Goal 06: The United States in World Affairs (1890-1914) AmericanImperialism
6.01: Examine thefactors that led to theUnited States taking anincreasingly active rolein world affairs.
6.02: Identify the areasof United Statesmilitary, economic, andpolitical involvementand influence.
6.03: Describe how thepolicies and actions ofthe United Statesgovernment impactedthe affairs of othercountries.
What You Will Learn:• What “imperialism” means• What motivated Americans to gain an empire• What countries we sought to control, and why• The causes of the Spanish American War• What we gained and what we lost via the Spanish-American War
2. Business Interests• Need for raw materials• Scientific farming excess production low prices export markets• Foreign trade = solution to poor U.S. economy (Panic of 1893)
2. Business Interests American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914
2. Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
3. Military/Strategic Interests• Alfred Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783• Overseas markets essential for industrial surpluses• Large, strong navy needed• 1889: Navy Sec. Benjamin Tracy naval construction• U.S. gained offensive capability at sea
4. Social Darwinist Thinking• Missionary spirit expressed in Josiah Strongs Our Country (1885)• “The White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling (1899)
Rudyard Kipling,“The White Man’s Burden” (1899)
Take up the White Mans burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.
Take up the White Mans burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek anothers profit, And work anothers gain.
Take up the White Mans burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought.
Take up the White Mans burden-- And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard-- …
Take up the White Mans burden-- Ye dare not stoop to less-- Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloke your weariness; By all ye cry or whisper, By all ye leave or do, The silent, sullen peoples Shall weigh your gods and you.
Take up the White Mans burden-- Have done with childish days-- The lightly proferred laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!
Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1913 "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN.” - General Jacob H. Smith
Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1913Did the US conduct genocide? Scorched earth policy Concentration camps Water-board torture of prisoners 200,000-1,500,000 Filipino civilian dead
“The town … surrendered to us a fewdays ago … Last night one of our boyswas found shot and his stomach cutopen. Immediately orders werereceived from General Wheaton toburn the town and kill every nativein sight; which was done to a finish.About 1,000 men, women and childrenwere reported killed. I am probablygrowing hard-hearted, for I am in myglory when I can sight my gun onsome dark skin and pull the trigger.” - NY soldier
William H. Taft, 1stGov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.
American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899 Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William J. Bryan, et al. Against annexation of the Philippines and other imperialist acts
Cuban Independence?Platt Amendment (1903)1. Cuba not to enter foreign treaties2. U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. Senator Orville Platt
Panama Canal TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1905… [A]dherence of theUnited States to theMonroe Doctrine mayforce the UnitedStates, howeverreluctantly, in flagrantcases of [chronic]wrongdoing orimpotence, to the exerciseof an internationalpolice power .
What Did You Learn?• What factors motivated Americans to be imperialistic?• What were the causes of our involvement in the Spanish American War? How valid were they?• What did we gain through our involvement in the war?• What did we lose?