Direct comparison of two unlike things that have something in common.
Does not use “like” or as” – says one thing IS another thing.
“ But earthlier happy is the rose distilled , Than that which, withering on the virgin thorn , Grows, lives, and dies in single blessedness ” (I.i. 76-78) Here, Theseus refers to a married woman as a “rose distilled” to emphasize that a married woman has a purpose in life. Here, Theseus refers to a nun as a rose that grows, lives, and dies all alone on the vine, to emphasize that such a woman lacks a real purpose in life and is all alone.
ii. Uses “like” or “as” – does NOT say that one object IS the other thing.
“ To you your father should be as a god , One that composed your beauties; yea and one To whom you are but as a form in wax By him imprinted and within his power To leave the figure or disfigure it” (I.i. 47-51) To convince Hermia that she should listen to her dad, Theseus compares him to a god. He then adds emphasis by comparing Hermia to a wax figure that her father carved. He says her dad has the power to leave the statue complete, or destroy it.
i. Gives human qualities to an inanimate object or idea.
ii. Qualities include emotions, desires, sensations, speech, gestures, etc.
“ And then the moon , like to a silver bow New-bent in heaven, shall behold the night Of our solemnities” (I.i. 8-10). Here, Hippolyta emphasizes her unhappiness by saying the moon (Artemis) will witness what will happen. Ex: “But earthlier happy is the rose distilled , Than that which, withering on the virgin thorn, Grows, lives, and dies in single blessedness” (I.i. 76-78) Returning to our earlier metaphor example, Theseus says that the distilled rose is happier than the one that never gets used. Giving a flower emotions is personification. This emphasizes his view that Hermia will be happier if she marries Demetrius than if she becomes a nun.