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The great war
 

The great war

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  • Thanks for your feedback, Karen. This was created for an American high-school freshman audience and was meant to be an overview of the causes of WWI and general course without being caught up on the specific smaller battles. I, of course, go into much greater detail in my college-level AP European History course.
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  • too long and what happened to gallipoli campaign, typical american view of ww1` one sided
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    The great war The great war Presentation Transcript

    • The Great War created by David William Phillips
    • During the 19 th century, the German state of Prussia became strong and prosperous under the leadership of King Wilhelm I .
    • In the 1860s, Wilhelm appointed Otto von Bismarck to be the Prime Minister of Prussia. Bismarck was a keen politician who declared that “the great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches … but by blood and iron ."
    • Bismarck united many of the smaller northern German states through a series of wars and created alliances with many of the southern German states.
    • In 1870, Bismarck goaded the French Empire into declaring war on Prussia.
    • During the Franco-Prussian war, the French were swiftly defeated.
    • Prussia captured the French Emperor Napoleon III and annexed the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine .
    • The Prussians also captured Paris and in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, King Wilhelm I of Prussia was declared the Kaiser , or Emperor, of a new united German Empire.
    • Under Kaiser Wilhelm II , Germany grew to become the strongest military and industrial power in Europe.
    • Like Britain and France, Germany had imperial ambitions and Wilhelm II declared that Germany too, would have “ a place in the sun .”
    • In the early years of the twentieth century, tensions were growing between European nations.
    • This was due to: 1. Imperialism European empires, especially Britain , France , and Germany, competed for control of trade and colonies .
    • British Empire in 1914
    • French Empire in 1914 (dark blue)
    • German Empire in 1914
    • Belgian Empire in 1914
    • Russian Empire in 1914
    • 2. Militarism To protect their empires, there was a huge increase in the size of European armies and navies.
    • Between 1890 and 1914 European military forces doubled in size in a tense arms race.
    • 3. Alliances Empires needed allies to help preserve their power.
      • 1. The Triple Alliance :
      • Germany
      • Austria-Hungary
      • Italy
      Europe became divided between two great alliances:
      • 2. The Triple Entente :
      • Great Britain
      • France
      • Russia
      Europe became divided between two great alliances:
    • 4. Socialism Meanwhile, most European nations also faced internal social strife . Conservatism Socialism Liberalism Proletariat Bourgeoisie Elites
    • As Socialist labor movements gained greater power, workers went on frequent strikes to achieve their goals. Conservative European leaders feared the outbreak of a Marxist revolution.
    • Conservatives may have been willing to go to war to redirect these energies, hoping national differences would trump class differences.
    • 5. Nationalism Several European nations dreamed gaining independence and creating their own nation-states, such as the Irish in the British Empire …
    • … and the Slavs in the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires.
      • Finally, these tension erupted into a great and terrible war in August, 1914:
      • 4 years and 3 months (1 Aug 1914 – 11 Nov 1918)
      • 8.5 million dead, 21.2 million wounded, 7.8 million missing in action
      • 17 million dead from a worldwide flu epidemic
      • $186 billion (approx. $2.5 trillion today)
    • The Great War was caused by five MAIN factors: M A I N S Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Socialism
    • Or, in chronological order: N I M A S Militarism – increased after 1890s to protect new colonies and prove national superiority Alliances – become necessary by early 1900s in militarized environment Imperialism – increased after 1870s in part due to rivalries compelled by nationalism Nationalism – developed early-mid 1800s Socialism – Were conservative leaders willing to go to war in order to draw focus away from international brotherhood to patriotic duty and use lower class soldiers as cannon fodder to reduce threat of socialist revolution by reducing the working class population?
      • It was the first truly modern war and it was fought destructive new weapons:
      machine guns artillery poison gas barbed wire electrified wire flamethrowers tanks airplanes submarines
    • How the War Broke Out: The Slavs had long struggled for independence while the Austrians, Ottomans, and Russians competed for control of the Balkan Peninsula of Southeast Europe.
    • In 1914, Serbia wanted to form a large Slavic state in the Balkans. A terrorist organization called The Black Hand was one of several Serbian secret societies dedicated to this cause.
    • Serbia was supported by Russia and opposed by Austria-Hungary .
    • In June of 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand , and his wife were killed by a member of The Black Hand while touring the city of Sarajevo .
    • Austria-Hungary wanted to declare war on Serbia but was worried that Russia would come to Serbia’s aid.
    • Austrian leaders asked for help from its German allies. Kaiser Wilhelm II agreed to give Germany’s full support.
    • In July, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia . Russia responded by mobilizing the Russian army.
    • Austria-Hungary and Germany considered Russian mobilization to be an act of war. Germany declared war on Russia on August 1 .
    • Russia and France were allies. Germany had prepared a strategy, called the Schlieffen Plan , to fight both countries at once.
    • The plan called for Germany to defeat France first and then attack Russia with full force. Germany declared war on France on August 3 .
    • The Germans demanded that Belgium — a neutral country — allow German armies to pass through on the way to France.
    • The violation of Belgian neutrality drew Great Britain , who was allied with France and Russia , into the war. On August 4 , Britain declared war on Germany and World War I had begun.
    • É ultimatum Serbia (10) Austria-Hungary (6) Russia (5) Germany (1) France (4) Belgium (9) Britain (2) Ottoman Turks (8) Italy (7) Italy (7) Ì assassination » back-up ¼ support º mobilizes (WAR!) ¹ É É WAR! Schlieffen Plan Schlieffen Plan » has treaty Î WAR! » alliance Î switches sides » joins » alliance Bulgaria(12) » joins É WAR!
    • Allied Powers: Britain (2) France (4) Russia (5) Italy (7) Belgium (9) Serbia (10) Central Powers: Germany (1) Austria-Hungary (6) Ottoman Empire (8) Bulgaria (12) OUT 1917 United States (3) IN 1917 _____________
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    • How the War Was Fought: On the Western Front, Germany swept through Belgium into northern France and was stopped a short distance from Paris.
    • The Western Front turned into a stalemate . Neither side able to push the other out of the defensive trenches they had dug.
    • The trenches stretched from the English Channel nearly to the Swiss border. For four years both sides remained in almost the same positions .
    • The trenches on the Western Front were defended by massive tangles of barbed wire …
    • … machinegun nests …
    • … and artillery batteries .
    • The soldiers lived in filthy, rat-infested holes in the ground.
    • The devastated territory between the two sides was called No-Man’s-Land .
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    • Military leaders did not know how to fight trench warfare . The only plan they could devise was to order masses of soldiers to attack the other side and try to breakthrough .
    • Attacks would begin by pounding enemy positions with heavy artillery for days or weeks.
    • Attacks would begin by pounding enemy positions with heavy artillery for days.
    • Under the constant rain of enemy fire, thousands of men suffered complete mental breakdowns in a condition known as “ shell shock .”
    • Once the shelling stopped, troops would go “ over the top ” and rush towards the enemy trenches.
    • The attackers were completely exposed to machine-gun fire . A few yards of enemy territory were only gained only through tremendous loss of life.
    • New weapons were developed to overcome the stalemate: flamethrowers …
    • … tanks …
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    • … and the world’s first Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD)- poison gas.
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    • Men blinded by tear gas.
    • Victims of Mustard gas.
    • No breakthrough ever came. Millions of young men died in pointless attacks.
    • World War I became a war of attrition, where each side poured men and machines into the grinder and tried to slowly wear each other down.
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    • Airplanes for war were used for the first time in World War I. They fought each other for control of the air with machine guns.
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    • The Germans used their giant gas-filled zeppelins to bomb locations in Britain.
    • The Germans used their giant gas-filled zeppelins to bomb locations in Britain.
    • The Germans used their giant gas-filled zeppelins to bomb locations in Britain.
    • In order to keep supplies from reaching their enemies, each country enforced a naval blockade of the other.
    • German submarines sank both military and civilian ships, including passenger ships. This practice was called unrestricted submarine warfare .
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    • In 1915, the Germans sank the British ship Lusitania , killing 1,100 civilians and causing strong protests from the American government.
    • The United States tried to stay neutral in the first years of World War I. However, in April 1917, the United States responded to unrestricted submarine warfare by declaring war on Germany .
    • Though large numbers of American troops did not arrive until 1918 , the Allies were given a powerful psychological boost as well as money and supplies .
    • World War I became a total war that required a complete mobilization of people and resources. It demanded the total commitment of the countries involved, soldiers and civilians alike. The war had an enormous impact on everyone’s life.
    • When the war began, government propaganda was used to urge people to defend their own country.
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    • As the war dragged on, governments had to increase their powers in order to obtain the manpower and supplies they needed. Millions of men were drafted into the military through conscription .
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    • Governments set up planned economies , which included economic controls, food and material rationing , regulated transportation, and controls on imports and exports.
    • Governments and leaders saw all citizens as part of the war effort.
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    • As the casualties mounted in the war, public support for the war waned.
    • Authoritarian governments used force to keep people working. Other governments passed new laws to severely restrict dissent and took increased control of news sources.
    • Governments tried to keep morale up with new propaganda techniques.
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    • Women assumed new roles during World War I, taking over jobs previously held only by men, including factory and trucking jobs.
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