7.01: Explain the conditions that led to the rise of Progressivism. 7.02: Analyze how different groups of Americans made economic and political gains in the Progressive Period. 7.03: Evaluate the effects of racial segregation on different regions and segments of the Unites States' society. 7.04: Examine the impact of technological changes on economic, social, and cultural life in the United States.
Who were some famous Progressives? What causes did they advance?
Who benefited from progressivism? Who saw it as a threat?
Who were Progressives? Populists: farmers/workers, in South and West, lower/working class Progressives: middle class, educated, urban, women, old Social Gospel Progressivism = Populism that had “shaved its whiskers, washed its shirt, put on a derby, and moved up into the middle class.”
Progressives were: Women: the “cult of domesticity” is challenged by middle class, educated women; new role for women in the public sphere.
Salvation Army(Galveston Hurricane, 1900; San FranciscoEarthquake, 1906)
Economic Progressivism: Panic of 1893: some people questioned capitalist, some “radicals” embraced Socialism (Eugene V. Debs) + Big Business: History of the Standard Oil Co. Ida Tarbell = Anti-trust movement (various legislation during T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilsonadmins.)
Structural/Political Progressivism: Scientific Management: applying science to make the workplace more efficient; tasks become easier, workers become more productive, production increases Fredrick W. Taylor, Principals of Sci. Management, 1911 Ford Motor Co.: Assembly line, 8 hr work day, $5/day
Structural/Political Progressivism: Fighting city corruption:eliminate Gilded Age political bosses, kickbacks, voting corruption (ex.: “Boss” Tweed) City manager/commissioner > city councils, (experts over political favors) Hazen Pingree(Detroit, MI) & Tom Johnson (Cleveland, OH)= Progressive mayors “gas and water socialism” (public ownership of utilities)
Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities (1904)
Structural/Political Progressivism: Fighting State Corruption: regulate railroads, mines, mills, business Gov. Robert La Follette, WI: RR regulation, direct candidate primary system, limited campaign expenditures and lobbying activities, end child/’;lk labor
Structural/Political Progressivism: Ending Child Labor: Keating-Owen Act (1916) prohibited transportation of goods made by children across state lines; declared unconstitutional in 1920 but most states regulate child labor and dramatic national drop by 1920 Shorter working hours:Muller v. Oregon (1908, women, 10 hr); Bunting v. Oregon (1917, men, 10 hr); worker’s comp/benefits
Structural/Political Progressivism: Louis Brandeis (Supreme Court 1916-1939, “A Robin Hood of the Law” worker’s comp/benefits
Structural/Political Progressivism: Elections Secret (Australian) Ballot Initiative/Referendum: citizens vote on laws Recall: fire public officials
Goals in Summary: End "white slavery“ Prohibition Immigration restriction “Americanization” of immigrants Anti-trust legislation Rate regulation of private utilities