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Can You Afford Cheap Storage?
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Can You Afford Cheap Storage?

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Presented at the University of Iowa IT Tech Forum on on April 17, 2008.

Presented at the University of Iowa IT Tech Forum on on April 17, 2008.

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  • 1. David ShaferITS Systems & PlatformsApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaCITLTech Forum 2008
  • 2.  In 2011, world’s data will reach 1.80zettabytes 1,800,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytesApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaIDC Predictions 2008:The Post-Disruption MarketTakes Shape, IDC, Dec 2007
  • 3. ServiceRequirementsStorageArchitectureCostsApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 4. 1. Capacity2.Performance3. Uptime4.RecoverabilityApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 5. Year 1Year 2Year 3 Current capacity Growth rate Planning horizon Future capacityApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 6.  What infrastructure is needed to supportfuture capacities? What are the incremental capacity steps? Disk Disk enclosure Storage controller CabinetApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 7.  Best Buy, April 2008 Western Digital 1TB SATA: $239.99 ($0.24/GB) Storage Magazine,April 2008April 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Price Cost/GB73 GB 15K SCSI $261 $3.58146 GB 10K SCSI $269 $1.841TB SATA $325 $0.32300 GB SAS $631 $2.10
  • 8.  IOPS = Input/Output operations Per SecondApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType IOPS* Cost/IOPS7200 RPM SerialATA 80 $4.0610K RPM Fibre Channel 140 $1.9215K RPM Fibre Channel 180 $1.45EMC CLARiiON Best Practices for Fibre Channel Storage, EMC Corporation,February 2008* Assumes random workload
  • 9.  Downtime:Any planned or unplanned period of serviceoutage or severe degradationApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaUptime Objective Allowed Downtime PerYear99% 3 days99.9% 8 hours99.99% 52 minutes99.999% 5 minutes
  • 10.  Hardware/software maintenance Configuration changes Upgrades User error Hardware/software failures DisksApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 11. A0 Zero protection, neutral performance Lowest cost Usable space = Disk size * # DisksApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA1A2A3
  • 12.  Data blocks striped across multiple disks Best performance for writes Zero protection from disk failure Usable space = Disk size * # DisksApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0 BA1 A2 A3
  • 13.  Data mirrored between pairs of disks Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = (Disk size * Disks) / 2Example: (1TB * 4) / 2 = 2TB usableApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0A1B0B1B0B1A0A1
  • 14.  Data striped across multiple mirrored pairs Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = (Disk size * Disks) / 2April 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0 BA1 A2 A3A0 BA1 A2 A3B1 B2 B3 B0B1 B2 B0B3
  • 15.  Data striped across multiple disks with parity Uses less disk space than mirroring Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = Disk size * [(Disks – 1) / Disks]Example: 1TB * (4/5) = 4TB usableApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaApril 17, 2008A0 A1 A2 A3 ApB0 B1 B2 B3Bp
  • 16.  Dual parity calculations Can safely lose 2 disks Usable space = Disk size * [(Disks – 2) / Disks]Example: 1TB * (4/6) = 4TB usableApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0 A1 A2 A3 ApB0 B1 B2 B3BqAqBp
  • 17.  For random workloads: RAID 1, 1+0▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 2 *Write IOPS RAID 5▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 4 *Write IOPS RAID 6▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 6 *Write IOPSApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaEMC CLARiiON Fibre Channel Storage Fundamentals, EMC Corporation,September 2007
  • 18. How long will it take to restore?How old is the most recent backup?RTO Recovery Point Objective (RPO) RecoveryTime Objective (RTO)April 17, 2008 The University of IowaRPODisasterTotal Combined LossLastBackupServiceRestored
  • 19. April 17, 2008 The University of IowaRPO, RTO (Time)Cost($)Remote Backups(D2T, D2D)RemoteReplication(Asynchronous,Synchronous)No Backups,Local Backups
  • 20.  Capacity Year 1: 1TB Annual growth: 500 GB Year 3 projection: 2TB Performance Year 1: 1000 IOPS Annual growth: 500 IOPS Year 3 projection: 2000 IOPS Random workload, 3:1 Read/Write ratioApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 21.  Recoverability RPO: 24 hours RTO: 24 hours Uptime: 99.9% objective (8 hrsdowntime/year)April 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 22.  Capacity: 2TBApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Drive Count Drive Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 2 $325 $650146 GB 10K RPM FC 14 $269 $3,76673 GB 15K RPM FC 28 $261 $7,308
  • 23.  Performance: 2000 IOPS, random workloadApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType IOPS Drive Count Unit Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 80 25 $325 $8,125146 GB 10K RPM FC 140 15 $269 $4,03573 GB 15K RPM FC 180 12 $261 $3,132
  • 24. April 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Drive Count Drive Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 25 $325 $8,125146 GB 10K RPM FC 15 $269 $4,03573 GB 15K RPM FC 28 $261 $7,308
  • 25.  Uptime objective: 99.9% (8 hours downtime per year) 2000 IOPS, 3:1 Read/Write ratio RAID 1+0:Total IOPS = 1500 + 2 * 500 = 2500 RAID 5:Total IOPS = 1500 + 4 * 500 = 3500 RAID 6:Total IOPS = 1500 + 6 * 500 = 4500April 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 26.  RPO: 24 hours RTO: 24 hours Daily off-site snapshot Identical performance requiredApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 27.  Infrastructure SAN, IP network Overhead Storage controllers Drive enclosures Cabinets, cabling, etc. Storage management software ServicesApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 28.  Primary storage▪ (25) 146 GB 10K FC disks: $6,725 Secondary storage▪ (25) 146 GB 10K FC disks: $6,725 Total: $13,450 for 2TB of data ($6.72/GB) Best Buy: $0.24/GBApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 29.  Where are the single points of failure? What maintenance operations causedowntime? Software updates Hardware upgradesApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 30.  What are your service level objectives? Recovery Point, RecoveryTime, Performance,UptimeApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  • 31. David ShaferEnterprise Storage ManagerITS Systems & Platforms,The University of Iowadavid-shafer@uiowa.eduApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa