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  • 1. Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty, 221-206 B.C.E. Established China’s first empire  Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule  Bureaucratic administration Centralized control Military expansion Book burnings  targetedConfucianists Buried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall
  • 2. Shi Huangdi’s Terra CottaArmy
  • 3. Shi Huangdi’s Terra CottaArmy
  • 4. Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Soldiers& Cavalrymen
  • 5. Cavalry
  • 6. Individual Soldiers
  • 7. The Details of an IndividualSoldier
  • 8. Individual “Tombs”
  • 9. The Great Wall with Towers
  • 10. The Eastern terminus of the GreatWall, Shanhai Pass
  • 11. Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. “People of the Han”  original Chinese Paper invented [105 B.C.E.]  Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many Buddhism introduced into China Expanded into Central Asia
  • 12. Han – Roman EmpireConnection
  • 13. Chang’anThe Han Capital
  • 14. Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113BCE)His jade suit has 2498 pieces!
  • 15. Emperor Wudi, 141-87B.C.E. Started public schools. Colonized Manchuria,Korea, & Vietnam. Civil service system  bureaucrats Confucian scholar-gentry Revival of Chineselandscape painting.
  • 16. Han ArtifactsImperialImperialSealSealHan CeramicHan CeramicHouseHouse
  • 17. Ceramics, Later Han Period
  • 18. Trade Routes of the Ancient World
  • 19. Multi-Cultural Faces -- PeopleAlong the Silk Road
  • 20. Ruins of Jiaohe, Turphan depression.Han dynasty outpost in Central Asia
  • 21. Sui Dynasty, 581-618C.E. “Land Equalization” System  landredistribution. Unified coinage. Grand Canal constructed. Established an army of professionalsoldiers. People were overworked andovertaxed!
  • 22. The Grand Canal
  • 23. The Grand Canal Today
  • 24. Tang Dynasty, 618-907C.E. Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China Golden Age of foreign relations withother countries.  Japan, Korea, Persia
  • 25. Tang GovernmentOrganization
  • 26. Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. New technologies: Printing  moveable print  Porcelain Gunpowder Mechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of theSilk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia. 
  • 27. Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705 The only female Empress in China’shistory who ruled alone.  Searched for outstanding individualsto attract to her court. Construction of new irrigationsystems. Buddhism was the favored statereligion. Financed the building of manyBuddhist temples. BUT… She appointed cruel and sadisticministers to seek out her enemies.
  • 28. Foot-Binding in TangChinaBroken toes by 3 years of age.Size 5 ½ shoeon the right
  • 29. Foot-Binding in TangChinaMothers bound their daughters’ feet.
  • 30. Foot-Binding in TangChina For upper-class girls,it became a newcustom.
  • 31. The Results of Foot-Binding
  • 32. Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaperavailability of printed books. Magnetic compassmakes China a greatsea power! 
  • 33. Song Peasant Family
  • 34. Rice Cultivation Began Under theSong
  • 35. Song Rice Cultivation
  • 36. Mongolian Steppes
  • 37. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher[Mongol] “Yurt”
  • 38. Mongol Invasions
  • 39. Mongol Warriors
  • 40. Mongol Archer
  • 41. Gold Saddle Arch –Mongols, 13c
  • 42. Gold Saddle, Front View –Mongols, 13c
  • 43. The MONGOLS [“GoldenHorde”] Temujin --> Genghis Khan [“Universal Ruler”] 1162 - 1227 from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plainsof Central Asia]
  • 44. The MONGOLS [“GoldenHorde”] Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws: If you do not pay homage,we will take your prosperity. If you do not have prosperity,we will take your children. If you do not have children,we will take your wife. If you do not have a wife,we will take your head. Used cruelty as a weapon  some areas neverrecovered from Mongol destruction!
  • 45. Mongol Nobleman, late13c
  • 46. Robe of a MongolNobleman, early 14c
  • 47. Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c
  • 48. The Extent of the MongolEmpire
  • 49. Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty,1279-1368 C.E. Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294] Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”] Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them.  No Chinese in top govt. posts. Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy. Encouraged foreign trade &foreign merchants to live and workin China. Marco Polo
  • 50. Marco Polo (1254-1324) A Venetian merchant. Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295 “Black Stones” [coal] Gunpowder. Noodles.
  • 51. Marco Polo’s Travels
  • 52. Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics
  • 53. Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368C.E. The Black Plague was spread by theMongols in the mid-14c. Sent fleets against Japan. 1281  150,000 warriors Defeated by kamikazi [“winds of the gods”]  Kublai Khan experienced severalhumiliating defeats in Southeast Asialate in his life.
  • 54. China’s last native imperial dynasty!
  • 55. The Forbidden City: China’sNew Capital
  • 56. Revived the Civil Service Exam
  • 57. Ming Cultural Revolution Printing & Literacy Cheap, popular books: woodblock printing. cheap paper. Examination system. Leads to explosion inliteracy.  Leads to furtherpopularization of thecommercial market. Culture & Art Increased literacyleads to increasedinterest in culturalexpressions, ideas,and things: Literature. Painting. Ceramics. Opera.
  • 58. Ming Silver Market Spanish Silver Convoys Triangle route: Philippines to China to Japan. Silver floods Chinese Market: Causes devaluation of currency & recession Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas inEurope. Helps fund conquest of New World  Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.
  • 59. Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644C.E. Golden Age of Chinese Art Moderation Softness Gracefulness Three different schools ofpainting developed. Hundreds of thousands ofworkers constructed theForbidden City.
  • 60. Ming Emperor Tai Zu (r.1368-1398)
  • 61. The Tribute System
  • 62. Admiral Zheng He (ChengHo) Ming “Treasure Fleet” Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide1371-1435
  • 63. Admiral Zheng He (ChengHo) China’s “Columbus?” 
  • 64. Admiral Zheng He’sVoyages First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men]. Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip]. Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men]. Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men]. Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419 Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422 Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered shipbuilders and sailors to stop work. Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433 Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restorepeaceful relations with Malacca & Siam 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the returntrip.
  • 65.  1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port.
  • 66. Ming Porcelain / Ceramics,17c–18c
  • 67. Ming Vases, 18c
  • 68. Ming Carved Lacquer Dish15c
  • 69. Ming Scroll Painting“Travellers in AutumnMountains”
  • 70. Ming Painting – “TaoistScholar”
  • 71. Ming Painting – “Birds andFlowers”, 16c
  • 72. Ming Painting andCalligraphy, early 16c
  • 73. Imperial China’s Impact onHistory Removed religion from morality. Beginnings of political philosophythrough which a ruler must provehe/she is legitimate. Mandate of Heaven Secular law. Valued history  The Dynastic Cycle