June 30, 1934: Hitler and SS arrested Rohm and SA leaders. 200-1000 SA leaders executed.
Secured loyalty of German Army for Hitler.
SS given independent status; no longer part of the SA.
SS Leader Heinrich Himmler now answered to Hitler and no one else.
SA brownshirts absorbed into the regular army after Hitler re-introduced military conscription in 1935.
“If anyone reproaches me and asks why I did not resort to the regular courts of justice, then all I can say is this: In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I became the supreme judge of the German people. … Everyone must know for all future time that if he raises his hand to strike the State, then certain death is his lot.”
Adolf Hitler, speech to Reichstag July 13, 1934
Proclaimed himself to be supreme judge of the German people making his word the law
Instilled a permanent sense of fear in the German people
Hitler Becomes Führer August 2, 1934: Hindenburg dies; Hitler combines Presidency and Chancellorship; assumes title of Führer. August 19, 1934: A direct vote approved the combination of the two offices. 95% of registered voters went to the polls and gave Hitler 90% approval.
August 20, 1934: All public employees – military, civil service, police, teachers, and judiciary – had to take a loyalty oath not to the constitution or Germany, but to Hitler.
Myth or Fact: Adolf Hitler was elected to power. Myth or Fact: Adolf Hitler was elected to power. Hitler never received more than 37% of the popular vote in the honest elections that occurred before he became Chancellor. He would never have risen to power had the German Republic been truly democratic. Myth or Fact:Hitler’s rise to power was inevitable. Myth or Fact:Hitler’s rise to power was inevitable. Hitler’s rise to power was not inevitable. It was due to: Fatal flaws in the Weimar Republic constitution. German leaders who had a weak devotion to democracy, came in actively plotting to overthrow it. Events of the Great Depression. A half-senile President Hindenburg. Incompetent competition.
Works Cited Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide, A Concise History of the Holocaust. New York: Barnes and Noble, 2007. Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: HarperCollins, 1962. The History Place.http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/index.htm. St. Martin’s College.http://www.history-ontheweb.co.uk/topic/topic_weimar.htm. Shirer, William. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960. The Shoah Education Project.http://www.shoaheducation.com/weimar.html. Suite 101.com.http://weuropeanhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_weimar_republic. The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. www.ushmm.org. The Walter Benjamin Research Syndicate: New College of California. http://www.wbenjamin.org/weimar.html. Western New England College.http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/germany/lectures/23weimar_collapse.html. YadVashem. www.yadvashem.org.