First Zionist Conference,1897 Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, orThe Jewish State in 1896. Met in Basel, Switzerland. Creates the First Zionist Congress. Becomes an international Jewishorganization. “Next Year in Jerusalem!”
The Main Players in WW1Nicholas IINicholas II[Rus][Rus]George V [Br]George V [Br]Pres. Poincare [Fr]Pres. Poincare [Fr]AlliedAlliedPowersPowers::Franz Josef [A-H]Franz Josef [A-H]Wilhelm II [Ger]Wilhelm II [Ger]Victor EmmanuelVictor EmmanuelII [It]II [It]CentralCentralPowersPowers::Enver PashaEnver Pasha[Turkey][Turkey]
T. E. Lawrence [1888-1935]“Lawrence of Arabia,”The Legend Begins
Hussein-McMahonLetters,1915....Britain is preparedto recognize anduphold theindependence of theArabs in all regionslying within thefrontiers proposed bythe Sharif of Mecca....Hussein ibn Ali,Sharif of Mecca
The Allied Advance Againstthe OttomanTurksBr. GeneralEdmund Allenby
The British & Arab ArmiesMeetBritish ForcesLawrence& Faisal’sForces
British Promise to the Jews:Balfour Declaration, 1917Sir Arthur James BalfourBr. Foreign SecretaryHis Majesty’s Governmentviews with favor theestablishment in Palestine of anational home for the Jewishpeople and will use their bestendeavors to facilitate theachievement of this object, itbeing clearly understood thatnothing shall be done whichmay prejudice the civil andreligious rights of existing non-Jewish communities inPalestine…
1.5 million: A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!Turkish Genocide Against theArmenians
Districts & Vilayets of WesternArmenia in Turkey1914 1922ErzerumErzerum 215,000215,000 1,5001,500VanVan 197,000197,000 500500KharbertKharbert 204,000204,000 35,00035,000DiarbekirDiarbekir 124,000124,000 3,0003,000BitlisBitlis 220,000220,000 56,00056,000SivasSivas 225,000225,000 16,80016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sitesin Turkey Western AnatoliaWestern Anatolia 371,800371,800 27,00027,000Cilicia and Northern SyriaCilicia and Northern Syria 309,000309,000 70,00070,000European TurkeyEuropean Turkey 194,000194,000 163,000163,000Trapizond DistrictTrapizond District 73,39073,390 15,00015,000Total:Total: 2,133,1902,133,190 387,800387,800Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians
Prince Faisal at Versailles,1918Arab Disappointment!
“New” Countries & RulingFamilies Emerge! Prince Abdullah “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. Prince Faisal “ruler” of a newly-createdIraq [pasted together from three distinctgeographic regions]. The House of Saud put on the throne of thenewly-created Saudi Arabia. The Pahlavi Family put on the throne of anew Iran. Mustafa Kemal leads a military/nationalistmovement in Turkey.
Treaty of Lausanne, 1923Modern Turkey Is Born.
Ataturk’s Reform Program Capital moved from Constantinople to Ankara. Secularism Qur’an in Turkish translation. Adoption of a republican constitution and aSwiss civil code. Westernization & nationalism: Compulsory, secular education. Banning the fez. Western [Roman] script. Western clothing. Women unveiled & given full citizenship and theright to vote.
Oil Discovered in Mesopotamia! First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persia in1908. Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 drillfor oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia. Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh ofKuwait who, while outwardly pledging allegiance tothe Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul, promised exclusiveoil rights to the British. Kuwait became a British protectorate in November,1914. In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and theIraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created.
Oil Becomes the NewInternational“Coin of the Realm!” American oil companies[Texaco & Chevron], gainoil concessions in Bahrain in1929. In 1933, American oilcompanies win an oilconcession in Saudi Arabia. ARAMCO [Arab-American OilCo] is created in 1939.
Rezah Khan (1877-1944) an Iranian officer, seizedcontrol of the govt. in 1921. declared himself SHAH in1925. created the Pahlavi Dynasty. ruled from 1925-1941. initiated some modernreforms. forced to abdicate his throneby the Allied armies in 1941.
Reforms in Iran Secularization seizure ofreligious lands. Adoption of the French civilcode. Built the Trans-IranianRailroad. Improved education.
Palestine Arab Revolt:1936-1939The Grand Mufti ofJerusalem, Haj Aminal-Hussani, with AdolfHitler. An end to Jewishimmigration to Palestine. An end to the transferof lands to Jewishowners. A new “generalrepresentativegovernment.”Their Goals:
British White Paper of1939 Limited Jewishimmigration to Palestine to75,000 over the next fiveyears. It ended Jewish landpurchases. Independence forPalestine within 10 years. It is NOT British policythat Palestine become aJewish state.
The “Arab Legion” of theBritish Army DuringWW2
The “Jewish Brigade” oftheBritish Army DuringWW2
Hitler’s“FinalSolution”The Jewish population in each country in 1942.