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Living things summary
 

Living things summary

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    Living things summary Living things summary Document Transcript

    • LIVING THINGS IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF HAVING LIFE • • • • PRESENCE OF LIQUID WATER RIGHT DISTANCE FROM THE SUN PRESENCE OF AN ATMOSPHERE PRESENCE OF IMPORTANT SUBSTANCES COMPONENTS OF LIFE • MOLLECULES: Is divided into: • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Only found inside living things: sugar, fats, proteins. • INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Can be found outside living things: water, O2, CO2. CELLS • • • • All the living things are made up of cells All the functions of living things are performed by cells. Cells are the most simple living thing All cells come from another cell by reproduction STRUCTURE OF A CELL The most simple cell: • Membrane: control what comes in and what goes out • Cytoplasm: Is formed by water and many other substances. • Genetic materials: controll cells functions TYPES OF CELLS • Prokaryotes: Bacterias 1. Genetic material: is not in a nucleus 2. Cell wall: protection 3. Cytoplasm
    • 4. Membrane • Eukaryotic: plants and animal cells ANIMAL CELLS - Nucleus with genetic material - Membrane - Cytoplasm - Organelles PLANT CELLS - Nucleus -Membrane - Cytoplasm - Organelles (Chloroplast) FUNCTIONS OF LIVING THINGS • NUTRITION: a living thing needs to get nutrients from the environment to grow and to get energy. • REPRODUCTION: producing descdents that are equal or similiar to their parents. 1. Asexual: only partcipates one member. Descendents are equal to their parents. 2. Sexual: two individuals. Descendents are similar to their parents. • INTERACTION: being sensible to changes in the environment and giving responses. 1. Stimulli: Changes that could be sensed 2. Sense organs: Sense changes 3. Organs that produce responses: brain DIVERSITY IN LIVING THINGS All the species in the world share: • We are made of cells • We carry out the three vital functions • We have a common chemical composition - Bioelements: C, O, H - Biomolecules: inorganic organic
    • FOSSILS • Are The Remains of living things or their activities (tracks , eggs, excrement...) that have been preserved and now form part of sedementary rocks. • The Study of Fossils has allowed scientists to : 1. RECONSTRUCT AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE HISTORY OF LIFE Scientists have learned a lot about the characteristics of many extinct organisms and also about the changes of animals that also exist today. 2. OBTAIN INFORMATION OF THE HISTORY OF THE EARTH We can work exactly how long a particular organism first appeared on the planet . Also, fossilised remains offer very valuable information about environment in the past 3. MAKE A CALENDAR OF THE HISTORY OF THE EARTH The history of our planet is divided into eras and periods , which correspond to particular events, thanks to fossils, we can divide the different periods of time. We can also know about animals that appeared and disappeared. TAXONOMIC GROUPS Scientist use taxonomic groups to divide different groups of living things. Different taxonomic groups are: KINGDOMS => PHYLA => CLASSES => ORDERS => FAMILIES => GENERA => SPECIES
    • NAMING SPECIES Binomial naming Genus => Genus name Familiaris => Specific name Genus name => Homo Specific name => Sapiens FIVE KINGDOMS KINGDOM TYPE OF NUTRITION MONERAN Autotrophic or heterotrophic PROTIST AUTOTROPHIC OR HETEROTROPHIC FUNGUS HETEROTROPHIC PLANT ANIMAL CELLULAR ORGANISATION Single cell TYPE OF CELL prokaryotic HAS TISSUE? no SINGLE CELL OR EUKARYOTIC NO MULTICELLULAR SINGLE CELL OR EUKARYOTIC NO MULTICELLULAR AUTOTROPHIC MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC YES HETEROTROPHIC MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC YES