Wallace...
The time was ripe for the idea!                     To Lyell—                         Your words                      have...
Voyage: 1831-1836    November 24, 1859, Darwin published“On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” AP Biology
Essence of Darwin’s ideas    ______________________________        _____________________________________        _______...
LaMarckian vs. Darwinian view    LaMarck            in reaching higher             vegetation giraffes             stret...
Stick your neck out…           Ask Questions!AP Biology
Slide & Image StorageAP Biology                     2006-2007
AP Biology
Coherent explanation of observations                "Nothing in biology                makes sense except in              ...
Essence of Darwin’s ideas              (1) Variation exists in natural populations              (2) Many more offspring ar...
Stick your neck out…                Ask Questions!AP Biology
The Birds…     Galápagos birds            22 of the 29 species of             birds on the Galapagos             are end...
Darwin’s finches    Darwin was amazed      to find out they were      all finches            14 species            but ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

02 ch22evolutiondarwin2008print

293 views
236 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
293
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Lamarck noted how well-adapted organisms were to their environments, and believed that fossils could be understood as less perfect forms which had perished in the struggle for increasing perfection. He explained adaptation as a result of change caused by environmental pressures.
  • What did Darwin say? What evidence supports Evolution by Natural Selection? What impact did Evolution have on biology?
  • After graduation Darwin was recommended to be the conversation companion to Captain Robert FitzRoy, preparing the survey ship Beagle for a voyage around the world. FitzRoy chose Darwin because of his education, his similar social class, and similar age as the captain. Darwin noted that the plants and animals of South America were very distinct from those of Europe
  • The origin of the fauna of the Galapagos, 900 km west of the South American coast, especially puzzled Darwin. On further study after his voyage, Darwin noted that while most of the animal species on the Galapagos lived nowhere else, they resembled species living on the South American mainland. It seemed that the islands had been colonized by plants and animals from the mainland that had then diversified on the different islands
  • Show Campbell videos!!!
  • Darwin noted that the plants and animals of South America were very distinct from those of Europe. Organisms from temperate regions of South America were more similar to those from the tropics of South America than to those from temperate regions of Europe. Further, South American fossils more closely resembled modern species from that continent than those from Europe.
  • Theodosius Dobzhansky: Integrating Genetics and Evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian geneticist who moved to the United States, provided laboratory evidence for natural selection and variation where previously there had been only field observation. Dobzhansky's work with Drosophila, or fruit flies, provided new evidence that supported Darwin's theory that natural selection, acting on genetic variation in populations, is a driving force in evolution.
  • Darwin noted that the plants and animals of South America were very distinct from those of Europe. Organisms from temperate regions of South America were more similar to those from the tropics of South America than to those from temperate regions of Europe. Further, South American fossils more closely resembled modern species from that continent than those from Europe.
  • 02 ch22evolutiondarwin2008print

    1. 1. Evolution by Natural SelectionAP Biology 2006-2007
    2. 2. mya Quaternary Molluscs Anaerobic Bacteria Chordates Land Plants Jawless Fish Teleost Fish Photosynthetic Bacteria Green Algae Multicellular Animals Seed Plants Arthropods Amphibians Mammals Birds Flowering Plants Insects Reptiles 1.5 Tertiary 63 Cretaceous Dinosaurs 135 Jurassic 180 Triassic 225 Permian 280 Carboniferous 350 Devonian 400 Silurian 430 Ordovician 500 Cambrian 570 Ediacaran 700 Precambrian, Proterozoic, & Archarozoic 4500Life’s Natural History is a record of Successions & Extinctions AP Biology
    3. 3. Life has changed over time & in turn has changed the Earth Living creatures have changed Earth’s environment, making other life possibleAP Biology
    4. 4. Evolution as Change Over Time idea accepted Evolution! before Darwin Evolution! Evolution! Evolution!AP Biology
    5. 5. LaMarck  Organisms adapted to their environments  through acquired traits  change in their life time  Use & Disuse organisms lost parts because they did not use them — like the missing eyes & digestive system of the tapeworm  Perfection with Use & Need the constant use of an organ leads that organ to increase in size — like the muscles of a blacksmith or the large ears of a night-flying bat  transmit acquired characteristics to nextAP Biology generation
    6. 6. Charles Darwin  1809-1882  British naturalist  ________________ ________________ ________________  Collected clear evidence to support his ideasAP Biology
    7. 7. Voyage of the HMS Beagle  Invited to travel around the world  1831-1836 (22 years old!)  makes many observations of nature  main mission of the Beagle was to chart South American coastline Robert FitzroyAP Biology
    8. 8. Voyage of the HMS Beagle  Stopped in Galapagos Islands  500 miles off coast of EcuadorAP Biology
    9. 9. Galapagos Recent volcanic origin most of animal species on the Galápagos live nowhere else in world, but they resemble species living on South American mainland.AP Biology 500 miles west of mainland
    10. 10. Succession of types Armadillos are native to the Americas, with most species found in South America. Why should extinct armadillo-like species & living armadillos be found on the same continent?Glyptodont fossils are alsounique to South America. AP Biology
    11. 11. Mylodon (left) Giant ground sloth (extinct) Modern sloth (right) This wonderful relationship in the same continent between the dead and the living will…throw more light on the appearance of organic beings on our earth, and their disappearance from it, than any other class of facts.AP Biology
    12. 12. Unique speciesAP Biology
    13. 13. Darwin found… birds C Finch? Sparrow? Thought he found very different kinds…AP Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?
    14. 14. But Darwin found… a lot of finchesDarwin was amazed tofind out:All 14 species of birdswere finches…But there is only onespecies of finch on the Large Ground Finch? Finch? Small Ground Sparrow? Sparrow? Finch Finchmainland! How did one species of finches become so many different species now?AP Biology Warbler Finch Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Veg. Tree Finch Warbler? Warbler?
    15. 15. Tree Thinking Large-seed eater? Large Ground Small-seed eater? Small Ground Finch FinchAP Biology Warbler? Warbler Finch Leaf-browser? Veg. Tree Finch
    16. 16. Correlation of species to food source Rapid speciation: new species filling new niches, because they inherited successful adaptations.AP Biology
    17. 17. Darwin’s finches  Differences in beaks  associated with eating different foods  ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Warbler finch Cactus finch Woodpecker finch Sharp-beaked finch Small insectivorous er Small ground tree finch Warbl finch finch Gr es Large Cactus ou ch insectivorous Medium nd fin eater tree finch ground finch fin ee Insect eaters Tr ch Seed eaters es Vegetarian Bud eater Large tree finchAP Biology ground finch
    18. 18. Darwin’s finches  Darwin’s conclusions  small populations of original South American finches land on islands  variation in beaks enabled individuals to gather food successfully in the different environments  over many generations, the populations of finches changed anatomically & behaviorally  ___________________________________________  emergence of different speciesAP Biology
    19. 19. Seeing this gradation & diversity of structure in one small, intimately related group of birds, one might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species has been taken & modified for different ends.AP Biology
    20. 20. Darwin’s finches  Differences in beaks allowed some finches to…  ________________ ________________  ________________  ________________ ________________  ________________ ________________ ________________AP Biology
    21. 21. More observations… Correlation of species to food source Whoa, Turtles, too! AP Biology
    22. 22. Many islands also show distinct local variations in tortoise morphology… …perhaps these are the first steps in the splitting of one species into several?AP Biology
    23. 23. This is not justa process ofthe past… It is all aroundAP Biology us today
    24. 24. Selective breeding the raw genetic material (variation) is hidden thereAP Biology
    25. 25. Selective breeding Hidden variation can be exposed through selection!AP Biology
    26. 26. In historical context  Other people’s ideas paved the path for Darwin’s thinking competition: struggle for survival population growth exceeds food supply land masses change over immeasurable timeAP Biology
    27. 27. A Reluctant Revolutionary  Returned to England in 1836  wrote papers describing his collections & observations  long treatise on barnacles  draft of his theory of species formation in 1844  instructed his wife to publish this essay upon his death  reluctant to publish but didn’t want ideas to dieAP Biology with him
    28. 28. And then came the letter…. Then, in 1858, Darwin received a letter that changed everything… Alfred Russel Wallace a young naturalist working in the East Indies, had written a short paper with a new idea. He asked Darwin to evaluate his ideas and pass it along for publication.AP Biology
    29. 29. The time was ripe for the idea! To Lyell— Your words have come true with a vengeance… I never saw a more striking coincidence…so all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed.AP Biology
    30. 30. Voyage: 1831-1836 November 24, 1859, Darwin published“On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” AP Biology
    31. 31. Essence of Darwin’s ideas  ______________________________  _____________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________  _____________________________________  ________________________________________AP Biology
    32. 32. LaMarckian vs. Darwinian view  LaMarck  in reaching higher vegetation giraffes stretch their necks & transmits the acquired longer neck to offspring  Darwin   giraffes born with longer necks survive better & leave more offspring who inherit their long necks  genesAP Biology
    33. 33. Stick your neck out… Ask Questions!AP Biology
    34. 34. Slide & Image StorageAP Biology 2006-2007
    35. 35. AP Biology
    36. 36. Coherent explanation of observations "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." -- Theodosius Dobzhansky March 1973 Geneticist, Columbia University (1900-1975)AP Biology 2006-2007
    37. 37. Essence of Darwin’s ideas (1) Variation exists in natural populations (2) Many more offspring are born each season than can possibly survive to maturity (3) As a result, there is a struggle for existence - competition (4) Characteristics beneficial in the struggle for existence will tend to become more common in the population, changing the average characteristics of the population - adaptations(5) Over long periods of time, and given a steady input of new variation into a population, these processes lead toAP Biologyemergence of new species the
    38. 38. Stick your neck out… Ask Questions!AP Biology
    39. 39. The Birds…  Galápagos birds  22 of the 29 species of birds on the Galapagos are endemic  found only on these islands  collected specimens of all  One particular group…  at first, he paid little attention to a series of small birds  some were woodpecker- like, some warbler-like, & some finch-likeAP Biology
    40. 40. Darwin’s finches  Darwin was amazed to find out they were all finches  14 species  but only one species on SouthLarge-seed eater? Finch? Small-seed eater? Sparrow? American mainland  500 miles away  all the birds had to originally come How did from mainland one species of finches become species so many different ones now?AP Biology Warbler? Warbler? Leaf-browser? Wren?

    ×