Kb Beh Mdavis

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Explantation of Behaviorism, the basic boxing slip described through behaviorist theory

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Kb Beh Mdavis

  1. 1. Behaviorism <ul><li>Behaviorism defined: </li></ul><ul><li>a relatively permanent change in observable behavior as a result of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Simply stated “teachers can ultimately determine that learning has occurred only when they observe change in students behavior”. (Ormrod, 2008, p. 48) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Key Contributors to Behaviorism <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov and his famous drooling dog experiment are the cornerstone of Classical Conditioning theory. Please following the link below and see if you can make the dog drool. </li></ul><ul><li> [Pavlov's Dog] </li></ul><ul><li>BF skinner on the other hand might be called the father of Operant Conditioning . A form of conditioning characterized by reinforcement following the the completion of a desired act. Please feel free to review the attached video on operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Pigeon training </li></ul>
  3. 3. Other Historical Figures <ul><li>John Watson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested the response that most recently occurred after a particular stimulus is the response most likely associated with the stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edwin Guthrie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested S_R relationships can gain full strength in one trial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clark Hull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics unique to different individuals can influence the occurrence of a response, the stimulus response can be made stronger if the response is rewarded. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Key Terms <ul><li>Equipotentiality: Principles of learning should apply equally to different behaviors and species. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral Stimulus, (NS): A stimulus to which an organism does not respond to in any noticeable way. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response, (UCR): The organism responds to the stimulus unconditionally. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus, (UCS): This is a stimuli we are seeking to have an organism respond to in a similar or same fashion as the (UCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus, (CS): is the end result of a once neutral stimuli (NS) eliciting the same response as the (UCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR): Is the outcome of the pairing of an (NS) with (UCS) resulting in the same response as the (UCR) </li></ul><ul><li>You may follow the link for a glossary of useful terms related to to Behaviorism: </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul>
  5. 5. Instructional Theories Based on Behaviorism <ul><li>Programmed Instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this type of learning the material is presented in a series of discreet frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is chunked in small groups and displayed linearly or in a branching form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The program typically begin with know information and progresses to more difficult information, when the learners answers incorrectly they are pushed to a remedial slide for further review. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The program incorporated immediate reinforcement it does not allow the learner to move on without showing competency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(PI) is self paced allowing for differences in learning rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastery Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches learning from the context that the learner must master (learn one lesson well) before moving on to the next. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course content is broken up into small discrete units, covering a small amount of material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Units are sequenced logically the early units provide the based for the later more complex units. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner must demonstrate mastery at the end of each unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master of a unit is defined in concrete and observable terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional remedial activities are included for students needing additional help. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Additional Theories <ul><li>Personalized System of Instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This method is characterized by individual study, most of the learning occurs from text books and study guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exams are given following each unit to measure student mastery of the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplementary materials may be provided in the form of traditional lecture and study groups to aid learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This system all incorporates the use of proctors to administer and score exams or to tutor students having issues with the content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Assisted Instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this type of learning the material is presented in a series of discreet frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is chunked in small groups and displayed linearly or in a branching form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The program typically begin with know information and progresses to more difficult information, when the learners answers incorrectly they are pushed to a remedial slide for further review. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The program incorporated immediate reinforcement it does not allow the learner to move on without showing competency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(PI) is self paced allowing for differences in learning rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical to PI administered in a computer environment </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Situation: The use of the Basic Slip <ul><li>The instructor will direct one side to be offense and the other defense. Offense will be responsible for striking at the defensive fighter who will practice the use of the slip. As the offensive fighter slowly extends his lead hand, the defensive fighter should take a half step forward and bend at the knees lowering their entire body below the oncoming strike. The punch should miss or slightly graze the forehead of the defensive fighter. As the punch passes by the defensive fighter should re-surface (hands still in the guard) on the elbow side of the extended arm. Defensive fighter should not lean forward or back, nor should they bend at the waste to avoid the strike. A solid fighting stance should be maintained throughout the slip so that in the event the strike is successful the defensive fighter is not vulnerable to the secondary or tertiary strike. In this case the stimulus is the extension of the lead hand aimed directly at the forehead of the defensive fighter. The desired response is a half step forward coupled with a lowering of body posture (hands still in the guard) and a re-surfacing on the elbow side (back side) of the strike. The exercise should be repeated slowly at first with speed increasing as the defensive fighter becomes more comfortable with the terminal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder the defensive fighter struggle with the exercise we could apply a shaping technique to accomplish the learning exercise. We could start with just the initial half step as the offensive fighter strikes to the left-side of the defensive fighter’s forehead. After the defensive fighter displays the ability to perform this step in real time we would move onto step two. This step would incorporate a half step accompanied by a bending at knees to lower ones level completely below the strike. Again mastery would be displayed through the performance of the response in real time following the stimuli. Lastly we would combine the half step with the bend and the re-surfacing on the elbow side of the strike, completing the move. Reinforcement should be constant and immediate following the display of the desired response throughout the exercise or the individual steps leading up to the terminal behavior. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Situation defined Behaviorally <ul><li>Environment should be as stagnant as possible preferably on the instructor and the fighters present </li></ul><ul><li>This is an example of operant conditioning. For most people baseline represents ducking and cover one face and eyes. Our task is to condition the individual to respond differently by providing experience the opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli is provided in the form of a lead hand strike to the forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal behavior is defined as the slip, a half-step forward coupled with lowering the body below the strike and resurfacing on the elbow side of the extended arm. </li></ul><ul><li>The move is explained by the instructor to the participants and the the participants are given multiple opportunities to perform the move in slow motion and real time. </li></ul><ul><li>The instructor provides positive and immediate feedback and reinforcement when proper elements of the terminal behavior are exhibited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment I may also be applied if the desired behavior is not exhibited, offense fighter would be instructed to increase the speed and forced of strike. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the event the defensive fighter continues to struggle the the instructor could alter the drill to incorporate the use of chaining. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down (chunking) the terminal behavior into smaller parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We would start by asking the offensive fighter to apply the stimuli to the left of the defensive fighters forehead the defensive fighter would respond with a half step to their lead side. This motion would be repeated until it could be accomplished in slow motion and real time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next the offensive player would again apply the stimuli and the defensive fighter would incorporate the half step along with the lowering of the posture below the strike. This would be repeated with reinforcement given when elements of the terminal behavior are exhibited correctly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lastly, we would combine the half step with the bend and the re-surfacing on the elbow side of the strike, completing the move. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is given at every step of the in the learning exercise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When completed student should be able to perform slip in slow motion and real time. This outcome must be observed before we can conclude learning has taken place. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Behavioral Checklist <ul><li>Attempt to establish stagnant environment free of as many other stimuli as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Chunk desired terminal behavior into small observable parts </li></ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce behavior equal or similar too the terminal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement could be continuous, interval or differential </li></ul>

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