Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Biochemistry

483

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
483
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Biochemistry of Cells
  • 2. Uses of Organic MoleculesAmericans consumean average of 140pounds of sugarper person peryearCellulose, found inplant cell walls, isthe most abundantorganic compound onEarth
  • 3. Uses of Organic MoleculesA typical cell inyour body hasabout 2 metersof DNAA typical cowproduces over200 pounds ofmethane gaseach year
  • 4. WaterAbout 60-90 percentof an organism iswaterWater is used inmost reactions inthe bodyWater is calledthe universalsolvent
  • 5. Water PropertiesPolarityCohesiveness AdhesivenessSurfaceTension
  • 6. Carbon-based MoleculesAlthough a cell ismostly water, therest of the cellconsists mostly ofcarbon-basedmoleculesOrganic chemistryis the study ofcarbon compounds
  • 7. Carbon is a Versatile AtomIt has four electronsin an outer shell thatholds eightCarbon canshare itselectrons withother atoms toform up to fourcovalent bonds
  • 8. HydrocarbonsThe simplest carboncompounds … Contain only carbon & hydrogen atoms
  • 9. Carbon can use its bonds to:: Attach to other carbons Form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons
  • 10. Large Hydrocarbons:Are the mainmolecules in thegasoline we burnin our cars The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies
  • 11. Shape of Organic Molecules Each type of organic molecule has a unique three-dimensional shape The shape determines its function in an organism
  • 12. Functional Groups are:Groups of atoms that give properties tothe compounds to which they attach Gained Electrons Lost Electrons
  • 13. Common Functional Groups
  • 14. Giant Molecules - PolymersLarge moleculesare called polymersPolymers are builtfrom smallermolecules calledmonomers Biologists call them macromolecules
  • 15. Examples of PolymersProteinsLipidsCarbohydrates Nucleic Acids
  • 16. Most Macromolecules are Polymers Polymers are made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers Nucleic Acid Monomer
  • 17. Linking MonomersCells link monomers by a process calledcondensation or dehydration synthesis (removing a molecule of water) Remove H H2O Forms Remove OH This process joins two sugar monomers to make a double sugar
  • 18. Breaking Down PolymersCells break downmacromoleculesby a processcalled hydrolysis(adding amolecule ofwater) Water added to split a double sugar
  • 19. Macromolecules in Organisms There are four categories of large molecules in cells: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
  • 20. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates include: Small sugar molecules in soft drinksLong starch molecules in pasta and potatoes
  • 21. Monosaccharides:Called simple sugarsInclude glucose,fructose, & galactoseHave the samechemical, butdifferent structuralformulas C6H12O6
  • 22. MonosaccharidesGlucose is found insports drinksFructose is foundin fruitsHoney containsboth glucose &fructoseGalactose is called“milk sugar” -OSE ending means SUGAR
  • 23. IsomersGlucose &fructose areisomersbecausethey’restructures aredifferent, buttheir chemicalformulas arethe same
  • 24. Rings In aqueous (watery) solutions, monosaccharides form ring structures
  • 25. Cellular FuelMonosaccharidesare the mainfuel that cellsuse for cellularwork ATP
  • 26. DisaccharidesA disaccharide is adouble sugarThey’re made byjoining twomonosaccharidesInvolves removinga water molecule(condensation)Bond called a GLYCOSIDIC bond
  • 27. Disaccharides Common disaccharides include: Sucrose (table sugar) Lactose (Milk Sugar) Maltose (Grain sugar)
  • 28. DisaccharidesSucrose is composedof glucose + fructoseMaltose iscomposed of 2glucose molecules Lactose is made of galactose + glucose GLUCOSE
  • 29. PolysaccharidesComplexcarbohydratesComposed of manysugar monomerslinked togetherPolymers ofmonosaccharidechains
  • 30. Examples of Polysaccharides Glucose Monomer Starch Glycogen Cellulose
  • 31. StarchStarch is an example of apolysaccharide in plantsPlant cells store starchfor energy Potatoes and grains are major sources of starch in the human diet
  • 32. GlycogenGlycogen is an exampleof a polysaccharide inanimalsAnimals store excesssugar in the form ofglycogenGlycogen is similar instructure to starch becauseBOTH are made of glucosemonomers
  • 33. CelluloseCellulose is the most abundant organiccompound on EarthIt forms cable-like fibrils in thetough walls that enclose plants It is a major component of wood It is also known as dietary fiber
  • 34. Cellulose SUGARS
  • 35. Dietary CelluloseMost animals cannot derive nutritionfrom fiberThey havebacteria intheir digestivetracts that canbreak downcellulose
  • 36. Sugars in WaterSimple sugars and double sugars dissolvereadily in water WATER MOLECULEThey arehydrophilic,or “water-loving”-OH groups SUGARmake them MOLECULEwater soluble
  • 37. LipidsLipids are hydrophobic –”water fearing”Do NOT mix with waterIncludesfats,waxes,steroids,& oils FAT MOLECULE
  • 38. Function of LipidsFats store energy, help to insulate thebody, and cushion and protect organs
  • 39. Types of Fatty AcidsSaturated fatty acids have themaximum number of hydrogens bondedto the carbons (all single bondsbetween carbons)Unsaturated fatty acids have less thanthe maximum number of hydrogensbonded to the carbons (a double bondbetween carbons)
  • 40. Types of Fatty Acids Single Bonds in Carbon chain Double bond in carbon chain
  • 41. TriglycerideMonomer of lipidsComposed ofGlycerol & 3fatty acid chainsGlycerol formsthe “backbone”of the fat Organic Alcohol (-OL ending)
  • 42. TriglycerideGlycerol Fatty Acid Chains
  • 43. Fats in OrganismsMost animal fats have a high proportionof saturated fatty acids & exist assolids at room temperature (butter,margarine, shortening)
  • 44. Fats in OrganismsMost plant oils tend to be low insaturated fatty acids & exist as liquidsat room temperature (oils)
  • 45. FatsDietary fat consists largely of themolecule triglyceride composed ofglycerol and three fatty acid chains Fatty Acid ChainGlycerol Condensation links the fatty acids to Glycerol
  • 46. Lipids & Cell Membranes• Cell membranes are made of lipids called phospholipids• Phospholipids have a head that is polar & attract water (hydrophilic)• Phospholipids also have 2 tails that are nonpolar and do not attract water (hydrophobic)
  • 47. SteroidsThe carbon skeletonof steroids is bentto form 4 fused CholesterolringsCholesterol isthe “base Estrogensteroid” from Testosteronewhich your bodyproduces othersteroidsEstrogen & testosterone are also steroids
  • 48. Synthetic Anabolic SteroidsThey are variantsof testosteroneSome athletes usethem to build uptheir muscles quicklyThey can poseserious health risks
  • 49. ProteinsProteins are polymers made of monomerscalled amino acidsAll proteins are made of 20 differentamino acids linked in different ordersProteins are used to build cells, actas hormones & enzymes, and do muchof the work in a cell
  • 50. Four Types of Proteins StorageStructural Contractile Transport
  • 51. 20 Amino Acid Monomers
  • 52. Structure of Amino Acids Amino CarboxylAmino acids have a group groupcentral carbon with4 things boded to R groupit: Amino group –NH2Carboxyl group -COOH Hydrogen -H Side groups Side group -R Serine-hydrophillic Leucine -hydrophobic
  • 53. Linking Amino Acids CarboxylCells link aminoacids together to Aminomake proteins Side GroupThe process iscalled condensation Dehydrationor dehydration SynthesisPeptide bondsform to hold theamino acidstogether Peptide Bond
  • 54. Proteins as EnzymesMany proteins act as biological catalystsor enzymesThousands of different enzymes existin the bodyEnzymes control the rate of chemicalreactions by weakening bonds, thuslowering the amount of activationenergy needed for the reaction
  • 55. Primary Protein StructureThe primarystructure isthe specificsequence ofamino acids ina proteinCalledpolypeptide Amino Acid
  • 56. Protein StructuresSecondary protein structures occurwhen protein chains coil or foldWhen protein chains called polypeptidesjoin together, the tertiary structureforms because R groups interact witheach otherIn the watery environment of a cell,proteins become globular in theirquaternary structure
  • 57. Protein Structures or CONFORMATIONS Hydrogen bond Pleated sheet Polypeptide Amino acid (single subunit) (a) Primary structure Hydrogen bond Alpha helix (b) Secondary (c) Tertiary structure structure (d) Quaternary structure
  • 58. Denaturating Proteins Changes in temperature & pH can denature (unfold) a protein so it no longer worksCooking denaturesprotein in eggs Milk protein separates into curds & whey when it denatures
  • 59. Changing Amino Acid Sequence Substitution of one amino acid for another in hemoglobin causes sickle-cell disease 2 7. . . 146 1 3 6 4 5 (a) Normal red blood cell Normal hemoglobin 2 7. . . 146 1 3 6 4 5 (b) Sickled red blood cell Sickle-cell hemoglobin
  • 60. Other Important Proteins• Blood sugar level is controlled by a protein called insulin• Insulin causes the liver to uptake and store excess sugar as Glycogen• The cell membrane also contains proteins• Receptor proteins help cells recognize other cells
  • 61. INSULIN Cell membrane with proteins & phospholipids
  • 62. Nucleic AcidsStore hereditary informationContain information for making allthe body’s proteins Two types exist --- DNA & RNA
  • 63. Nucleic Acids Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T)Nucleicacids arepolymers of Phosphate Thymine (T) groupnucleotides Sugar (deoxyribose) Phosphate Base Sugar Nucleotide
  • 64. Nucleotide – Nucleic acid monomer
  • 65. BasesEach DNAnucleotide has oneof the followingbases: Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) –Adenine (A) –Guanine (G) –Thymine (T) –Cytosine (C) Adenine (A) Guanine (G)
  • 66. Nucleotide Monomers BackboneForm long chains Nucleotidecalled DNANucleotides arejoined by sugars& phosphates onthe side Bases DNA strand
  • 67. DNATwo strands ofDNA jointogether to forma double helix Base pair Double helix
  • 68. RNA – Ribonucleic Acid Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or U)Ribose sugarhas an extra–OH orhydroxylgroup Uracil PhosphateIt has the groupbase uracil (U)instead ofthymine (T) Sugar (ribose)
  • 69. ATP – Cellular Energy• ATP is used by cells for energy• Adenosine triphosphate• Made of a nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups
  • 70. Summary of Key Concepts
  • 71. Nucleic Acids
  • 72. Macromolecules
  • 73. Macromolecules
  • 74. End

×