Chapter 6 Section 2


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Chapter 6 Section 2

  1. 1. Unit 2 – Chapter 6 – Section 2
  2. 2. <ul><li>Washington and Howe Square off in New York </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How had 34,000 well trained troops and ships to ferry them ashore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington had fewer than 20,000 poorly trained soldiers and no navy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In August of 1776 the British drove Washington out of Brooklyn. </li></ul><ul><li>In September of 1776 the Continental Army had to abandon NYC. </li></ul><ul><li>Nathan Hale – “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Low Morale – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under relentless pursuit, Patriot spirits are low, and soldiers are deserting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To raise morale, Washington used Thomas Paine’s new pamphlet The Crisis . </li></ul><ul><li>Washington then began a plan for a bold attack. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>On Christmas night, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the river in small boats. </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers huddled in the boats as splashing water froze to their faces. </li></ul><ul><li>The poorly clothed soldiers marched in the swirling snow. </li></ul><ul><li>Early on the 26 th of December they attacked Trenton from two sides, achieving complete surprise. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The battle at Trenton brought an American victory as they captured nearly 1000 Hessian Mercenaries fighting for British. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington also devised a plan of escape. Quietly leaving their camp they surprised the British soldiers and heavily damaged a British force near Princeton. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Burgoyne wanted to end the ‘rebellion’ by cutting off NE from the rest of the states. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive toward Albany, NY in three directions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble for Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King George ordered an attack on Philadelphia at the same time Burgoyne initiated his plan. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Troops cut off British troops coming through the Mohawk Valley. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>An American Victory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burgoyne led British through Canada and recaptured Ticonderoga and pushed south. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American General Horatio Gates assembled 6,000 men ready to fight in the small village of Saratoga, NY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Americans surrounded the British and, after heavy casualties, Burgoyne surrendered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A turning point for two reasons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ended hope of easy victory for Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convinced Europeans that Americans Could win this war. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Soon after Saratoga, France allied with Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France wanted to weaken Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even b/4 Saratoga France secretly supported Americans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When victory became a real possibility, France made their alliance known. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joining France were their allies Spain and Netherlands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France, Spain, and Netherlands carried the fight to Europe and the Caribbean, forcing Britain to wage war on multiple fronts. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>A number of Europeans volunteered to serve with American forces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lafayette – High ranking officer in Washington’s army. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kosciusko – A Polish engineer who took charge of building fortifications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulaski – Led and trained cavalry units. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Von Steuben – Leader in Prussian army taught Americans to march in formation, better aim, attack with bayonets. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>A tale of two armies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British wintered in Philadelphia, dancing the winter away with many parties and balls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 22 miles away, in valley forge, the Continental army struggled through the winter with insufficient clothing and little food. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About midwinter the American people became aware of the conditions at Valley Forge and delivered food, medicine, clothing and ammunition. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the woes of winter the Continental Army used the winter to strengthen for the battles ahead. Steuben’s drills sharpened soldiers skills and discipline. </li></ul>