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Thesis defense 2009 Darsavelidze

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  • 1. Davit DarsavelidzePhd Student, Erasmus Mundus beneficiaryATEI of Thessaloniki,GreeceIv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,GeorgiaSupervisor:Prof. Dr. Nicos KomninosURENIO16 DECEMBER, 2009Progress Research for PhD Degree in EconomicsINNOVATION & CLUSTERSAS DRIVERS OF LOCALIZATION VS. GLOBALIZATIONHellenic RepublicLocalizationvs.GlobalizationInnovation
  • 2. PRESENTATION HIGHLIGHTSPRESENTATION HIGHLIGHTS1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)• Term of Innovation• Triple Helix model of innovation• Cluster and the diamond model of competition• Innovation environment1. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki• Short review of History & Cultural heritage• Stakeholders – Presence, Attitudes & Networking• Triple helix and Diamond model• Intelligence - Tool to develop networking3. Conclusions and recommendations
  • 3. INNOVATION - DEFINITIONINNOVATION - DEFINITION“The commercially successful exploitation of new technologies,ideas or methods through the introduction of new products andprocesses, or through the improvement of existing ones.Innovation is a result of interacting learning process that involvesoften several actors from inside and outside the companies”(EC DG XIII, 1996)Innovation is new use of combination of different existing &/or newknowledge to create or improve(1)product, (2)production process or (2)organization1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)
  • 4. TRIPLE HELIX MODEL of InnovationTRIPLE HELIX MODEL of Innovation1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)Government - Industry - Academia(Etzkowitz 2000)Growth of Community Involvement To sustain development To rise input of all stakeholders To share responsibility for outcome To develop strong social capital+ CommunityTriple Helix model
  • 5. CLUSTERS THEORY & DIAMOND MODEL OF COMPETITIONCLUSTERS THEORY & DIAMOND MODEL OF COMPETITION1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)Cluster “Geographic concentration of interconnected companiesand institutions in particular field” brings competitive advantageslaid more in local Relations, Knowledge and Motivation hardlymatched by distant rivals.(Porter 1998)
  • 6. INTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENT IN URBAN TERRITORIESINTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENT IN URBAN TERRITORIES1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)World Wide Web& Other Net BasedNetworking Means CommunicationTechnologiesCommunity IntelligenceIntelligentEnvironmentInformationManagement ToolsInstitutional IntelligenceRealVirtualReal Innovation EnvironmentEnvironment to innovateEnvironment to innovateat a high scale Withat a high scale Withadvanced IT technologies and competenciesadvanced IT technologies and competenciesDeveloping virtual worldDeveloping virtual worldto link the gap between space and timeto link the gap between space and time
  • 7. INTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENTINTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENT1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)1. INNOVATION - drive of development (Literature review)Intelligent CitiesBrings togetherskills, institutions & virtual spaces of cooperationsustainingcreation of new knowledge (researchresearch),monitoring knowledge flows (intelligenceintelligence),disseminating existing knowledge (technology transfer)technology transfer),applying knowledge (innovationinnovation)developing new activities based on knowledge (incubationincubation)and managing knowledge remotely (e-governmente-government)(Komninos 2002, 2008, 2009).
  • 8. 2. TOURISM CLUSTER OF THESSALONIKI2. TOURISM CLUSTER OF THESSALONIKIHighlights: Short Review of History &Cultural Heritage Triple Helix & Stakeholders -Presence, Attitudes & Networking Diamond Model of Competition Intelligence - Tool of Innovation &Networking
  • 9. SOURCE OF THE RESEARCH & SWOT OF ATTITUDESSOURCE OF THE RESEARCH & SWOT OF ATTITUDES• Main sources of information:– Field work - Interviews withlocal tourism stakeholders– Official statistics– Promotional materials– Scientific literature• SWOT analysis of networkingon a Cartesian coordinate system2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki
  • 10. Hellenic dominance Influence of Other CulturesAlexander the great 336–323 BCCity foundation 315 BC168 BC Romans powerByzantine culture 3791204 Latin EmpireByzantine culture 12461423 Venetian Republic1430 Ottoman RuleIndependence - Balkan Wars 19121941 Nazi Germany occupationHellenic republic 1944SOME LANDMARKS OF THE HISTORY OF THESSALONIKISOME LANDMARKS OF THE HISTORY OF THESSALONIKI2 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage2 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage
  • 11. CULTURAL SITES OF THESSALONIKICULTURAL SITES OF THESSALONIKI• Arch of Galerius - 298-299 AD• Rotunda - 306 AD• Roman Forum• Church of St. Demetrius - 4thCentury• Church of Agia Sophia - 8thCentury• White Tower - 16thcentury• Number of archeological sites2 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage2 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage
  • 12. BEAUTY & SPIRITS NEIGHBORING THE CITYBEAUTY & SPIRITS NEIGHBORING THE CITY•Pella -The residence of Alexander the great•Naoussa - School of Aristotle•Mount Olympus - Inspiration of Greek Mythology•Mount Athos - "The Garden of the Virgin Mary“•Meteora - monasteries built on the top of the cliffs2 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage2 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage
  • 13. CITY FESTIVALSCITY FESTIVALS• Thessaloniki International Film Festival– Film Festival– Thessaloniki Documentary Festival– Video Dance Festival– Other national festivals• The Dimitria festival, after citys patron - St. Demetrius(music, theatrical performances, dances, exhibitions and other)• International Festival of Photography• Jazz Festival• Cultural Capital of Europe, 19972 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage2 (1). Short review of History & Cultural heritage
  • 14. 2 (2). Stakeholders – Presence, attitudes & Networking2 (2). Stakeholders – Presence, attitudes & NetworkingSTAKEHOLDERS & OTHER DOTS OF TOURISM CLUSTERSTAKEHOLDERS & OTHER DOTS OF TOURISM CLUSTER
  • 15. ACADEMIAACADEMIAAlexander TechnologicalEducational Institute(ATEI) of ThessalonikiThe Organization of TourismEducation and Training- Second Tourism educator inCentral Macedonia- Institute of vocational training- Secondary and post secondaryeducation- School for tour guides- Carrier office- Member of internationalorganizations- Main tourism educator institutein Central Macedonia- Strongest tertiary educationinstitute in the region- Undergraduate studies/Bachelors, Masters degree/- Host of international studentsexchange programs- Member of internationalorganizations- Main academic researcher in thefield of tourismDepartment of TourismManagement198319372 (2). Triple Helix – Presence, attitudes & Networking2 (2). Triple Helix – Presence, attitudes & Networking
  • 16. 2 (2). Triple Helix – Presence, attitudes & Networking2 (2). Triple Helix – Presence, attitudes & NetworkingINDUSTRY - PRIVATE SECTORINDUSTRY - PRIVATE SECTOR-Mainly for summer season-Cultural product is additional-insufficient usage of localinternational eventsLOCAL TOURISTIC PRODUCTPresence of all main stakeholderLarge number of SMEsEasy to start / operate businessSTRONG POINTSLack of leadershipPoor standards of servicesPoor use of Information TechnologiesWeak NetworkingNeed for Tourism informationLittle market researchShortage of resourcesNo Joint effort in productivity GrowthLow innovation capacityLittle need of outsourcingWEAK POINTSAll essential Infrastructure in place
  • 17. 2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki - SWOT of Attitudes2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki - SWOT of AttitudesATTITUDES – INTERNAL FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENTATTITUDES – INTERNAL FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT
  • 18. 2 (2). Triple helix– Presence, attitudes & Networking2 (2). Triple helix– Presence, attitudes & NetworkingGOVERNMENTGOVERNMENTMain focus - preservation of heritage & centralized promotion policy• Weakness in• Offer of local touristic product & services• Support programs to develop regional culture-based product• Leadership - little trust of local stakeholders• Needs of improvement• Quality of tourism promotion infrastructure• Tourism Information centers• Web space/ portal linking all available touristic resources• Prints, publishing & etc.• Standards and marks of excellence• Tourism education• Linkage of Industry and Academia to development policy
  • 19. 2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki – SWOT of Attitudes2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki – SWOT of AttitudesATTITUDES – GOVERNMENT SERVICESATTITUDES – GOVERNMENT SERVICES
  • 20. 2 (2). Triple helix – Presence, attitudes & Networking2 (2). Triple helix – Presence, attitudes & NetworkingCOMMUNITYCOMMUNITY•Tourist friendly− Supportive to tourists− Good host− Smile and foreign language− Tourist itself /high local demand on touristic products/• Tourist friendly Skills and knowledge• Little participation in tourism development policy• Need for Raising awareness of tourist needs
  • 21. TOURISM CLUSTER IN THESSALONIKITOURISM CLUSTER IN THESSALONIKI2(3). Diamond Model of Competition2(3). Diamond Model of CompetitionFirm Strategy Structure & Rivalry• Big number of tourism SMEs- Strong rivalry among them for local customers (strongpersonal relations, Price reduction)-Little innovation capacity and need to grow productivity-Little resources and strength of competitiveness• Law market trend watch and outsourcing capacity•Few strong locally operating tourism companies- Promoting locality as a destination, (partners abroad)-Rivalry with strong tourism companies abroadRelating & Supporting Industries• Availability of all means of transportation•High traffic and bad parking system•Well developed food infrastructure•Fairly developed shopping places•International trade fair of Thessaloniki•All necessary tourist friendly services in place(communication, financial, medical, safety, etc.)Demand conditions• High demand of European countries- Seaside resorts (Main fish)- Cultural-based tourism (additional)• Law demand on local international events•High local demand - Greek style of life•Central Macedonia – 2007- 5th among Greek regions in hosting tourists- 7, 15 million tourists served- 60,423 bed-places in use andOccupancy 52,6 %Factor Condition• Local resources- Huge Historical & Cultural heritage(Religion, Philosophy, Mythology)-Fascinating environment• Festivals and celebrations•Tourist friendly population•Fair condition of infrastructure forhosting visitors•Need for upgrade of education systemGovernment• Focus on protection of national heritage•Centralized policy of promotion localities•Few support tools to grow productivity andinnovation•Need of improvement of tourism info centers•Necessity of active involvement of allstakeholders in decision making process andpromotion of regional opportunitiesDiamond•Weak cooperation of similar businesses•Weak cooperation among industry, academia& government•No merge of the companies•High demand for promotion of the place &its tourism products•Lack of support tools for developingnetworking and leadership•Need for common strategy and continuity inpromotion•Rise of awareness of local populationChanceCrises of world economy – Time-To develop networking-To create common culture-based tourismstrategy-To develop tourism product-To prepare for common promotion campaign
  • 22. 2(3). Diamond Model of Competition2(3). Diamond Model of CompetitionSOME FIGURES ON DEMAND CONDITIONSOME FIGURES ON DEMAND CONDITIONNights spent at hotels, similar establishments and campingin Central Makedonia in 2007Nights spent at hotels, similar establishments and campingby Region in 2007 (mln.)Foreigners first arriving in Central Macedonia Classifiedby means of transport in 2007
  • 23. 2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki – SWOT of Attitudes2. TOURISM CLUSTER of Thessaloniki – SWOT of AttitudesATTITUDES – NETWORKING - DIAMONDATTITUDES – NETWORKING - DIAMOND
  • 24. 2(4). Intelligence – Tool of Innovation & Networking2(4). Intelligence – Tool of Innovation & NetworkingWEB-INTELLIGENCE – NETWORKING OPPORTUNITIESWEB-INTELLIGENCE – NETWORKING OPPORTUNITIESAcademyGovernmentCommunityIndustryOffer -Tourist ProductservicesPromotion CampaignCultural HeritageVisitor/CompanyCustomer
  • 25. WEB PORTAL - Business Assistance & benefitWEB PORTAL - Business Assistance & benefit2(4). Intelligence – Tool of Innovation & Networking2(4). Intelligence – Tool of Innovation & NetworkingIndustry AcademiaTechnology watchand R&DSuccess storiesNetworkingopportunitiesWatch &participation in astrategic planningOpportunities oftraining/consultancyIMTsCommunityGovernmentAccess to spec.tourism info.Technology watchand R&DWatch &participation instrategic planningNetworkingopportunitiesOffer of training/consultancyCareer officeOpportunitiesto supporttourismdevelopmentParticipation ofstakeholders instrategic planningAccess tostakeholders needsConsultancySuccess storiesTransferenceof PolicyWatch/participationTourism skillsNetworkingopportunitiesAccess to spectourism info &stakeholdersNetworking &stakeholdersfeedback onstrategic planningIMTs development
  • 26. STEPS TOWARDS NETWORKINGSTEPS TOWARDS NETWORKING•Definingavailabletourismstakeholdersandpotentialleaderofnetworkingprocess3. Recommendations & Conclusions3. Recommendations & Conclusions•Riseofawarenessofthestakeholderstonetworkandacceptanceoftheleader•Marketresearchdonebycommoneffort•Developmentofcity,regionaltourismproducts•Preparationofcommontourismdevelopmentstrategy•Jointpromotionofthetourismproductatlocal&internationaltargetmarkets•Servicedeliverywatchandfeedbackanalyses•Updateofthestrategy,marketwatch,supportofproductdevelopmentandpromotionRound table,a dialoguePreparation ofcommon strategyImplementation and update of Strategy
  • 27. CONCLUSIONsCONCLUSIONs High Potential of Developing Strong Tourism Cluster Low Networking Capacity of Stakeholders Need for Leadership and Community Involvement Necessity of Preparation of Common Development Strategy Importance of use of IT Intelligence3. Recommendations & Conclusions3. Recommendations & Conclusions
  • 28. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI’d like to thank:• The Erasmus Mundus Program• ATEI of Thessaloniki ; Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi StateUniversity & Aristotle University of Thessaloniki• Dr. Nicos Komninos, Dr. Ioannis Karamanidis, Dr. FotisKilipiris, Dr. Simon Gelashvili, Dr. Spyros Avdimiotis.• And all who assisted me during the research on this thesis
  • 29. Thank you for your attentionThank you for your attentionTHESSALONIKITHESSALONIKIDavit DarsavelidzeContact information:E-mail: darsavelidze@gmail.comTEL: +30 699 909 52 50 (Thessaloniki)+995 99 43 88 97 (Tbilisi)