Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
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Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)






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Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896) Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896) Presentation Transcript

  • Goal 4:The Great West and the Rise of the Debtors(1860s-1896)
  • 4.01 Compare and contrastthe different groups ofpeople who migrated to theWest and describe theproblems they experienced.
  • 4.02 Evaluate the impactthat settlement in the Westhad upon different groups ofpeople and the environment.
  • 4.03 Describe the causesand effects of the financialdifficulties that plagued theAmerican farmer and tracethe rise and decline ofPopulism.
  • 4.04 Describe innovations inagricultural technology andbusiness practices and assesstheir impact on the West.
  • Comstock Lode Transcontinental RailroadPromontory Point, UT Roles of Irish… Chinese … African-AmericansBuffalo Soldiers Sand Creek MassacreChief Joseph Battle of Little Big HornNez Perce Wounded KneeDawes Severalty Act Century of DishonorOklahoma Land Rush Cattle TrailsHomestead Act Morrill Land GrantRoles of women Sod housesWindmill Steel PlowBarbed Wire
  • Essential Questions1. What national issues emerged in the process of closing the western frontier?2. Why does the West hold such an important place in the American imagination?3. In what ways is the West romanticized in American culture?
  • The Frontier
  • Population Changes inthe West, 1850 to 1900
  • Groups ofthe West
  • 1. Miners2. Railroad Companies3. Cowboys & Ranchers4. Native Americans5. White farmers6. Ethnic Minorities (Blacks, Hispanics, & Asians)
  • Key Tensions Native Buffalo HuntersAmericans Railroads U. S. Gov.Cattlemen Sheep Herders Ranchers Farmers
  • Key Tensions Ethnic Nativists Minorities Big BusinessEnvironmentalists Local Gov. Officials Farmers Buffalo Hunters Lawlessness of “Civilizing” Forces the Frontier [The “Romance” of the West]
  • Group: MinersKey Events • Key People – 1848: a series of – ’49ers “big strikes” in – Civil War Vets CA, NV, CO – Young men – Some families
  • Gold Panning
  • Sluicing
  • Prospecting
  • Mining Centers: 1900
  • Promontory, Utah Group: Laborers/Workers• Key Events – 1869: 1st transcontinental railroad meets in Promontory Pt., Utah
  • Promontory Point, UT (May 10, 1869)
  • Railroad Construction
  • Group: Laborers/Workers• Key People – Irish: from East – Chinese: from West – African Americans
  • Group: Laborers/Workers• Government Policies/Legislation – Gov’t. gives land to railroad companies but doesn’t regulate rates they charge or rail gauge/ width
  • Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  • Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  • Black“Exoduster”Homesteaders
  • Blacks Moving West
  • The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
  • The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
  • The “Chinese Question”  Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion Act - Chinese Exclusion Act
  • The Tong Wars: 1850s-1920s Began in San Francisco in 1875.
  • African American & Chinese Populations: 1880-1900
  • Group: Native Americans• Key Events • Key People – Chivington (aka Sand Creek) – Col Chivington Massacre: 200+ Natives killed – Gen. Custer – Custer’s Last Stand: 200 – Sitting Bull Americans killed – Crazy Horse – Battle of Wounded Knee: 300 Natives killed
  • Group: Native Americans• Cultural Characteristics – Total reliance on buffalo – White slaughter led to starvation
  • 1871-1875: 11,000,000 bisonslaughtered!
  • Group: Native Americans• Government Policies/ Legislation – Reservation system – Broken treaties – Dawes Act- tried “Americanization”
  • ColoradoGold Rush (1859)
  • Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
  • Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacred December 21, 1866
  • Gold Found inthe Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
  • The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Gen. George Armstrong CusterChief Sitting Bull
  • Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
  • Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
  • Helen Hunt JacksonA Century of Dishonor (1881) Ramona (1884)
  • Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
  • Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
  • Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
  • Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
  • Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
  • Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
  • OklahomaLand Rush of 1889
  • Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Key Events – Corralling + Branding + Long drive to railroads – 1883- droughts – 1887- blizzard – 1880- barbed wire ends the open range
  • Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Key People: – Joseph McKoy: ran Abilene stockyard – Buffalo Bill Hickok’s Wild West show – Calamity Jane
  • Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Government Policies/Legislation – The gov’t. gave land to railroad companies to sell so they could raise money to build the railroads
  • Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Cultural characteristics: – Boots – Spurs – Chaps – 6 shooters – Good songs – Loneliness
  • TheCattleTrails
  • The Bronc BusterFrederick Remington
  • Black Cowboys
  • Colt .45 RevolverGod didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
  • Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
  • Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
  • Group: Farmers
  • Group: Farmers• Government Policies/ Legislation – Homestead Act of 1862: 160 acres of free land – Morrill Act: Est. farm colleges – Hatch Act: Funds farm research NCSU Freshman class 1889
  • Group: Farmers• Key People – Families – Women are key – Keep house, educate kids, prepare food, make clothing
  • Group: Farmers• Cultural characteristics – Sod houses – Dugouts – Plows – Windmills – Reapers
  • Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
  • Rain Follows the Plow!
  • Homesteads From Public Lands
  • 1887 LandPromotion Poster for the DakotaTerritories
  • What is the Message of this Picture?
  • The Reality: “My First House in Neb, 1880”
  • The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  • A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  • Land Use: 1880s
  • New Agricultural Technology Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]“Prairie Fan”Water Pump
  • Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
  • The Range Wars Sheep CattleHerders Ranchers
  • The Traditional View of the West
  • William “Buffalo Bill”Cody’s Wild West Show
  • “Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
  • Legendary Female Western Characters Calamity Jane Annie Oakley
  • The Fall of the CowboyFrederick Remington
  • What were thelong-term effects of westward expansion?
  • Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
  • Yellowstone National Park First national park established in 1872.
  • National Parks
  • Conservation MovementJohn Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt
  • Sierra ClubFounded in 1892