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You May Ask Yourself Third Edition Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 4

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  • Narrated by Dalton Conley, these brief animations explain the chapter-opening paradox and synthesize the research covered in the chapter. These animations are also on the free student StudySpace.
  • As we mentioned previously, socialization begins very early – some say even before the baby comes out of the womb! (For instance, what usually happens when the parents find out if the baby is going to be a boy or a girl?)
  • Ask your students if they have ever been compared to a relative (“You act just like your father when you’re angry!”). Ask them to speculate to whether they learned this trait or if they believe it is biological. Some may talk about acting like an aunt that they have never met. Others may give examples of acting just like a sister even though they were adopted from different biological families. Hopefully this will illustrate how difficult it is to tell which factor influences the behavior.
  • In other words, we like getting a positive response from people, so we try to replicate our actions when the response we received was positive. We use others as a “mirror.” In this example, when we style our hair and look in the “mirror,” we wait for the person looking back to say “that looks good,” and then we determine that we like our style.
  • Mead believed that children begin to develop a sense of self at about the same time that they begin to learn language.
  • It is important to note that socialization lasts throughout the lifespan.
  • Pascoe talks about the use of the term "fag" by high school boys. She argues that the term is used to police the boundaries of masculinities and is not primarily about sexuality. Ask the class to think about the social interactions among their friends andclassmates. What words are used by boys or men to let other boys and men know that they are not behaving in a "manly" way? Are there words that girls or women use to let other girls and women know that they are not behaving in a "womanly" way? Ask your students if these behaviors are damaging to the victim’s development or if this is simply a harmless example of “kids being kids.”
  • Each of these agents of socialization (sometimes referred to as agencies of socialization) has a different impact on us depending on where we are in the life span. For instance, the family is very influential on young children, but older children and adults are heavily influences by peers. We’ll talk more about each of these agents of socialization.
  • Annette Lareau discusses her book Unequal Childhoolds . She explains that parenting strategies vary by social class and points out that it is unclear whether these differences affect the long-term outcomes of children. Quotations from this interview are included in Chapter 4.
  • This happens often – when we get new jobs, enter or leave the military, or take on a new role (like becoming a spouse or parent).
  • Some of Merton’s key ideas are on the slides that follow.
  • An ascribed status could be race or sex. An achieved status could be a professional position like manager or chief executive officer (CEO).
  • Often times, you will hear a person being called by their master status. For instance, you may hear people talking about “that black man.” In that example, the description black came before describing the person as a man. Black is likely to be the master status. You also hear things like “disabled individual” or “stupid kid.” The first word is usually the master status – it tends to be the status that people notice above all others. Roles are just the behaviors of individuals in that status.
  • Role conflict happens when a person has two different roles to perform and they conflict with one another. For example, if you are a mother and a student, you might have class today and your child might have a soccer game at the same time. You have to choose between your two roles because they are conflicting with one another. With role strain, you have only one role, which conflicts with itself. For example, you are a student, so you know you are supposed to study tonight. However, there is also a party tonight. Your roommates pressure you to go to the party because “that’s what college students are supposed to do,” so you have to choose because the single role (college student) is pulling you in two different directions.
  • As mentioned previously, as soon as a baby is born, we start socializing him or her into specific roles. (Ask your class if they can think of some of the ways that little boys and girls are treated differently, which could lead to an interesting discussion on gender roles and culture including beliefs, values, and norms.)
  • For example, suppose you’re walking down the street and you witness a woman slapping a man in public. What are the possible meanings of that situation? It could be a fight or spousal abuse; it could be a joke or a friendly greeting, depending on how hard the slap is. It could be that he has just passed out and she is hoping to revive him. The participants could be actors shooting a scene from a film. Each of these definitions leads to a different set of potential consequences – you might intervene, callthe police, stand by and laugh, ignore them, summon paramedics, or ask for an autograph, depending on which meaning you act upon. Each definition of the situation lends itself to a different approach, and the consequences are significant.
  • We all know that we “act” a certain way depending on the context. In a job interview, we “put our best foot forward.” When we are at a family dinner, we watch our language. Goffman suggests that every interaction we are part of works this way – that we’re always aware of our performance.
  • Garfinkel suggested that there are unwritten rules in place in society, and the best way to figure out how important those rules are is to break them. If you get a very harsh reaction from bystanders, you know that the rule must be fairly important. If people don’t notice or don’t pay too much attention, you will know that the rule that you broke isn’t highly valued by that group.
  • Relationships used to be based mainly on physical proximity (called territorial relationships), but we are now as likely to form non-territorial relationships based on common interests and access to technology that keep people together even when they are physically apart. Using new technologies like digital video webcams, we can interact with each other outside of physical copresence. How will these new technologies affect our interactions and identities? Do these technologies affect education?
  • We do this very often by conforming to social norms.
  • Answer: A
  • Answer: B
  • Answer: D
  • Answer: C
  • Answer: A
  • Answer: B
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 4You You SocializationMay Ask May AskYourself Yourself and the Construction ofCore Third Edition Third EditionDalton Conley Dalton Conley Reality Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc.
    • 2. ParadoxCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 2
    • 3. What Is Socialization? • Socialization is the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 3
    • 4. Limits of Socialization • However, socialization cannot explain everything about a person’s development and personality. – Biology is also a very important component. – It is a combination of biology and social interactions that makes us who we are.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 4
    • 5. Charles Horton Cooley • Theorized that the “self” emerges from our ability to assume the point of view of others and imagine how those others see us.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 5
    • 6. George Herbert Mead • Mead developed a theory about how the social self develops over the course of childhood. • Infants know only the “I,” but through social interaction they learn about “me” and the “other.” • They develop a concept of the “generalized other,” which allows them to apply norms and behaviors learned in specific situations to new situations.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 6
    • 7. George Herbert Mead • Mead stressed the importance of imitation, play, and games in helping children recognize one another, distinguish between self and other, and grasp the idea that other people can have multiple roles.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 7
    • 8. Eric Erikson • Eric Erikson – He established a theory of psychosocial development that identifies eight stages that span a person’s lifetime. – Each stage involves a specific conflict that a person must resolve in order to move on to the next stage.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 8
    • 9. Interview C.J. PascoeCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 9
    • 10. Agents of Socialization • Families, school, peers, the media, and total institutions are all important socializing agents or environments. • A total institution is an institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of day-to-day life.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 10
    • 11. Interview Annette LareauCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 11
    • 12. Resocialization • a change in values, beliefs, or norms through an intense social processCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 12
    • 13. Social Interaction • Robert Merton’s role theory provides a way to describe social interaction.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 13
    • 14. Statuses and Roles • A status is a position in society that comes with a set of expectations. – An ascribed status is one we are born with that is unlikely to change. – An achieved status is one we have earned through individual effort or that is imposed by others.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 14
    • 15. Statuses and Roles • One’s master status is a status that seems to override all others and affects all other statuses that one possesses. • Roles are the behaviors expected from a particular status.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 15
    • 16. Statuses and Roles • Role conflict occurs when the roles associated with one status clash with the roles associated with a different status. • Role strain occurs when roles associated with a single status clash. • Either of these may lead to role exit.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 16
    • 17. Gender Roles • set of behavioral norms associated primarily with males or females in a given social group or system • Gender theorists argue that gender roles can be more powerful and influential than other roles that people fill.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 17
    • 18. The Social Construction of Reality • Social construction – People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions. – It’s an ongoing process that is embedded in our everyday interactions.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 18
    • 19. The Social Construction of Reality • Symbolic interactionism is a micro- level theory based on the idea that people act in accordance with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions. • Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical theory views social life as a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on metaphysical stages with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 19
    • 20. The Social Construction of Reality • Ethnomethodology is an approach to studying human interaction that focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 20
    • 21. The Social Construction of Reality • Harold Garfinkel developed a method for studying social interactions, called breaching experiments, which involved having collaborators exhibit “abnormal” or “atypical” behaviors in social interactions in order to see how people would react.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 21
    • 22. The Social Construction of Reality • The Internet has created new types of social interaction that don’t incorporate verbal and visual cues people are accustomed to relying on. It has also changed society by creating new types of crimes and new ways of communicating.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 22
    • 23. The Social Construction of Reality • Because our reality is socially constructed, an unexpected change in that reality can be upsetting, frustrating, or just plain incomprehensible. • We all have a stake in maintaining consensus on shared meanings so that our society can continue to function smoothly.Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 23
    • 24. Concept Quiz 1. In social development theory, the “self” can be defined as _______. a) the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person b) one’s sense of agency, action, or power c) the identity of a person as perceived by others d) all of the aboveCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 24
    • 25. Concept Quiz 2. According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of development, children learn to recognize an “other” through _____. a) formal games b) imitation c) playing informally with other children d) none of the aboveCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 25
    • 26. Concept Quiz 3. ______ are common agents of socialization. a) Siblings b) Teachers c) Television programs d) all of the above e) none of the aboveCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 26
    • 27. Concept Quiz 4. Which of the following is an example of a total institution? a) elementary school b) sports team c) convent d) political partyCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 27
    • 28. Concept Quiz 5. Which of the following theories argues that people’s choices about how to act are based on shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions? a) symbolic interactionism b) functionalism c) dramaturgical theory d) postmodernismCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 28
    • 29. Concept Quiz 6. Harold Garfinkel is well known for _______. a) developing the theory of impression management b) creating breaching experiments c) investigating the armed forces as a total institution d) his analysis of socialization agentsCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 29
    • 30. Discussion Questions 1. Have you ever been told that you act like your parents? a) yes b) no 2. Are you adopted? a) yes b) noCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 30
    • 31. Discussion Questions 3. Do you have siblings? a) Yes b) no 4. Are you a twin? a) yes b) no 5. How similar do you think you are to your siblings? a) very similar b) somewhat similar c) not similarCopyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 31
    • 32. Chapter opener You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 32
    • 33. Early in elementary school you were taught to raise your hand to speak in class.Can you think of other examples of internalized behavior? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 33
    • 34. How does a small child playing peekaboo demonstrate the social process of creating the self? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 34
    • 35. Figure 4.1: Mead’s Stages of Social Development You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 35
    • 36. Why are games an important part of child development? What do team sports like soccerteach us about multiple roles? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 36
    • 37. According to Annette Lareau, how do working-class and middle-class families structure theirchildren’s free time differently? What are the results of these different socializing behaviors? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 37
    • 38. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 38
    • 39. What advantages do students at elite private schools, such as the young men pictured above inthis 1964 Philips Academy yearbook photo, have over those who attend public schools?How do elite schools prepare students differently? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 39
    • 40. Research on television shows such as Sesame Street shows that they help children developmath and verbal skills. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 40
    • 41. Marines training at Parris Island. How is Marine boot camp an example of a total institution? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 41
    • 42. Who are you? What are the different roles in your status set? For example, singer Beyonce’sstatuses include mother, daughter, and partner. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 42
    • 43. How do the displays at this New York City toy store serve as an example of the ways that welearn gender roles through socialization? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 43
    • 44. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 44
    • 45. Which one of these paintings is a “real” Jackson Pollock? Does it matter? (For the record,the real one is on the right.) How is the controversy over the Pollock paintings anexample of the social construction of reality? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 45
    • 46. Lunch? Cicadas, grasshoppers, and other insects on skewers for sale in DonghaumenNight Market in Beijing, China. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 46
    • 47. How does symbolic interactionism help us understand the differences in greetings amongvarious cultures? Pictured here are Bedouins touching noses, Malian men with theirarms around each other, and the Belgian royal family celebrating the prince’s 18th birthday. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 47
    • 48. Celebrities such as Tiger Woods suffer from tabloid scandals when their backstage livesbecome public, but we all make distinctions in our lives between front-stageand backstage behaviors. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 48
    • 49. A scene from the film Borat. What established scripts did Sacha Baron Cohen’s characterBorat violate by going on an elevator naked? How did the unsuspecting woman onthe elevator try to cope with the breach? You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 49
    • 50. Two teachers work with students in a Harlem Children’s Zone program. The HCZ school day is1.5 hours longer than public-school days and includes many special activitiesand clubs that most impoverished schools cannot offer. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 50
    • 51. Paramedics try to resuscitate professional wrestler Owen Hart after a deadly fall inKansas City, Missouri. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist, 3rd Edition Copyright ©2013 W.W. Norton, Inc. 51
    • 52. This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for: Chapter 4 Socialization and the Construction of Reality You You May Ask May Ask Yourself Yourself Core Third Edition Third Edition Dalton Conley Dalton ConleyVisit the StudySpace at:wwnorton.com/studyspaceFor more learning resources, pleasevisit the StudySpace site forYou May Ask Yourself 52

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