• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Week 4 Lecture Notes
 

Week 4 Lecture Notes

on

  • 1,213 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,213
Views on SlideShare
1,213
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • These criteria are very important—as we will see, sometimes a bunch of people in proximity might look like a group, but if they aren’t meeting these criteria, they would not be considered a group by sociologists.
  • Although the terms group and crowd are often used interchangeably in society, you can see they are actually quite different from one another. For example, if you see a bunch of people in the cafeteria waiting in line for lunch, you would likely consider them a crowd rather than a group.
  • A social network is a structure made up of individuals and groups tied together by different types of relationships (friendship, family, work, etc). Ask the students to map some of their social networks and think about the value or social capital they get from them. Source: Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Social-network.svg
  • Sociologists such as Émile Durkheim and Robert Putnam have worried that the modern world creates a lack of connection, while others argue that these worries are overstated and that new technologies like the Internet allow us to connect with others in new ways.
  • For discussion: Ask your students if we are more or less connected to other people nowadays. Does technology help us form relationships with others or does it impede our ability to go out and make new friends?
  • Adding or subtracting just one person from a group can completely change the group dynamics. You might be able to think of a class that you’ve had in which there was a student who had a really unique personality (which could be good or bad). What was the class like when that student was absent? Not having that student there would change the class dynamic.
  • Dyads usually have very strong relationships, but the fact that they are so easy to break apart makes them unstable.
  • As groups grow, they become more stable at the cost of intimacy.
  • As the group size increases, there are more possible relationships. This increases the likelihood of conflict or jealousy.
  • In-groups can be thought of as “ us ” and out-groups can be thought of as “ them. ” Most of us are associated with a number of in-groups and out-groups based on our ethnic, religious, familial, professional, or educational backgrounds.
  • Our reference group might be our friends or family. However, it could also be the mass media. Many people argue that the reason we see so much overdieting, anorexia and bulimia, and plastic surgery in young people is due to the media’s portrayal of images of men and women that are so “perfect” as to be basically unobtainable by regular people, yet often serve as a reference group to their audience.
  • You can think of cohesion as the “social glue” that bonds us and holds our groups and society together.
  • This sometimes happens in large companies, when individuals are pressured to agree with the group so they stop offering novel ideas, which can cause the company to falter. Some companies try to combat this with think tanks where individuals are encouraged to brainstorm and come up with new ideas.
  • This is actually common in our society. People feel pressure to fit in, and they often follow popular trends or go along with the ideas of friends as a result. Adolescents in particular often feel tremendous pressure to fit in and sometimes make choices that aren’t in their best interest because they are influenced by others. It is fairly common to hear stories in the news about teens who get into trouble. How often is this attributed to peer pressure?
  • Examples: You’re in the car with friends, and they turn on the radio. The band that’s playing is awful, but all of your friends sing along. They ask if you like the song and you reply, “Yeah, this is great.” Even though you don’t like it, you show compliance to fit in. Later, you and your friends go to the mall and you buy a t-shirt from the band that you heard in car. While you didn’t really like the music, the fact that you have the shirt means that you’re exhibiting identification to fit in and be even closer to your group of friends. After several weeks, one day you turn on the radio and, much to your surprise, you find yourself singing along to that band that you didn’t like. You’ve used internalization to make the group norms your own.
  • Social loafing means that as more individuals are added to a group responsible for a task, each successive addition takes it a little easier (Karau and Williams 1993). Furthermore, the more people become involved, the harder it will be to discern individual effort. If it is impossible for any single person to receive credit or blame, motivation usually will suffer.
  • Ask your students to think of some examples of coercive power and influential power. Which type of power do they think is more effective, and why?
  • An example of traditional authority is a king or other monarch, who is born into that role.
  • A police officer has legal-rational authority. Martin Luther King, Jr., Mahatma Ghandi, and Mother Theresa could be considered charismatic leaders.
  • We often view leadership styles through the lens of gender, expecting women to be more expressive and men to be more instrumental. People are sometimes surprised or even upset when those expectations aren’t met.
  • An expressive leader demonstrates interest in group members ’ emotions as well as their achievements.
  • Max Weber identified six characteristics of bureaucracies: specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, rules and regulations, impersonality, and formal written communication.
  • Ritzer stated that many institutions in our society now operate much like a fast food restaurant, focusing on efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control.
  • 1. What is the difference between “strong ties” and “weak ties”? 2. Look at the “low status” group in the infographic and consider the distribution of their strong ties. Why are these strong ties not likely to be very useful in helping them find desirable jobs? 3. In the infographic, are there more strong ties that jump two or more levels, or more weak ties that jump two or more levels? Why do you think this is? 4. What is a “local bridge”? 5. How do professionals differ from blue-collar workers in terms of what type of tie they will probably use to find a job? 6. Are the jobs that most people have before coming to college more likely to be attained through relying on weak or strong ties? After college, which kind of ties are more likely to help a graduate attain a job?
  • ANS: D
  • ANS: B
  • ANS: A
  • ANS: E
  • ANS: D
  • Primary Groups Are Typically Families or Close Friends Deborah Daniels (front left, in pink) opened her home to four generations of her family after Hurricane Katrina destroyed their New Orleans homes in 2005.
  • The Good Old Days? In Bowling Alone , Robert Putnam argues that the decline of group activities, like bingo nights or league bowling, represents a decline in civic engagement. However, technologies like the internet and social networking sites have allowed large numbers of people to gather, connect, and avoid anomie.
  • Group Cohesion “People easily form clubs, fraternal societies, and the like, based on congeniality, which may give rise to real intimacy . . . Where there is a little common interest and activity, kindness grows like weeds by the roadside.” —Charles Horton Cooley, 1909.
  • Groupthink According to sociologist Diane Vaughan, the Challenger shuttle disaster may have been caused by scientists failing to take seriously weaknesses in the shuttle’s design.
  • Figure 5.3 Which Line in Exhibit 2 Matches Exhibit 1? Solomon Asch’s studies showed that some people will go against the evidence of their own senses if others around them seem to have different perceptions.
  • The Milgram Experiment How did Stanley Milgram test participants’ obedience to authority? Do you think he would get the same results today?
  • The Stanford Prison Experiment Why do you think the students in Zimbardo’s experiment inhabited their roles so completely? What does it reveal about group behavior?
  • Qualities of Leadership Nelson Mandela, pictured here with the South African rugby team, The Springboks, is an example of a leader with both legal-rational and charismatic authority. Mandela used his charismatic leadership to unite post-apartheid South Africa through rugby, culminating in a narrow victory in the 1995 Rugby World Cup final.
  • Bureaucracies Are Everywhere Bureaucratic regulations are supposed to make organizations run smoothly; however, bureaucracy can also be impersonal, inflexible, and hyperrational.
  • McDonaldization In her ethnography Fast Food, Fast Talk , Robin Leidner studied how the routinization of services and physical atmosphere at McDonald’s restaurants standardized the types of interactions occurring there.
  • A neighborhood in New Orleans, LA, completely submerged in water after Hurricane Katrina.
  • Burning Man Finale Each year thousands of “burners” gather in the Black Rock Desert to celebrate the rejection of values like conformity, bureaucracy, and capitalism.
  • National Museum of the American Indian

Week 4 Lecture Notes Week 4 Lecture Notes Presentation Transcript

  • The Real World An Introduction to Sociology Third Edition Kerry Ferris and Jill SteinChapter 5: Separate and Together: Life in Groups
  • What Is a Group?• A group is a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other.• Social groups provide the values, norms, and rules that guide people’s lives. 2
  • What Is a Group? (cont’d.)• A crowd is different because it is simply a temporary gathering of people in a public place whose members may interact but do not identify with each other and will not remain in contact. 3
  • Social Network 8
  • Separate from Groups: Anomie• Since groups provide values, norms, and rules that guide people’s lives, is it possible that the modern world makes people disconnected from their groups and creates feelings of anomie, or normlessness? 5
  • 10
  • Group Dynamics• Group dynamics are the patterns of interaction between groups and individuals.• This includes the ways groups: • Form and fall apart • Influence members 7
  • Group Dynamics (cont’d.)• A dyad is the smallest possible social group (two members). It is unstable because of the small size—if one person leaves the group, it ceases to exist. 8
  • Group Dynamics (cont’d)• A triad (a three-person group) is more stable than a dyad. Conflicts between two members can be mediated by the third. 9
  • 14
  • Group Dynamics (cont’d.)• An in-group is a group that a person identifies with and feels loyalty toward.• An out-group is a group that a person feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward. 11
  • Group Dynamics (cont’d.)• A reference group is a group that provides a standard of comparison against which people evaluate themselves. 12
  • Group Dynamics (cont’d.)• Group cohesion is the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong.• A group is more cohesive when the individual members feel strongly tied to the group. 13
  • Group Dynamics (cont’d)• Too much cohesion can lead to the kind of poor decision making called groupthink, the tendency of very cohesive groups to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement. 14
  • Social Influence (Peer Pressure)• Social influence (peer pressure) is the influence of one’s fellow group members on individual attitudes and behaviors.• Generally we conform to group norms because we want to gain acceptance and approval (positive sanctions) and avoid rejection and disapproval (negative sanctions). 15
  • Types of Conformity• Compliance: the mildest form of conformity; actions to gain reward or avoid punishment• Identification: conformity to establish or maintain a relationship with a person or group• Internalization: the strongest type of conformity; an individual adopts the beliefs or actions of a group and makes them his or her own 16
  • Teamwork• A group almost always outperforms an individual but rarely performs as well as it could in theory. A group’s efficiency usually declines as its size increases because organizing takes time and social loafing increases with group size. 17
  • Teamwork (cont’d.)• Group leaders can increase efficiency by recognizing individual effort or by increasing members’ social identity (the degree to which they identify with the group). 18
  • Qualities of Leadership: Power, Authority, and Style• Power is the ability to control the actions of others. It includes: • Coercive power—backed by the threat of force • Influential power—supported by persuasion 19
  • Qualities of Leadership: Power, Authority, and Style (cont’d.)• Max Weber identified three types of authority found in social organizations.• Traditional authority is authority based in custom, birthright, or divine right and is usually associated with monarchies and dynasties. 20
  • Qualities of Leadership: Power, Authority, and Style (cont’d.)• Legal-rational authority is authority based in laws, rules, and procedures.• Charismatic authority is authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader. 21
  • Qualities of Leadership: Power, Authority, and Style (cont’d.)• Instrumental leadership is leadership that is task- or goal-oriented. An instrumental leader is less concerned with people’s feelings than with getting the job done. 22
  • Qualities of Leadership: Power, Authority, and Style (cont’d.)• An expressive leader is concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group because this will lead to a positive work environment and improved productivity. 23
  • Bureaucracy• A bureaucracy is a type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently. 24
  • Bureaucracy (cont’d.)• Bureaucracies are impersonal but efficient, and they provide many basic necessities.• George Ritzer coined the term McDonaldization to describe the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the resulting increase in both efficiency and dehumanization. 25
  • F IG U R E 5 . 1 T H E S T R E N G T H O F W E A K T IE SH IG HIn t h e u p p e r c la s sSh eT e i s aUs Sr e s s o nt rA T tt h e im p o r t a n c e o fs t r o n g t ie s a n df o r m in g e lit e c lu b s .A D M IN IS T R A T I The Real WorldA d m in is t r a t o r s a r e m o s t lik e lyV E e c o s m o p o lit a n s a n dto bin v o lv e d in a n o r g a n iz a t io n t ob ra nc h o u t a n d fo rm ne wt ie s .P R O F E S S IO An Introduction to SociologyNn o f eLsasni o n a lrsi a lt e cohrnkie rasl , Third EditionPr , ca Am d age ww ill m o s t lik e ly h e a r a b o u tn e w jo b s t h r o u g h w e a kt ie s .O F F IC EWeOohRivcK m i xR k e rTh ff e w o rma y a e E e dc o n n e c t io n s in b o t hh ig h e r a n d lo w e rc la s s e s . Kerry Ferris and Jill Stein E XAM P LE : P A R T T IM E T E A C H E RS E M I- 4 S t r o n g T ie sPeeR uO nFlfye uS eo w aeOkNi eA LS m i-p r o s s i n lfr q e t E s S I a 6 W e a k T ie s t s Th r o u g h b o th typ e st o la n d o r h e a r a b o u t a o f t ie s h e k n o w sn e w jo b . p e o p le in t h e c la s s a b o v e a n d b e lo w h iO C w L . B R I D G E L s oAnB LUE C OLLAR A p e rs o n w ho c a nT h e m a jo r it y o f p e o p le c o n n e c t t w o p e o p leo f a lo w e r s t a t u s w ill w ho don’ t know e a c hf in d a jo b t h o u g h a o t h e r . B r id g e s c a nr e la t iv e o r c lo s e c o n n e c t p e o p lef r ie n d s . o u t s id e t h e ir c ir c le a n d h e lp t h e m r e a c hL O W S TA TU S d iIfGeH e nC I R b s L E S T f r T t jo C . W h e n e v e r y o n e in aF o r t h o s e o f a lo w e r c ir c le p r im a r ily h a v es t a t u s , w e a k t ie s o f a s t r o n g t ie s w it h e a c hs im ila r s t a t u s a r e n o t o t h e r , it b e c o m e se s p e c ia lly u s e f u l o r f a r d if f ic u lt t o r e a c hr e a c h in g .
  • Life in Groups— Concept QuizA collection of people who share aphysical location but do not have lastingsocial relations is called a(n): a. social network. b. category. c. social group. d. aggregate. 27
  • Life in Groups— Concept QuizA bunch of people standing at aterminal in an airport is a(n): a. group. b. aggregate. c. social network. d. club. 28
  • Life in Groups— Concept QuizYour parents would probably beconsidered a part of your: a. primary group. b. secondary group. 29
  • Life in Groups— Concept QuizA group that provides standards bywhich we evaluate our own personalattributes is known as a(n): a. in-group. b. out-group. c. loyal group. d. secondary group. e. reference group. 30
  • Life in Groups— Concept QuizWhich of the following is the strongesttype of conformity? a. identification b. peer pressure c. compliance d. internalization 31
  • Additional Art for Chapter 5 32
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 33
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 34
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 35
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 36
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 37
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 38
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 39
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 40
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 41
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 42
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 43
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 44
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 45
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 46
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 47
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 48
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 49
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 50
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 51
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 52
  • The Real World: An Introduction To Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company 53
  • This concludes the Lecture The Real World AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGYPowerPoint presentation for 3nd Edition Chapter 5 Kerry Ferris and Jill Stein Visit the StudySpace at: http://wwnorton.com/studyspaceFor more learning resources, please visit the StudySpace site for The Real World, 3e. © 2012 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 58 54