Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty, 221-206 B.C.E. Established China’s first empire Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule Bureaucratic administration Centralized control Military expansion Book burnings targetedConfucianists Buried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall
Shi Huangdi’s Terra CottaArmy
Shi Huangdi’s Terra CottaArmy
Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Soldiers& Cavalrymen
The Details of an IndividualSoldier
The Great Wall with Towers
The Eastern terminus of the GreatWall, Shanhai Pass
Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. “People of the Han” original Chinese Paper invented [105 B.C.E.] Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many Buddhism introduced into China Expanded into Central Asia
Han – Roman EmpireConnection
Chang’anThe Han Capital
Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113BCE)His jade suit has 2498 pieces!
Emperor Wudi, 141-87B.C.E. Started public schools. Colonized Manchuria,Korea, & Vietnam. Civil service system bureaucrats Confucian scholar-gentry Revival of Chineselandscape painting.
Han ArtifactsImperialImperialSealSealHan CeramicHan CeramicHouseHouse
Ceramics, Later Han Period
Trade Routes of the Ancient World
Multi-Cultural Faces -- PeopleAlong the Silk Road
Ruins of Jiaohe, Turphan depression.Han dynasty outpost in Central Asia
Sui Dynasty, 581-618C.E. “Land Equalization” System landredistribution. Unified coinage. Grand Canal constructed. Established an army of professionalsoldiers. People were overworked andovertaxed!
The Grand Canal
The Grand Canal Today
Tang Dynasty, 618-907C.E. Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China Golden Age of foreign relations withother countries. Japan, Korea, Persia
Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. New technologies: Printing moveable print Porcelain Gunpowder Mechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of theSilk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia.
Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705 The only female Empress in China’shistory who ruled alone. Searched for outstanding individualsto attract to her court. Construction of new irrigationsystems. Buddhism was the favored statereligion. Financed the building of manyBuddhist temples. BUT… She appointed cruel and sadisticministers to seek out her enemies.
Foot-Binding in TangChinaBroken toes by 3 years of age.Size 5 ½ shoeon the right
Foot-Binding in TangChinaMothers bound their daughters’ feet.
Foot-Binding in TangChina For upper-class girls,it became a newcustom.
The Results of Foot-Binding
Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaperavailability of printed books. Magnetic compassmakes China a greatsea power!
Song Peasant Family
Rice Cultivation Began Under theSong
Song Rice Cultivation
Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher[Mongol] “Yurt”
Gold Saddle Arch –Mongols, 13c
Gold Saddle, Front View –Mongols, 13c
The MONGOLS [“GoldenHorde”] Temujin --> Genghis Khan [“Universal Ruler”] 1162 - 1227 from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plainsof Central Asia]
The MONGOLS [“GoldenHorde”] Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws: If you do not pay homage,we will take your prosperity. If you do not have prosperity,we will take your children. If you do not have children,we will take your wife. If you do not have a wife,we will take your head. Used cruelty as a weapon some areas neverrecovered from Mongol destruction!
Mongol Nobleman, late13c
Robe of a MongolNobleman, early 14c
Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c
The Extent of the MongolEmpire
Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty,1279-1368 C.E. Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294] Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”] Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them. No Chinese in top govt. posts. Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy. Encouraged foreign trade &foreign merchants to live and workin China. Marco Polo
Marco Polo (1254-1324) A Venetian merchant. Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295 “Black Stones” [coal] Gunpowder. Noodles.
Marco Polo’s Travels
Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics
Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368C.E. The Black Plague was spread by theMongols in the mid-14c. Sent fleets against Japan. 1281 150,000 warriors Defeated by kamikazi [“winds of the gods”] Kublai Khan experienced severalhumiliating defeats in Southeast Asialate in his life.
China’s last native imperial dynasty!
The Forbidden City: China’sNew Capital
Revived the Civil Service Exam
Ming Cultural Revolution Printing & Literacy Cheap, popular books: woodblock printing. cheap paper. Examination system. Leads to explosion inliteracy. Leads to furtherpopularization of thecommercial market. Culture & Art Increased literacyleads to increasedinterest in culturalexpressions, ideas,and things: Literature. Painting. Ceramics. Opera.
Ming Silver Market Spanish Silver Convoys Triangle route: Philippines to China to Japan. Silver floods Chinese Market: Causes devaluation of currency & recession Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas inEurope. Helps fund conquest of New World Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.
Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644C.E. Golden Age of Chinese Art Moderation Softness Gracefulness Three different schools ofpainting developed. Hundreds of thousands ofworkers constructed theForbidden City.
Ming Emperor Tai Zu (r.1368-1398)
The Tribute System
Admiral Zheng He (ChengHo) Ming “Treasure Fleet” Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide1371-1435
Admiral Zheng He (ChengHo) China’s “Columbus?”
Admiral Zheng He’sVoyages First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men]. Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip]. Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men]. Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men]. Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419 Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422 Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered shipbuilders and sailors to stop work. Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433 Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restorepeaceful relations with Malacca & Siam 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the returntrip.
1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port.
Ming Porcelain / Ceramics,17c–18c
Ming Vases, 18c
Ming Carved Lacquer Dish15c
Ming Scroll Painting“Travellers in AutumnMountains”
Ming Painting – “TaoistScholar”
Ming Painting – “Birds andFlowers”, 16c
Ming Painting andCalligraphy, early 16c
Imperial China’s Impact onHistory Removed religion from morality. Beginnings of political philosophythrough which a ruler must provehe/she is legitimate. Mandate of Heaven Secular law. Valued history The Dynastic Cycle