The experts’ perceptions of women’s entrepreneurship
The experts’ perceptions of women’sentrepreneurshipDavit DarsavelidzeUniversity of North TexasPADM 5500research methods IInstructor: Dr. Gary Webb05/01/2012
Do you think Thatthere is a country where> Entrepreneurs?
Introduction Women’s Entrepreneurship Hypotheses Data and methods Results and discussion Conclusion References Q&AOutlineWomen’s Entrepreneurship
Related factsWomen’s EntrepreneurshipSource: GEM 2010 Women’s Report (Kelly et al., 2012)
Related facts (continued)Source: The economic impact of women-owned businesses In the US, 2009Women’s EntrepreneurshipResult:Women’s entrepreneurshipis one of the importantdrives of the US economySource: http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/thumblarge_172/1186162194979Lu3.jpgWomen-owned enterprises in the US (2008) $1.9 trillion in sales Overall economic impact of $2.8 trillion Provide jobs exceeding 13 million 28.2 % of all businesses, mainly small businessSource:http://peakfamilybusiness.com/files/2011/03/woman_leader_casual_silhouette_green.png
Importance of the issue Protection of women’s rights globally Rising of awareness of women’s entrepreneurship A role of female in creation of wealth the worldApplication of results Need of women’s active participation in theentrepreneurial policy development globally Active support of women’s entrepreneurship increation of world wealthIntroductionWomen’s Entrepreneurship
Women’s EntrepreneurshipSource:Women’s EntrepreneurshipWhat is entrepreneurship?It is the behavior connected with innovation(Schumpter; 1934)Or just responsiveness to new opportunities(Kirzner; 1979)Driven by necessity &/or opportunity(Hechavarria and Reynolds, 2009)What effects women’s entrepreneurship?Culture (life and work values)(Terrell and Troilo,2010)as Guiso, Sapienza and Zingales noted,“those customary beliefs & values that ethnic, religious, &social groups transmit fairly unchanged from generation togeneration”(as cited in Terrell and Troilo, 2010, p.263)
Hypothesis #1: Gender of expert affects the perception of women’sentrepreneurship. Compared to females, males more likely state that women andmen have equal opportunities to start business and less favor entrepreneurship as anacceptable career for women. Hypothesis # 2: Experts with higher years of entrepreneurial experiencehave higher perception of women’s entrepreneurship. Hypothesis # 3: An expert with expertise in service sector has higherperception of women’s entrepreneurship, while in manufacturing sector itis opposite. Hypothesis #4: Higher the variety of ethnicity in the country resultsexperts’ higher perception of the women’s entrepreneurship.HypothesesWomen’s Entrepreneurship
Data and MethodsWomen’s Entrepreneurship Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM) Data (1999-2003) 38 countries, 4685 expert Standard Questionnaires, interviews Convenience sampling (Reynolds et al., 2008) Independent variables: Experts characteristics (sex, experience of entrepreneurship, expertise inservice or manufacturing, country of origin) Dependent variables: 5 variables of Experts’ perception of women’s entrepreneurship WEP Index (aggregated index of mentioned five variables of perception) Software for analyses: SPSS 5 crosstab, 1 correlation, 2 T-test, 2 ANOVA analysesSource: www.gemconsortium.org
% of Responseswith Somewhat andcompletely true withingenderPearsonChi-SquareLevel ofsignificanceFemale Male1.Social service help women withfamilies Work 40.2 46.5 0.000 P < 0.0012.New business start-up acceptable forwomen 62.5 57.7 0.016 P < 0.053.Women encouraged self-employmentor entrepreneurship 36.9 34.5 0.861 P > 0.054.Women have as many businessopportunity as men 40.6 43.7 0.217 P > 0.055.Women have same skills, motivationto entrepreneurship 63.6 60.0 0.252 P > 0.05Hypothesis #1_ CrosstabsWomen’s EntrepreneurshipResultsanddiscussionTable #1. Summary of Crosstabs analyses of gender and experts’ perception ofwomen’s entrepreneurshipSource: GEM Data / appendix #4H#1: Gender of expert affects the perception ofwomen’s entrepreneurship.
ResultsanddiscussionHypothesis #2 _ CorrelationWomen’s EntrepreneurshipH#2: Experts with higher years of entrepreneurial experience havehigher perception of women’s entrepreneurship.Table #2. Correlations of WEP Index and experts’ years of experience in entrepreneurshipPearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Sig. level0.086 0.000 P<001Source: GEM Data / appendix #5o High significant level (P<0.001)o Positive correlation (0.086)
Hypothesis #3 _ T-testSource: GEM Data /appendix #6H# 3: An expert with expertise in service sector has higher perception of women’sentrepreneurship, while in manufacturing sector it is opposite.Women’s EntrepreneurshipResultsanddiscussionWithExpertise inValid cases MeanStd.DeviationSig. (2 tailed)Level of sig.ServicesectorAll2324Yes 1333 16.1 4.2 0.012P<0.05No 991 16.6 4.3Manufacturing sectorAll2319Yes 760 16.7 4.20.001P≤0.001No 1559 16.1 4.2Table #3. Summary of T-Test, WEP Index and experts’ expertise in service &manufacturing sectors
Is a country where > entrepreneursWomen’s EntrepreneurshipResultsanddiscussionSource: GEM 2010 Women’s Report (Kelly et al., 2012)
Hypothesis #4 _ ANOVAWomen’s EntrepreneurshipResultsanddiscussionH #4: Higher the variety of ethnicity in the country results experts’higher perception of the women’s entrepreneurship.Country(number of experts)Ethnical fraction* Mean of womenIndexWithin GroupUS (38) 0.491 19.4 IIIUK (75) 0.324 15.5 IIChina (65) 0.154 18 IIIJapan (36) 0.012 11.3 ISource: GEM Data/ Appendix #7*Fearon (2003, p.215 -216)Table #4. Difference of experts’perception of women’s entrepreneurship among theUS, the UK, China and Japan (p<0.001)
Hypothesis #4Women’s EntrepreneurshipResultsanddiscussionH#4: Higher the variety of ethnicity in the country results experts’higher perception of the women’s entrepreneurship.Country(number of experts)Ethnical fraction* Mean of womenIndexWithin GroupCanada (23)0.596 18.6IIIUS (38)0.491 19.4 IIIUK (75)0.324 15.5 IIArgentina (66)0.255 14.6 IIChina (65)0.154 18 IIIAustralia (108)0.149 17.6 IIIUganda (35)0.93 15 IIJapan (36)0.012 11.3 ISource: GEM Data/ Appendix #7*Fearon (2003, p.215 -216)Table #5. Difference of experts’ perception of women’s entrepreneurshipin different countries (P<0.001)
Key findingsWomen’s Entrepreneurship Gender is a key factor of experts’ perception of women’sentrepreneurship Experts’ longevity of entrepreneurial experience directlycorrelated with high perception of the women’sEntrepreneurship Country of origin of expert is a strong determinant that ofdifferent perception of women’s entrepreneurship Experts’ Experience in manufacturing or service industry is not astrong determinant of rising women’s entrepreneurship
ConclusionWomen’s Entrepreneurship Experts’ characteristics like sex and longevity ofentrepreneurial experience and the countries they present,may affect Experts’ perception of women’sentrepreneurship, while their specialization by sectors maynot. While Developing policies and special working teams topromote women’s entrepreneurship, the expertscharacteristics of gender, country and longevity ofentrepreneurial experience should be taken into account.
Kelly, D., Brush C., Greene, P. and Litovsky, Y.(2012). GEM 2010 Women’s Report.Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring. Retrieved on April 25, 2012, from:http://www.gemconsortium.org/news/757/gem-2010-womens-report-Hechavarria, D.M. And Reynolds, P.D. (2009). Cultural norms & business start-ups:the impact of national values on opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs .International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal (5)4, 417-437. DOI:10.1007/s11365-009-0115-6Kirzner, I.M. (1979). Perception opportunity and profit studies in the theory ofentrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Schumpter, J. A.(1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge:Harvard University Press.Terrell, K. and Troilo, M. (2010). Values and female entrepreneurship. InternationalJournal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, (2)3, 260-286. DOI:10.1108/17566261011079242The economic impact of women-owned businesses In the US. (2009). Walmart,National Women’s Business Council, The Center for Women’s BusinessResearch. retrieved on April 26, 2012 from:http://www.womensbusinessresearchcenter.org/Data/research/economicimpactstud/econimpactreport-final.pdfReferencesWomen’s Entrepreneurship