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Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Document Transcript

  • Jonathan Davila World History, P.3 June 8, 2008 World History Final Project The Industrial Revolution was a time in the late 1800s and early 1900s when changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had an effect on the cultural conditions in Britain. The changes spread throughout Europe and North America and eventually the world. The Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human history. In the 1700s the manual economy of the Kingdom of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery. It started with the mechanism of the textile industries and the development of iron techniques and the increased use of coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. During the 1700s and early 1800s, great changes took place in the lives and work of people in several parts of the world. Industrialization is a process of social and economic change. It is a part of a modernization process where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large scale energy and metal production. Industrialization also introduces a form of philosophical change, where people obtain a different attitude towards their perception of nature. These changes resulted from the development of industrialization. The word Industrial Revolution refers both to the changes that occurred and to the period itself. In the 1760s two new machines revolutionized the textile industry. One was the spinning jenny which was invented by James Hargreaves. James was a Blackburn weaver and carpenter. The other machine was the water frame invented
  • by Sir Richard Arkwright. Both machines solved many of the problems of roller spinning, especially in the production of yarn used to make cloths. Between 1774 and 1779 a Lancashire weaver named Samuel Crompton developed the spinning mule. This machine combined features of the spinning jenny and the water frame replaced both machines. The mule was particularly efficient in spinning yarn for high quality cloths, which was made before the invention of mule. During the 1780s and 1790s larger spinning mules were built. They had metal rollers and several hundreds of spindles. These machines ended the home spinning industry. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700s. It started spreading to other parts of Europe and to North America in the early 1800s. By the mid 1800s industrialization had become widespread in Western Europe and the northeastern United States. The Industrial Revolution created an enormous increase in the production of many kinds of goods. Some of this increase in production resulted from introduction of power driven machinery and the development of factory organization. Before the revolution manufacturing was done by hand or simple machines. Most people worked at home in rural areas. A few worked in shops in towns as part of associations called guilds. The Industrial Revolution eventually took manufacturing out of the home and workshop. Power driven machines replaced handwork and factories developed as the best way of bringing together the machines and workers to operate them. As the Industrial Revolution grew private investors and financial institutions were needed to provide money for the further expansion of industrialization. Financiers and banks became as important as industrialists and factories in the growth of the revolution. For the first time in European history wealthy business leaders called capitalists took over the control and
  • organization of manufacturing. The introduction of steam power and powered machinery increased in production capacity. The development of metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 1900s facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 1900s and eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous. The first industrial revolution merged into the second industrial revolution around 1850 when technological and economic progress gained development of steam powered ships and railways. The Industrial Revolution began and era of economic growth in capitalist economies. England was the first to industrialize because had the most colonies to exploit the resources of yarn and wool. The revolution both hurt and helped the poor. Farmers had to learn how to work in factories or they would be out of business. Some poor people had good ideas. The poor were largely left behind and the rift between rich and poor widened as it has been to this day. There were Textiles such as Cotton spinning using Richard Arkwright’s water frame, James Hargreaves’s Spinning Jenny, and Samuel Crompton’s Spinning Mule a combination of the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame. The end of the patent was followed by many cotton mills. Similar technology was applied to spinning yarn for various textiles and for linen. Steam power improved the steam engine invented by James Watt was mainly used for pumping out mines. From the 1780s was applied to power machines. This enabled rapid development of efficient automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available. In the iron industry coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal.
  • Laissez-faire is a French phrase meaning “Let do.” In the early 18th century British manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans doing the spinning and weaving on their premises. This system is called a cottage industry. Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials, but the processing was difficult because of the preprocessing need. Goods in these materials made only a small proportion of the output. Coal mining in Britian was often shallow pits following a seam of coal along the surface which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. The coal was mined into the side of a hill. Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the factor was the problem of removing water. It could be done by moving buckets of water up the shaft. The water had to be discharged into a steam at a level where it could flow away by gravity. The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper which would enable more coal to be extracted. These developments that had begun before the Industiral Revolution, but the adoption of James Watt’s steam engine from the 1770s reduced the fuel costs of engines making mines more profitable. The spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry. Incremental advances increased productivity to the manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 1900s. The development of the steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution. For most of the period of the Industrial Revolution the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man power for driving small machines. The first real attempt at industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas Savery in 1698. He constructed in London a lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump that generated
  • about one horsepower and was used as in numerous water works and tried in a few mines, but it was not a success since it was limited in pumping height and prone to boiler explosions. Bibliography 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watt_steam_engine 3. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761577952/Industrial_Revolution.html 4. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html 5. World History Book – Chapter 25 Industrial Revolution 6. History Channel