Rootsof arab israeliconflict

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Rootsof arab israeliconflict

  1. 1. By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NYBy: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  2. 2. The Dreyfus Case, 1894Capt. Alfred DreyfusEmile Zola
  3. 3. ZionismTheodore Herzl1860-1904 GOALS:The spiritual andpolitical renewal ofthe Jewish peoplein its ancestralhomeland ofPalestine. Freedom fromWestern anti-Semitism.
  4. 4. First Zionist Conference,1897 Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, orThe Jewish State in 1896. Met in Basel, Switzerland. Creates the First Zionist Congress. Becomes an international Jewishorganization. “Next Year in Jerusalem!”
  5. 5. The Ottoman Empire in WW1
  6. 6. The Main Players in WW1Nicholas IINicholas II[Rus][Rus]George V [Br]George V [Br]Pres. Poincare [Fr]Pres. Poincare [Fr]AlliedAlliedPowersPowers::Franz Josef [A-H]Franz Josef [A-H]Wilhelm II [Ger]Wilhelm II [Ger]Victor EmmanuelVictor EmmanuelII [It]II [It]CentralCentralPowersPowers::Enver PashaEnver Pasha[Turkey][Turkey]
  7. 7. The Middle East in 1914
  8. 8. T. E. Lawrence [1888-1935]“Lawrence of Arabia,”The Legend Begins
  9. 9. Hussein-McMahonLetters,1915....Britain is preparedto recognize anduphold theindependence of theArabs in all regionslying within thefrontiers proposed bythe Sharif of Mecca....Hussein ibn Ali,Sharif of Mecca
  10. 10. Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916
  11. 11. The Arab Revolt: 1916-1918
  12. 12. The Allied Advance Againstthe OttomanTurksBr. GeneralEdmund Allenby
  13. 13. The British & Arab ArmiesMeetBritish ForcesLawrence& Faisal’sForces
  14. 14. British Promise to the Jews:Balfour Declaration, 1917Sir Arthur James BalfourBr. Foreign SecretaryHis Majesty’s Governmentviews with favor theestablishment in Palestine of anational home for the Jewishpeople and will use their bestendeavors to facilitate theachievement of this object, itbeing clearly understood thatnothing shall be done whichmay prejudice the civil andreligious rights of existing non-Jewish communities inPalestine…
  15. 15. 1.5 million: A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!Turkish Genocide Against theArmenians
  16. 16. Districts & Vilayets of WesternArmenia in Turkey1914 1922ErzerumErzerum 215,000215,000 1,5001,500VanVan 197,000197,000 500500KharbertKharbert 204,000204,000 35,00035,000DiarbekirDiarbekir 124,000124,000 3,0003,000BitlisBitlis 220,000220,000 56,00056,000SivasSivas 225,000225,000 16,80016,800        Other Armenian-populated Sitesin Turkey     Western AnatoliaWestern Anatolia 371,800371,800 27,00027,000Cilicia and Northern SyriaCilicia and Northern Syria 309,000309,000 70,00070,000European TurkeyEuropean Turkey 194,000194,000 163,000163,000Trapizond DistrictTrapizond District 73,39073,390 15,00015,000Total:Total: 2,133,1902,133,190 387,800387,800Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians
  17. 17. Prince Faisal at Versailles,1918Arab Disappointment!
  18. 18. The League of Nations Mandates
  19. 19. “New” Countries & RulingFamilies Emerge! Prince Abdullah  “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. Prince Faisal  “ruler” of a newly-createdIraq [pasted together from three distinctgeographic regions]. The House of Saud  put on the throne of thenewly-created Saudi Arabia. The Pahlavi Family  put on the throne of anew Iran. Mustafa Kemal  leads a military/nationalistmovement in Turkey.
  20. 20. Treaty of Lausanne, 1923Modern Turkey Is Born.
  21. 21. Mustafa Kemal “Atatürk”(1881-1938)
  22. 22. Ataturk’s Reform Program Capital moved from Constantinople to Ankara. Secularism  Qur’an in Turkish translation. Adoption of a republican constitution and aSwiss civil code. Westernization & nationalism: Compulsory, secular education. Banning the fez. Western [Roman] script. Western clothing. Women unveiled & given full citizenship and theright to vote.
  23. 23. Oil Discovered in Mesopotamia! First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persia in1908. Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 drillfor oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia. Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh ofKuwait who, while outwardly pledging allegiance tothe Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul, promised exclusiveoil rights to the British. Kuwait became a British protectorate in November,1914. In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and theIraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created.
  24. 24. Oil Becomes the NewInternational“Coin of the Realm!” American oil companies[Texaco & Chevron], gainoil concessions in Bahrain in1929. In 1933, American oilcompanies win an oilconcession in Saudi Arabia. ARAMCO [Arab-American OilCo] is created in 1939.
  25. 25. Rezah Khan (1877-1944) an Iranian officer, seizedcontrol of the govt. in 1921. declared himself SHAH in1925. created the Pahlavi Dynasty. ruled from 1925-1941. initiated some modernreforms. forced to abdicate his throneby the Allied armies in 1941.
  26. 26. Reforms in Iran Secularization  seizure ofreligious lands. Adoption of the French civilcode. Built the Trans-IranianRailroad. Improved education.
  27. 27. The Middle East Between theWars
  28. 28. Essential Question:How did Britain’s actions inPalestine after 1918 lay thegroundwork for the on-going conflict between theJews and the Arabs in theMiddle East today?
  29. 29. Palestine Was Part of theOttoman Empire
  30. 30. Jews & Arabs in Palestine,1920  In 1920, therewas 1 Jew toevery 10 Arabs inPalestine. By 1947, the ratiowas 2 Arabs forevery Jew.The Arabs felt thatthey were losingcontrol of their“country!”
  31. 31. BritishMandate inPalestineCreatedJuly, 1922
  32. 32. Jewish Settlements:The Kibbutz System First one founded in 1908. Communal living. “Make the DesertBloom!”
  33. 33. 1929 Arab RiotsIZBAH AL-YAHUD![“Slaughter All the Jews!”]Jewish1919 1,8061920 8,2231921 8,2941922 8,6851923 8,1751924 13,8921925 34,3861926 13,8551927 3,0341928 2,1781929 5,2491930 4,944Immigration1931 4,0751932 12,5331933 37,3371934 45,2671935 66,4721936 29,5951937 10,6291938 14,6751939 31,1951940 10,6431941 4,592
  34. 34. Palestine Arab Revolt:1936-1939The Grand Mufti ofJerusalem, Haj Aminal-Hussani, with AdolfHitler. An end to Jewishimmigration to Palestine. An end to the transferof lands to Jewishowners. A new “generalrepresentativegovernment.”Their Goals:
  35. 35. The PeelCommissionPartitionPlan, 1937
  36. 36. British White Paper of1939 Limited Jewishimmigration to Palestine to75,000 over the next fiveyears. It ended Jewish landpurchases. Independence forPalestine within 10 years. It is NOT British policythat Palestine become aJewish state.
  37. 37. The “Arab Legion” of theBritish Army DuringWW2
  38. 38. The “Jewish Brigade” oftheBritish Army DuringWW2
  39. 39. Hitler’s“FinalSolution”The Jewish population in each country in 1942.
  40. 40. Nazi Concentration& Extermination Camps
  41. 41. The Nazi Holocaust 6,000,00 Jews killedby the Nazis [1/2 in theconcentration camps.]
  42. 42. Aliyah Bet : Illegal JewishImmigration
  43. 43. Aliyah Bet Illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. The Exodus, 1947.
  44. 44. PalestinePopulationin 1946
  45. 45. British “Detention” Campsin Cyprus : 1946-1948
  46. 46. Jewish “FreedomFighters”(or “Terrorists”?)Irgun Zvai Leumi[Natl. Military Org.]Avraham Stern &The Stern Gang
  47. 47. U. N. Partition Plan of1947
  48. 48. Israel Becomes a Nation:May 14, 1948David Ben-Gurion,1stPrime MinisterChaim Weizmann,1stPresident
  49. 49. War Begins!: May 15, 1948
  50. 50. Arab Refugees, 1948The Palestinian Diaspora begins!
  51. 51. Armistice Signed, 1949

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