Countercult ureBegan late 1950s/early‟60s:Beat Generation of NewYork and San FranciscoReaction against:conservative 1950‟s,the Cold War,and fear of nuclear war
• Non-conformist, rejected materialism• Experimented with jazz, drugs, sex, Eastern religions• Mainly literary movement - idealized energetic, uncensored expression
Howl by Allen Ginsberg (1956)I saw the best minds of my generationdestroyed by madness, starvinghysterical naked,dragging themselves through the negrostreets at dawn looking for an angry fix,angelheaded hipsters burning for theancient heavenly connection to thestarry dynamo in the machinery of night,who poverty and tatters and hollow-eyedand high sat up smoking in thesupernatural darkness of cold-water flatsfloating across the tops of citiescontemplating jazz …
On the Road by Jack Kerouac (1957)"The one thing that we yearn for in ourliving days, that makes us sigh andgroan and undergo sweet nauseas ofall kinds, is the remembrance of somelost bliss that was probablyexperienced in the womb and can onlybe reproduced (though we hate toadmit it) in death."
The Naked Lunch by William S. Burroughs (1959)“I am not one of those weak-spirited, sappy Americans whowant to be liked by all thepeople around them. I don‟tcare if people hate my guts; Iassume most of them do. Theimportant question is whetherthey are in a position to doanything about it.”“In the U.S. you have to be adeviant or die of boredom.Make no mistake, allintellectuals are deviants in the
The Old Left The New Left1930s-1950s 1960s-1970sMarxist roots Democratic rootsFocused on working class Young middle-classlabor issues intellectuals; hippies and college protestors.Became disillusioned withauthoritarian brutality of Stalin SDS (Students for Democratic& suppressed by 1950s Red Society)Scare Focus on civil rights, questioning authority, opposing Vietnam War
Mainstreamvs.• Individual • Community• Competition • Cooperation• Achievement • Happiness• Group superiority • Equality & social justice• Conformity/obedience • Freedom• Materialism and money • Spiritualism, sharing• Authoritarianism • Democracy• Militarism/imperialism • Diplomacy/sovereignty• Rationality/bureaucracy • Emotionality/tribalism• Self-discipline • Laid back, go with the flow• Delayed gratification • Immediate gratification
• Influenced „psychedelic ‟ art & music• Made illegal in 1966
• Timothy Leary - proponent of LSD.• Jerry Garcia - Grateful Dead founding member• John Lennon – Beatles• “The Merry Pranksters”-Famous group of traveling hippies.
1964 • British Invasion The Beatles The Rolling Stones The Who • Jimi Hendrix-use1967 of the electric 1968 guitar 1969
Altamont Free Concert, 1969Manson Murders, 1969Lost fascination with drugs;Joplin, Hendrix, and MorrisonODKent State Massacre,1970Vietnam War winding downCounterculture valuesbecoming part of acceptedculture "Mr. and Mrs. America … I am not … a hippie cult leader. I am what you have made me and the mad dog devil killer fiend leper is a reflection of your society … In my minds eye my thoughts light fires in your cities." - Charles Manson
Pop Art“Art should be foreveryone!” - AndyWarhol
Clean Air Act (1970)Clean Water Act (1973)Endangered Species Act(1973)Three Mile Island (1979)
Women’s Movement1949: The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir1961: FDA approves birth control pill1963: Equal Pay Act1964: The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan1964: Civil Rights Act bans employment
“A woman needs a manlike a fish needs abicycle.”
1966: NationalOrganization for Women(NOW)1967: affirmative actionexpanded to cover sexualdiscrimination1968: Miss America Pageantprotest1968: Shirley Chisholmelected first blackcongresswoman.
1972: Equal RightsAmendment (ERA) sent tostates for ratification1972: Shirley Chisholmwins three states inDemocratic Party inPresidential primaryelection.
1973: Roe v. Wade declares laws prohibiting abortionare unconstitutional.
1974: Phyllis Schlaflyforms STOP ERA1978: Elaine Noble firstopenly gay state legislatorin Mass1978: more women thanmen enter college1978: PregnancyDiscrimination Act bansemployment discriminationagainst pregnant women
1979: Margaret Thatcherbecomes first femalePrime Minister of theUnited Kingdom1982: ERA falls threestates short ofratification