Goal 4:The Great West  and the Rise of the Debtors(1860s-1896)
4.01 Compare and contrastthe different groups ofpeople who migrated to theWest and describe theproblems they experienced.
4.02 Evaluate the impactthat settlement in the Westhad upon different groups ofpeople and the environment.
4.03 Describe the causesand effects of the financialdifficulties that plagued theAmerican farmer and tracethe rise and dec...
4.04 Describe innovations inagricultural technology andbusiness practices and assesstheir impact on the West.
Comstock Lode          Transcontinental RailroadPromontory Point, UT   Roles of Irish… Chinese              … African-Amer...
Essential Questions1. What national issues emerged in the   process of closing the western frontier?2. Why does the West h...
The Frontier
Population Changes inthe West, 1850 to 1900
Groups ofthe West
1.   Miners2.   Railroad Companies3.   Cowboys & Ranchers4.   Native Americans5.   White farmers6.   Ethnic Minorities (Bl...
Key Tensions Native                 Buffalo HuntersAmericans               Railroads                        U. S. Gov.Catt...
Key Tensions      Ethnic                               Nativists     Minorities                                           ...
Group: MinersKey Events             • Key People – 1848: a series of     – ’49ers   “big strikes” in      – Civil War Vets...
Gold Panning
Sluicing
Prospecting
Mining Centers: 1900
Promontory, Utah     Group: Laborers/Workers• Key Events  – 1869: 1st transcontinental railroad meets in    Promontory Pt....
Promontory Point, UT   (May 10, 1869)
Railroad Construction
Group: Laborers/Workers• Key People  – Irish: from East  – Chinese: from West  – African Americans
Group: Laborers/Workers• Government Policies/Legislation  – Gov’t. gives land to railroad companies but doesn’t    regulat...
Regional Population Distribution        by Race: 1900
Regional Population Distribution        by Race: 1900
Black“Exoduster”Homesteaders
Blacks Moving West
The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
The “Chinese Question”            Exclusion Act (1882)              - Oriental Exclusion Act              - Chinese Exclu...
The Tong Wars: 1850s-1920s     Began in San Francisco in 1875.
African American & Chinese               Populations:              1880-1900
Group: Native Americans• Key Events                        • Key People  – Chivington (aka Sand Creek)       –   Col Chivi...
Group: Native Americans• Cultural  Characteristics  – Total reliance on buffalo         – White slaughter led to          ...
1871-1875: 11,000,000    bisonslaughtered!
Group: Native Americans• Government Policies/ Legislation   – Reservation system   – Broken treaties   – Dawes Act- tried ...
ColoradoGold Rush (1859)
Colonel John Chivington         Kill and scalp all, big and little!           Sandy Creek, CO Massacre              Novemb...
Capt. William J. Fetterman      80 soldiers massacred       December 21, 1866
Gold Found inthe Black Hills of the Dakota   Territory!    1874
The Battle of Little Big Horn                  1876                                 Gen. George                           ...
Chief Joseph   I will fight no                more forever!               Nez Percé tribal               retreat (1877)
Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
Helen Hunt JacksonA Century of Dishonor (1881)      Ramona (1884)
Dawes Severalty Act (1887):    Assimilation Policy     Carlisle Indian School, PA
Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
Crazy Horse Monument:   Black Hills, SD            Lakota Chief
Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor   Crazy Horse Monument           His vision of the finished memorial.
OklahomaLand Rush of   1889
Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Key Events  – Corralling + Branding +    Long drive to railroads  – 1883- droughts  – 1887- blizz...
Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Key People:  – Joseph McKoy: ran Abilene stockyard  – Buffalo Bill Hickok’s Wild West show  – Cal...
Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Government Policies/Legislation  – The gov’t. gave land to railroad companies to sell so    they ...
Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Cultural  characteristics:   –   Boots   –   Spurs   –   Chaps   –   6 shooters   –   Good songs ...
TheCattleTrails
The Bronc BusterFrederick Remington
Black Cowboys
Colt .45 RevolverGod didn’t make men equal.     Colonel Colt did!
Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers  Jesse James                Billy the Kid
Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
Group: Farmers
Group: Farmers• Government Policies/ Legislation  – Homestead Act of 1862: 160 acres of free land  – Morrill Act: Est. far...
Group: Farmers• Key People  – Families  – Women are key       – Keep house, educate kids, prepare food, make clothing
Group: Farmers• Cultural characteristics   –   Sod houses   –   Dugouts   –   Plows   –   Windmills   –   Reapers
Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
Rain Follows the Plow!
Homesteads From Public Lands
1887   LandPromotion  Poster  for the  DakotaTerritories
What is the Message of this Picture?
The Reality: “My First House in Neb, 1880”
The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
Land Use: 1880s
New Agricultural                     Technology                 Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]“Prairie Fan”Water Pump
Barbed Wire              Joseph Glidden
The Range Wars Sheep                      CattleHerders                    Ranchers
The Traditional View of the West
William “Buffalo Bill”Cody’s Wild West Show
“Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
Legendary Female Western Characters     Calamity Jane    Annie Oakley
The Fall of the CowboyFrederick Remington
What were thelong-term effects   of westward    expansion?
Destruction of the Buffalo Herds     The near extinction of the buffalo.
Yellowstone National Park                First national park               established in 1872.
National Parks
Conservation MovementJohn Muir               With President              Theodore Roosevelt
Sierra ClubFounded in 1892
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)
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Goal 4 the great west and the rise of the debtors (1860s 1896)

  1. 1. Goal 4:The Great West and the Rise of the Debtors(1860s-1896)
  2. 2. 4.01 Compare and contrastthe different groups ofpeople who migrated to theWest and describe theproblems they experienced.
  3. 3. 4.02 Evaluate the impactthat settlement in the Westhad upon different groups ofpeople and the environment.
  4. 4. 4.03 Describe the causesand effects of the financialdifficulties that plagued theAmerican farmer and tracethe rise and decline ofPopulism.
  5. 5. 4.04 Describe innovations inagricultural technology andbusiness practices and assesstheir impact on the West.
  6. 6. Comstock Lode Transcontinental RailroadPromontory Point, UT Roles of Irish… Chinese … African-AmericansBuffalo Soldiers Sand Creek MassacreChief Joseph Battle of Little Big HornNez Perce Wounded KneeDawes Severalty Act Century of DishonorOklahoma Land Rush Cattle TrailsHomestead Act Morrill Land GrantRoles of women Sod housesWindmill Steel PlowBarbed Wire
  7. 7. Essential Questions1. What national issues emerged in the process of closing the western frontier?2. Why does the West hold such an important place in the American imagination?3. In what ways is the West romanticized in American culture?
  8. 8. The Frontier
  9. 9. Population Changes inthe West, 1850 to 1900
  10. 10. Groups ofthe West
  11. 11. 1. Miners2. Railroad Companies3. Cowboys & Ranchers4. Native Americans5. White farmers6. Ethnic Minorities (Blacks, Hispanics, & Asians)
  12. 12. Key Tensions Native Buffalo HuntersAmericans Railroads U. S. Gov.Cattlemen Sheep Herders Ranchers Farmers
  13. 13. Key Tensions Ethnic Nativists Minorities Big BusinessEnvironmentalists Local Gov. Officials Farmers Buffalo Hunters Lawlessness of “Civilizing” Forces the Frontier [The “Romance” of the West]
  14. 14. Group: MinersKey Events • Key People – 1848: a series of – ’49ers “big strikes” in – Civil War Vets CA, NV, CO – Young men – Some families
  15. 15. Gold Panning
  16. 16. Sluicing
  17. 17. Prospecting
  18. 18. Mining Centers: 1900
  19. 19. Promontory, Utah Group: Laborers/Workers• Key Events – 1869: 1st transcontinental railroad meets in Promontory Pt., Utah
  20. 20. Promontory Point, UT (May 10, 1869)
  21. 21. Railroad Construction
  22. 22. Group: Laborers/Workers• Key People – Irish: from East – Chinese: from West – African Americans
  23. 23. Group: Laborers/Workers• Government Policies/Legislation – Gov’t. gives land to railroad companies but doesn’t regulate rates they charge or rail gauge/ width
  24. 24. Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  25. 25. Regional Population Distribution by Race: 1900
  26. 26. Black“Exoduster”Homesteaders
  27. 27. Blacks Moving West
  28. 28. The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
  29. 29. The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
  30. 30. The “Chinese Question”  Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion Act - Chinese Exclusion Act
  31. 31. The Tong Wars: 1850s-1920s Began in San Francisco in 1875.
  32. 32. African American & Chinese Populations: 1880-1900
  33. 33. Group: Native Americans• Key Events • Key People – Chivington (aka Sand Creek) – Col Chivington Massacre: 200+ Natives killed – Gen. Custer – Custer’s Last Stand: 200 – Sitting Bull Americans killed – Crazy Horse – Battle of Wounded Knee: 300 Natives killed
  34. 34. Group: Native Americans• Cultural Characteristics – Total reliance on buffalo – White slaughter led to starvation
  35. 35. 1871-1875: 11,000,000 bisonslaughtered!
  36. 36. Group: Native Americans• Government Policies/ Legislation – Reservation system – Broken treaties – Dawes Act- tried “Americanization”
  37. 37. ColoradoGold Rush (1859)
  38. 38. Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
  39. 39. Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacred December 21, 1866
  40. 40. Gold Found inthe Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
  41. 41. The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Gen. George Armstrong CusterChief Sitting Bull
  42. 42. Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
  43. 43. Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
  44. 44. Helen Hunt JacksonA Century of Dishonor (1881) Ramona (1884)
  45. 45. Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
  46. 46. Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
  47. 47. Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
  48. 48. Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
  49. 49. Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
  50. 50. Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
  51. 51. OklahomaLand Rush of 1889
  52. 52. Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Key Events – Corralling + Branding + Long drive to railroads – 1883- droughts – 1887- blizzard – 1880- barbed wire ends the open range
  53. 53. Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Key People: – Joseph McKoy: ran Abilene stockyard – Buffalo Bill Hickok’s Wild West show – Calamity Jane
  54. 54. Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Government Policies/Legislation – The gov’t. gave land to railroad companies to sell so they could raise money to build the railroads
  55. 55. Group: Cowboys/Ranchers• Cultural characteristics: – Boots – Spurs – Chaps – 6 shooters – Good songs – Loneliness
  56. 56. TheCattleTrails
  57. 57. The Bronc BusterFrederick Remington
  58. 58. Black Cowboys
  59. 59. Colt .45 RevolverGod didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
  60. 60. Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
  61. 61. Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
  62. 62. Group: Farmers
  63. 63. Group: Farmers• Government Policies/ Legislation – Homestead Act of 1862: 160 acres of free land – Morrill Act: Est. farm colleges – Hatch Act: Funds farm research NCSU Freshman class 1889
  64. 64. Group: Farmers• Key People – Families – Women are key – Keep house, educate kids, prepare food, make clothing
  65. 65. Group: Farmers• Cultural characteristics – Sod houses – Dugouts – Plows – Windmills – Reapers
  66. 66. Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
  67. 67. Rain Follows the Plow!
  68. 68. Homesteads From Public Lands
  69. 69. 1887 LandPromotion Poster for the DakotaTerritories
  70. 70. What is the Message of this Picture?
  71. 71. The Reality: “My First House in Neb, 1880”
  72. 72. The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  73. 73. A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  74. 74. Land Use: 1880s
  75. 75. New Agricultural Technology Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]“Prairie Fan”Water Pump
  76. 76. Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
  77. 77. The Range Wars Sheep CattleHerders Ranchers
  78. 78. The Traditional View of the West
  79. 79. William “Buffalo Bill”Cody’s Wild West Show
  80. 80. “Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
  81. 81. Legendary Female Western Characters Calamity Jane Annie Oakley
  82. 82. The Fall of the CowboyFrederick Remington
  83. 83. What were thelong-term effects of westward expansion?
  84. 84. Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
  85. 85. Yellowstone National Park First national park established in 1872.
  86. 86. National Parks
  87. 87. Conservation MovementJohn Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt
  88. 88. Sierra ClubFounded in 1892
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