The New Nation, 1781-1797: Confederation and Washington

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The New Nation, 1781-1797: Confederation and Washington

  1. 1. The New Nation,1781-1797:Confederation and Washington
  2. 2. Treaty of Paris, 1783
  3. 3. State ConstitutionsRepublicanismStrong governors w/ veto powerMost: property requirement forvoting, Some: universal white malesuffrageMost had bills of rightsMany: state-established religions
  4. 4. Occupations of State Assemblymen, 1780s
  5. 5. State Claims to Western Lands
  6. 6. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Most significant Confederation accomplishment Steps to statehood:1. Congress appointed a territorial governor and three judges2. Pop. 5,000 adult male landowners  territorial legislature3. 60,000  a state constitutional convention
  7. 7. Land Ordinance of 1785
  8. 8. The United States in 1787
  9. 9. 1. Authority from citizens 2. Selfless, educated citizens The 3. Frequent elections“VirtuousRepublic” 4. Written Constitution 5. “E Pluribus Unum” 6. women  “Republican womanhood”
  10. 10. George Washington 1st POTUS 1789 – 1797 President of precedents
  11. 11. 100% of electoral vote = unanimous! Why? Led Continental Army during the Revolution,had faith and trust of the entire nation.
  12. 12. Step 1: Pick a Good Title His Elective Majesty? His Excellency the Supreme Commander in Chief? His High Mightiness, the President of the United States and Protector of their Liberties? His Highness the President of the United States of Americaand Protector of the Rights of the Same? Mr. President
  13. 13. Step 2: Choose a Cabinet Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, HenrySecretary of State aka Secretary Knox, Secretary of“the Smooth Talker” of the Treasury War aka aka “the Money Man” “the Muscle”
  14. 14. Step 3: Choose a plan.Federalists Democratic Republicans• Led by Hamilton • Led by Jefferson• Feared anarchy more than • Believed limited government tyranny preserves liberty• Elitist, distrusted common • Patrician, trusted the common man man• Loose interpretation • Strict interpretation• Wanted: • Wanted: o Strong federal government o Weak federal government to to preserve independence preserve liberty o National debt as o Against national debt investment in success o Strong ties with Britain o Strong ties with France o US as an industrial, o US as an agrarian nation mercantile power
  15. 15. Hamilton’s Economic PlanComponent Pro ConA) Federal government US will build credit and Economic elites controlassumes states’ foreign gain legitimacy with nation’s financesand domestic debt foreign nations Southern states hadB) sells debt to investors Protects US from foreign already paid their debts;as government bonds attack felt it unfair to help North pay theirs Investors become stakeholders in federal government’s success
  16. 16. Hamilton’s Economic PlanComponent Arguments For It Arguments Against ItEstablish a national bank Issue money; handle Fear of plutocracy – rule taxes, receipts, and other by the rich gov. funds. Is it constitutional? Investors become stakeholders in federal government’s success
  17. 17. Hamilton’s Economic PlanComponent Arguments For It Arguments Against ItTariff (tax on imports) Raise badly-needed Southern states import money for new more, will pay unfair government share of taxes Spur industrial growth by making US manufacturing more competitive against foreign goods
  18. 18. Hamilton’s Economic PlanComponent Arguments For It Arguments Against ItExcise tax on whiskey Sin tax on immoral Targets poor frontier product farmers who distill corn into whiskey for Will raise significant transport funds
  19. 19. Washington vs. the Whiskey Rebellion
  20. 20. Judiciary Act of 1789• Six Supreme Court justices and 13 districts in 11 states• Chief Justice = John Jay• SCOTUS jurisdiction over cases in which a state was party• Appellate jurisdiction over fed. circuit court and state courts challenging federal law
  21. 21. French Revolution• Q: Help France fight Britain?• A: Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793• “Why … entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition …? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.” – Farewell Address, 1796
  22. 22. Washington’s Foreign AffairsTreaty With Why ResultJay’s Treaty Britain Unpaid private debts to Secured NW border,(1794) Britain  British forts around normalized trade Great Lakes, impressment of relations with Britain American sailorsPinckneys Treaty Spain Spain feared close American- Defined SW border(1795) British relations with Spanish territory, opened Mississippi to tradeTreaty of Greenville coalition of Little Turtle defeated by Gen. Native Americans(1795) Native “Mad Anthony” Wayne at the ceded Ohio to US American Battle of Fallen Timbers tribes
  23. 23. Disputed Territorial Claims Between Spain & US, 1783-1796
  24. 24. Indian Land Cessions: 1768-1799
  25. 25. Washington’s Legacy1. First cabinet and other precedents2. Judiciary Act of 17893. Suppressed Whiskey Rebellion4. Secured borders and foreign policy of Isolationism5. Warned against political parties6. Established two-term tradition

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