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  1. 1. The Constitution Unit 2
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Sections of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explains why the Articles of Confederation were replaced, it also list six goals of our government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of the government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additions or changes to the Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Goals of Preamble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ to form a more perfect union” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To unite that states more effectively so they can operate as a single nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ establish justice” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To create a system of fair laws and courts to insure that all citizens are treated equally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ insure domestic tranquility” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining peace and order keeping citizens safe </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>“ provide for the common defense” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To have an army that can protect the U.S. and it’s citizens from outside attacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ promote the general welfare” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To help people live healthy, happy, and prosperous lives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To guarantee freedom and basic rights of all Americans, including future generations (posterity) </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Principles of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the Framers disagreed, they did have one common vision in mind on how the government should operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representative of the people and limited in scope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>power should be spread out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve these ideas the framers embraced 4 principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popular sovereignty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People have the right to rule themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We the People” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framers designed a government that would always reflect the will of the people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed through elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected officials can be removed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even the President can be removed </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of Law: law applies to everyone, even those who govern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Article I section 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of Habeas cannot be suspended </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks and balances: system that gives each of the three branches of government ways to limit the powers of other two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House of Representatives can impeach president </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President can veto bills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial branch determines if laws are unconstitutional </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Federalism (the division of power between state and national govt.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enumerated powers: powers specifically given to the national govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control immigration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain an army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish postal system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reserved powers: powers given to the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set up & regulate schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules for marriage & divorce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of police organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent powers: powers shared by national & state govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set up courts & prisoners </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.01: Identify principles in the United States Constitution.
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan for our government is organized into seven parts called articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How the government is to operate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The First three Articles describe the power and responsibilities of each branch of govt. </li></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Article I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Legislative Branch: Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framers intended this branch to take the leading role in govt. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Article I section 1 : Congress will be made of two houses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These two branches will have all lawmaking/ legislative authority (most important) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Article I section 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines the qualification for members, election and terms of office </li></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Article I section 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines what rules legislators must follow in making laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. both houses must, by a majority vote and approve a bill before it becomes a law or sent to the president for signing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Article I Section 9 also lists specific powers that congress does not have </li></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Article I Section 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the powers given to Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enumerated Powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article I Section9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Implied powers: the exercising of power that may not be specifically stated in the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Necessary and Proper Clause also called the Elastic Clause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal cloning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyber crime </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Executive Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article II calls for an executive branch or law-enforcing branch, which is headed by the president and a vice president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also states how these leaders are to be elected and how they can be removed from office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It also describes some of presidents powers and duties </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Judicial Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article III calls for one Supreme Court and such lower courts as Congress deems appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It then lists the powers of the Supreme Court and describes the kinds of cases they may hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. cases involving the constitution </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Article IV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Says that all states must respect each other’s laws, court decisions, and records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full Faith and Credit Clause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It also explains the process of creating new states and it promises that the federal government will protect and defend the states </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Article V (reveals the foresight of the framers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specified how amendments are to be made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two ways an amendment can be proposed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of both houses has to vote yes on an amendment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding of a national convention requested by 2/3 of the states </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratification: Then 2/3 of the states must ratify it by either a state convention or state legislatures </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Article VI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ supreme Law of the Land” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supremacy clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The US constitution is the highest form of law in the American legal system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If states laws conflicts with federal law, federal law will prevail. </li></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Article VII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established procedures for ratification, or approval of the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It will take nine states to ratify the Constitution making it the Supreme Law of the Land </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.02: Explain how the United States Constitution defines the framework, organization and structure of the three branches of government at the national level.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Amending the Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amendment: any change in the constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A number of amendments address entirely different matters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. improving the way our government works </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantees certain basic rights we all have as American citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil liberties: the freedoms we have to think and act without govt. interference or fear of unfair treatment </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  22. 22. <ul><li>1st Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects five basic freedoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment clause and Free Exercise clause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment: No national religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Exercise: You as an American can exercise whatever religion you choose. </li></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  23. 23. <ul><li>1st Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can say what is on our minds in private and public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of the Press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The government can not practice censorship on the various forms of our press </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right to gather in groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to Petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition: a formal request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. a document signed by hundreds of people and sending it to your representative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  24. 24. <ul><li>Limits to the 1st Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The safety and security of Americans may justify a limit placed on the First Amendment freedoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You cannot yell, “fire” in a crowded movie theater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You cannot start a riot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libel and slander is also not protected </li></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  25. 25. <ul><li>2nd Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This amendment guarantees Americans the right to serve in a militia and to bear arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This gives citizens the right to protect themselves </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  26. 26. <ul><li>3rd Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits the power of the national govt. to force Americans to quarter, or house soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In times of peace soldiers, may not move into private homes except with owners consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In wartime, the practice is also prohibited unless people are requested to do so by law </li></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  27. 27. <ul><li>4th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects Americans against unreasonable search and seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No soldier, govt. official or law enforcement official can search a persons home or take a person’s property without that person’s permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need a search warrant or probable cause </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  28. 28. <ul><li>5th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the life and liberty of citizens by protecting the rights of people accused of a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One can not be put on trial without being first indicted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indictment: a formal charge by a group of individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects individuals from double jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be tried twice for the same crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to remain silent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self incrimination, testify against yourself (torture) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one can be denied life liberty or property without following established legal procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminent Domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The govt. cannot take your property without paying a fair price first </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  29. 29. <ul><li>6th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantees additional right to people who are accused of crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to be told the charges against them and a speedy trial by an impartial jury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial must take place in the state or district where the crime was committed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to be told the charges against them; to call in witnesses on their behalf; and to be represented by a lawyer. </li></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  30. 30. <ul><li>7th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil cases, providing that the amount of money involved is more than 20 dollars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil suit: a case about individual rights and legal obligations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  31. 31. <ul><li>8th amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits excessive bail or fines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bail: a sum of money used as a security deposit. If the person returns to trial the money is returned if the person does not return the money is forfeited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbids cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  32. 32. <ul><li>9th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This specifies that rights listed are not the only rights of the people; protects are unwritten rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. confidentiality in our medical record and financial records as well. </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  33. 33. <ul><li>10th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers that are not specifically assigned to the national govt. belong to the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. set up schools, license lawyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reserved powers </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 1.07: Evaluate the extent to which the Bill of Rights extended the Constitution.
  34. 34. <ul><li>11th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawsuits brought against states by citizens of other states or by a foreign nation must be tried in a state court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>12th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This amendment was adopted to clarify and solve some problems with the electoral process established in Article II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before this amendment there was one ballot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This amendment established two ballots and the electors meet in their own states </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  35. 35. <ul><li>13th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the Civil War, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation only freed enslaved persons in the Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This Amendment ended slavery in all the remaining states and territories </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  36. 36. <ul><li>14th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This amendment defined a U.S. citizen, as anyone who is “born or naturalized in the United States” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This amendment also required every state to grant its citizens “equal protection of the laws” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another element of the 14th was that it forbid the state govt. from taking a persons “life, liberty, without due process” </li></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  37. 37. <ul><li>15th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to vote (granted suffrage to African Americans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffrage: the right to vote (last of the Civil war amendments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No state may take away a persons voting rights on the basis of race, color, or previous enslavement </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  38. 38. <ul><li>16th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passed this bill giving the federal govt. the power to levy an income tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>17th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct election of senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previously senators were chosen by the state legislatures </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  39. 39. <ul><li>18th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition of intoxicating Liquors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This ban sent crime upwards through the illegal sale and distribution of liquor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>19th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starting in 1878 a bill to grant women suffrage was introduced and every year after that until finally it was granted in 1920 </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  40. 40. <ul><li>20th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential and Congressional terms (Lame Duck Amendment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lame duck: period of time the President or congressional members are awaiting to leave office after not winning re-election or announcing retirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>21st amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeal of Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeal: the amendment was removed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States could still choose to ban liquor if they wanted </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  41. 41. <ul><li>22nd Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit on the number of Presidential terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A president may not be elected more than two terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>23rd Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electors for District of Columbia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>24th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poll Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In some southern states the use of poll taxes still existed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poll tax: money needed to cast a vote </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  42. 42. <ul><li>25th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Disability and Succession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who becomes President if the current President dies? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vice president </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who becomes President if both the President and vice president die? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the succession after the Speaker? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore of the senate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of the State </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of the Treasury </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.
  43. 43. <ul><li>26th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting Rights for 18-year-olds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thought process of public at the time, was if 18 was a legal age to go off and fight in Vietnam, than it was good enough for voting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>27th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restraint on Congressional Salaries (1992) </li></ul></ul>Objective 2.04: Describe how the United States Constitution may be changed and analyze the impact of specific changes.

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