American imperialism


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American imperialism

  1. 1. Goal 06: The United States in World Affairs (1890-1914) AmericanImperialism
  2. 2. 6.01: Examine thefactors that led to theUnited States taking anincreasingly active rolein world affairs.
  3. 3. 6.02: Identify the areasof United Statesmilitary, economic, andpolitical involvementand influence.
  4. 4. 6.03: Describe how thepolicies and actions ofthe United Statesgovernment impactedthe affairs of othercountries.
  5. 5. What You Will Learn:• What “imperialism” means• What motivated Americans to gain an empire• What countries we sought to control, and why• The causes of the Spanish American War• What we gained and what we lost via the Spanish-American War
  6. 6. Causes of AmericanImperialism
  7. 7. 1. Global Competition• European rivals had global empires.• Extension of Manifest Destiny
  8. 8. World Colonial Empires, 1900
  9. 9. 2. Business Interests• Need for raw materials• Scientific farming  excess production  low prices  export markets• Foreign trade = solution to poor U.S. economy (Panic of 1893)
  10. 10. 2. Business Interests American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914
  11. 11. 2. Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
  12. 12. 3. Military/Strategic Interests• Alfred Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783• Overseas markets essential for industrial surpluses• Large, strong navy needed• 1889: Navy Sec. Benjamin Tracy  naval construction• U.S. gained offensive capability at sea
  13. 13. 3. Military/Strategic Interests
  14. 14. 4. Social Darwinist Thinking• Missionary spirit expressed in Josiah Strongs Our Country (1885)• “The White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling (1899)
  15. 15. Rudyard Kipling,“The White Man’s Burden” (1899)
  16. 16. Take up the White Mans burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.
  17. 17. Take up the White Mans burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek anothers profit, And work anothers gain.
  18. 18. Take up the White Mans burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought.
  19. 19. Take up the White Mans burden-- And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard-- …
  20. 20. Take up the White Mans burden-- Ye dare not stoop to less-- Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloke your weariness; By all ye cry or whisper, By all ye leave or do, The silent, sullen peoples Shall weigh your gods and you.
  21. 21. Take up the White Mans burden-- Have done with childish days-- The lightly proferred laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!
  22. 22. American Missionaries in China, 1905
  23. 23. 5. Closing of the American FrontierFrederick Jackson Turner, "The Significance of theFrontier in American History"
  24. 24. Hawaiian Islands
  25. 25. U. S. Missionaries in HawaiiImiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
  26. 26. U. S. View of Hawaiians1849: Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate
  27. 27. Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
  28. 28. 1875: no tariff onHawaiian sugar1893: American settlersoverthrew Liliuokalani1894: Sanford BallardDole proclaims theRepublic of Hawaii1898: US annexation
  29. 29. HawaiianAnnexationCeremony, 1898
  30. 30. Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
  31. 31. Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854
  32. 32. Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912Senator Henry CabotLodge, Sr. (R-MA)Non-European powers(ie - Japan) excludedfrom owning territoryin W. Hemisphere
  33. 33. “Seward’s Folly”: 1867$7.2 million = $.02/acre
  34. 34. “Seward’s Icebox”: 1867
  35. 35. Cuban Revolution1895: Jose Marti leadsrevolution against Spain• Some oppose: American businessmen fear disruption of sugar income• Some support: followed the ideals of American revolution
  36. 36. Spanish Misrule in Cuba
  37. 37. Valeriano Weyler’s“Reconcentration” Policy
  38. 38. Yellow Journalism/ “Jingoism” Hearst vs. Pulitzer  sensationalism “You furnish the pictures, I’ll provide the war!” -Hearst
  39. 39. Feb. 1898: U.S.S. Maine explodes, kills250+ sailors, press blames Spain
  40. 40. Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
  41. 41. The Spanish-American War:“That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?
  42. 42. Theodore RooseveltAss’t Sec of NavyImperialist andAmerican nationalist.Criticized McKinleyas having thebackbone of achocolate éclair!Resigns position tofight in Cuba.
  43. 43. The“RoughRiders”
  44. 44. War in the Philippines
  45. 45. Dewey Captures Manila!
  46. 46. War in CubaAmerican fleetblockades HavanaNaval battle destroysSpanish fleet nearSantiagoKettle Hill (San Juan) =Rough Rider victory totake Santiago
  47. 47. The Treaty of Paris: 1898Cuba freed from Spanish ruleUS gains Puerto Rico, Guam, and thePhilippines; becomes an empire!
  48. 48. The Philippines:Is He To Be a Despot?
  49. 49. Emilio Aguinaldo Leader of Filipino Uprising
  50. 50. Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1913 "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN.” - General Jacob H. Smith
  51. 51. Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1913Did the US conduct genocide? Scorched earth policy Concentration camps Water-board torture of prisoners 200,000-1,500,000 Filipino civilian dead
  52. 52. “The town … surrendered to us a fewdays ago … Last night one of our boyswas found shot and his stomach cutopen. Immediately orders werereceived from General Wheaton toburn the town and kill every nativein sight; which was done to a finish.About 1,000 men, women and childrenwere reported killed. I am probablygrowing hard-hearted, for I am in myglory when I can sight my gun onsome dark skin and pull the trigger.” - NY soldier
  53. 53. William H. Taft, 1stGov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.
  54. 54. Our “Sphere of Influence”
  55. 55. American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899 Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William J. Bryan, et al. Against annexation of the Philippines and other imperialist acts
  56. 56. Cuban Independence?Platt Amendment (1903)1. Cuba not to enter foreign treaties2. U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. Senator Orville Platt
  57. 57. American Empire, 1900
  58. 58. Panama Canal TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)
  59. 59. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1905… [A]dherence of theUnited States to theMonroe Doctrine mayforce the UnitedStates, howeverreluctantly, in flagrantcases of [chronic]wrongdoing orimpotence, to the exerciseof an internationalpolice power .
  60. 60. Speak Softly,But Carry a Big Stick!
  61. 61. The Open Door PolicyGive all nations equal access to China.Guaranteed that China would NOT be takenover by any one foreign power.
  62. 62. TheOpen Door Policy
  63. 63. America as a Pacific Power
  64. 64. Constable of the World
  65. 65. Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905 Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy
  66. 66. The Great White Fleet: 1907
  67. 67. Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” Improve financial opportunities for American businesses. Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas.
  68. 68. U. S. Global Investments andLatin America Investments, 1914
  69. 69. Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” The U. S. should be the conscience of the world. Spread democracy. Promote peace. Condemn colonialism.
  70. 70. U. S. Interventions inLatin America: 1898-1920s
  71. 71. Uncle Sam: One of the “Boys?”
  72. 72. What Did You Learn?• What factors motivated Americans to be imperialistic?• What were the causes of our involvement in the Spanish American War? How valid were they?• What did we gain through our involvement in the war?• What did we lose?