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Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
Aristotle The Naturalist
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Aristotle The Naturalist

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  • 1. By: Jonathan Davila 1
  • 2.  Son of a court physician Born in Stagira, Chalcidice 384 BC Died in Euboea 322 BC Aristotle was Plato’s student and teacher of Alexander The Great. Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. 2
  • 3.  He claimed that complete understanding of a thing required identifying its “four causes” He believed that nature is ordered and guided internally. He taught that there are three kinds of soul and that they constitute a hierarchy. He believed in using factual information and collecting facts to make a better world He was a Philosophical Naturalist Aristotles form can be abstracted from matter, but cant exist independently like matter. 3
  • 4.  The belief that reality consist of the natural world Naturalist universe is ordered in that everything in it follows consistent and discoverable laws of nature Nature always acts with a purpose and the key to understand anything lies in determining its essential purpose 4
  • 5.  Believes that human beings are part of the natural order and behave according to fix laws and principles Understanding of nature is necessary to understanding human nature. Aristotle based his philosophical positions on scrutiny, not on the isolated contemplation of mathematical laws or “pure laws” 5
  • 6.  Form is the universe divided into the realm of becoming and the realm of being Distinguished from content only in thought never the fact For Aristotle, form exists within the natural order embedded in particular things and can not exist independently. Aristotelian form is that which is in matter and makes a thing what it is, but can’t exist independently. 6
  • 7.  Matter is the common material stuff found in a variety of material things; matter has no distinct characteristics until some form is imparted to it or until the form inherit in a thing becomes actualized. Change is a series of smaller changes in which matter loses and gains form. The strongest principle of growth lies in human choice. 7
  • 8.  Material Cause is the material (substance) from which a thing comes and which change occurs. Formal Cause is the shape or form into which matter is changed. Efficient Cause is the triggering cause that initiates activity; the substance by which a change is brought about. Final Cause is for which activity or process take place 8
  • 9.  Entelechy is “Having its end within itself” Includes nutritive and sensitive soul plus capacity for analysis, understanding various forms and making reasoned decisions. Inner urge that drives all things to blossom into their own selves. In order or design that governs all natural processes. For Aristotle, psyche is the form of the body. 9
  • 10.  Teleological Thinking is a way of explaining or understanding a thing in terms of its ultimate goal, or final cause Eudemonia often translates as “Happiness” Aristotle refers to fully realized existence; state of being fully aware, vital alert Sophrosyne is wisdom as moderation; finding the mean between excess and deficiency. 10
  • 11.  Character is the sum total of a person’s traits including behavior, habits, likes, and etc. The mean is the midpoint between two other points; For Aristotle, moral virtue was characterized as a mean between too little and too much. According to Aristotle, we become our best selves in the process of becoming fully functioning human being. 11
  • 12. Hope you enjoyed my presentation! 12

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