Students may not have a clear conception of what consciousness is and will have different notions of what it means to be conscious.
FIGURE 5.1 Conscious but Locked In Erik Ramsey (right, with his father, Eddie) suffers from locked-in syndrome. He has total awareness, but his condition leaves him almost completely unable to communicate.
FIGURE 5.2 In a Coma but Aware The brain images on the top are from the patient, a young woman in a coma who showed no outward signs of awareness. The images on the bottom are a composite from the control group, which consisted of healthy volunteers. Both the patient and the control group were told to visualize playing tennis and walking around. Right after the directions were given, the neural activity in the patient’s brain appeared similar to the neural activity in the control group’s brains.
5.1 What Is Consciousness? Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience There Are Variations in Conscious Experience Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness The Global Workspace Model The Split Brain The Interpreter The Interpreter Speculates Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior The Smart Unconscious
FIGURE 5.3 Seeing Red One difficult question related to consciousness is whether people’s subjective experiences of the world are similar. For instance, does red look the same to everyone who has normal color vision?
Students will very likely not have heard of these cases prior to doing the reading. For religious, ethical and other reasons, they may have mixed beliefs and sentiments concerning “pulling the plug” on someone who is in a full coma vs. someone who is minimally conscious. Where to draw the line may be ambiguous particularly if brain activity is indicative of some level of awareness.
FIGURE 5.4 Persistent Vegetative State versus Minimally Conscious State (a) Terry Schiavo spent more than 15 years in a persistent vegetative state before she was taken off life support. Her parents and their supporters believed she showed some awareness. As the dark areas of the brain scan on the left indicate, however, there was no activity in Schiavo’s brain because her cortex had deteriorated beyond recovery. By using imaging to examine the brain of a person in an apparent coma, doctors can determine whether the patient is a good candidate for treatment.
FIGURE 5.4 Persistent Vegetative State versus Minimally Conscious State (b) Jan Grzebski was in a minimally conscious state for 19 years before he awoke and reported that he had in fact been aware of events around him. Suppose you were trapped in a minimally conscious state for even half that time. How might you respond to the world after regaining full consciousness?
FIGURE 5.5 Scientific Method: The Relationship between Consciousness and Neural Responses in the Brain
FIGURE 5.6 Areas of Awareness A central theme emerging from cognitive neuroscience is that awareness of different aspects of the world is associated with functioning in different parts of the brain. This simplified diagram indicates major areas of awareness.
FIGURE 5.7 Split Brain (a) This image shows the brain of a normal person whose corpus callosum is intact. (b) This image shows the brain of a patient whose corpus callosum has been removed (as indicated by the red outline). With the corpus callosum removed, the two hemispheres of the brain are almost completely separated.
FIGURE 5.8 Visual Input Images from the left side go to the brain’s right hemisphere. Images from the right side go to the left hemisphere.
FIGURE 5.9 Split-Brain Experiment: The Left Hemisphere versus the Right Hemisphere
FIGURE 5.10 The Left Hemisphere Interpreter On the basis of limited information, the left hemisphere attempts to explain behavior governed by the right hemisphere.
Students’ understanding of hemispheric specialization may be based on popularized notions of “left and right” brained traits , which are, essentially overstatements of cerebral localization of function.
Students may believe that prejudicial stereotypes and discriminatory actions arise consciously. This is not always the case. Even though we may claim to be unprejudiced we may in some cases think, feel and act as though we are.
Students may think that problems are best solved by effortful though. This is not always the case.
5.2 What Is Sleep? Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness Stages of Sleep REM Sleep Sleep Disorders Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior Restoration and Sleep Deprivation Circadian Rhythms Facilitation of Learning People Dream while Sleeping REM Dreams and Non-REM Dreams What Do Dreams Mean? Activation-Synthesis Theory Evolved Threat-Rehearsal Theory
FIGURE 5.12 The Pineal Gland and the Sleep/Wake Cycle Changes in light register in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In response, this region signals the pineal gland when the time for sleep or the time for wakefulness has come.
Students may believe that the brain is “switched off” during sleep. This is not the case. The brain is very active, with some regions (brain stem, occipital lobe during dreaming) more active in sleep than during waking.
FIGURE 5.13 Brain Activity during Sleep Using an EEG, researchers measured these examples of the patterns of electrical brain activity during different stages of normal sleep.
FIGURE 5.14 Stages of Sleep This chart illustrates the normal stages of sleep over the course of the night.
Students may mistakenly believe that it’s dangerous to wake a sleepwalker. This is not the case. The best strategy is to gently awaken the sleepwalker and/or guide the person back to where they were sleeping.
FIGURE 5.15 Obstructive Sleep Apnea This man suffers from obstructive sleep apnea. Throughout the night, a continuous positive airway pressure device blows air into his nose or mouth to keep his throat open.
FIGURE 5.16 Sleeping Predator After a fresh kill, a lion may sleep for days.
Some students may feel that they do not dream. The fact is that everybody dreams. Persons who “don’t dream” are simply failing to recall them.
FIGURE 5.18 Brain Regions and REM Dreams These two views of the brain show the regions that are activated and deactivated during REM sleep. (a) As seen here from the side, the motor cortex, the brain stem, and visual association areas are activated, as are brain regions involved in motivation, emotion, and reward (e.g., the amygdala). The prefrontal cortex is deactivated. (b) As shown here from below, other visual association areas are activated as well. (This view also reveals the full size of the prefrontal cortex.)
FIGURE 5.18 Brain Regions and REM Dreams These two views of the brain show the regions that are activated and deactivated during REM sleep. (a) As seen here from the side, the motor cortex, the brain stem, and visual association areas are activated, as are brain regions involved in motivation, emotion, and reward (e.g., the amygdala). The prefrontal cortex is deactivated.
FIGURE 5.18 Brain Regions and REM Dreams These two views of the brain show the regions that are activated and deactivated during REM sleep. (b) As shown here from below, other visual association areas are activated as well. (This view also reveals the full size of the prefrontal cortex.)
Many students believe dream images have universal meanings. This is not the case. What’s important is what dream content means to the individual dreamer.
5.3 What Is Altered Consciousness? Hypnosis Is Induced through Suggestion Theories of Hypnosis Hypnosis for Pain Medication Produces Relaxation People Can Lose Themselves in Activities Exercise, Religious Prayer, and Flow Escaping the Self
Students may mistakenly believe everyone can be hypnotized and that a hypnotist can control a subject’s mind (e.g., get them to involuntarily engage in actions they’d otherwise find objectionable).
FIGURE 5.19 Hypnotized? Are hypnotized people merely playing a part? What makes you think so?
FIGURE 5.22 The Brain on Meditation In these fMRI scans, the circles indicate brain areas that typically show less activity when people are sad. After control subjects watched sad clips from movies, these areas of their brains were less active, as expected. In the brains of participants who had received eight weeks of meditation training, these areas remained active, indicating that these participants felt less sadness.
FIGURE 5.23 Religious Ecstasy During a service at a Baptist church in Beulah, Mississippi, a woman is overcome with religious ecstasy. According to the photographer, the woman was speaking in tongues.
FIGURE 5.24 Escapist Entertainment Simple entertainment can veer toward obsession. What would you say are the possible benefits of devoting time to video games? What are the potential negative effects?
How Do Drugs Affect Consciousness? People Use—and Abuse—Many Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana Cocaine Amphetamines MDMA Opiates Alcohol Is the Most Widely Abused Drug Gender Differences in Alcohol Consumption across Cultures Expectations Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects Addiction’s Causes Addiction’s Context
FIGURE 5.26 Methamphetamine’s Effects on the Brain This image is a composite of brain scans from 29 methamphetamine addicts. The red and yellow areas represent the brain damage that typically occurs in the frontal cortex as a result of methamphetamine abuse (Kim et al., 2006). Such damage may explain the cognitive problems associated with methamphetamine use.
FIGURE 5.27 Methamphetamine’s Effects on the Person These before-and-after photos dramatically illustrate how the physical damage from methamphetamine can affect appearance. When the photo on the left was taken, Theresa Baxter was 42 and not a methamphetamine addict. The photo on the right was taken 2 1/2 years later, after Baxter was arrested for crimes she committed to support her addiction.
FIGURE 5.28 MDMA’s Effects on the Brain (a) This image shows serotonin nerve fibers in the cortex of a normal monkey. (b) This image shows the same brain area of a monkey that received multiple doses of MDMA (ecstasy). Eighteen months after the monkey received the MDMA, the monkey’s serotonin nerve fibers remain drastically reduced.
FIGURE 5.30 Physical Dependence versus Psychological Dependence Both types of dependence can force people to go to extremes. (a) What does this scene, outside a restaurant in Germany, suggest about patrons such as this woman?
FIGURE 5.30 Physical Dependence versus Psychological Dependence Both types of dependence can force people to go to extremes. (b) How do casinos, such as this one in Las Vegas, encourage patrons’ “addiction” to gambling?
FIGURE 5.31 Insula This brain region appears to play a role in craving and addiction.
FIGURE 5.32 The Sixties, Drugs, and Vietnam (a) By the late 1960s, youth culture had taken many new forms in the United States and elsewhere. In exploring the boundaries of society and consciousness, many young people experimented with drugs. Here, two people share drugs at the Shiva Fellowship Church Earth Faire at Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, in April 1969.
FIGURE 5.32 The Sixties, Drugs, and Vietnam (b) Through those years and beyond, the United States played a leading role in the Vietnam War, a military conflict that took place in the “faraway lands” of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Perhaps inevitably, the changes and conflicts at home influenced the changes and conflicts away from home. For example, many U.S. soldiers abused drugs. Here, two soldiers exchange vials of heroin in Quang Tri Province, South Vietnam, July 1971.
Consciousness• Erik Ramsey is “locked in…”• Suffered traumatic injury to his brain as the result of an automobile accident• He can see, hear and feel, but he cannot move or communicate with the outside world…at least not yet
Consciousness• In a coma, but aware• Patterns of brain activity in a coma sufferer were similar to patterns found in those not in a coma (Owen et al., 2006)• Communication may be possible with coma patients previously believed to be unreachable
5.1 What Is Consciousness?L e a r n in g O b je c t iv e s• Define consciousness.• Identify varied states of consciousness.• Summarize research findings on consciousness and “the interpreter” among individuals with split brain.• Discuss how unconscious processes influence thought and behavior.
What Is Consciousness?• People can be conscious even when they appear not to be• All conscious experience is associated with brain activity• Variations in consciousness occur naturally• Consciousness can be manipulated• Conscious experience varies from person to person
Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience• C o n s c i o u s n e s s : The subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity• The brain and the mind are inseparable• Each of us experiences consciousness personally• We cannot know if two people experience the world in exactly the same way
There Are Variations in Conscious Experience• S l e e p /w a k e c y c l e• A u t o m a t ic t a s k s – Driving, walking, catching a baseball• C o n t r o lle d p r o c e s s in g – Helps us perform in complex or novel situations
Extreme States• Conditions of impaired consciousness provide useful points of contrast to “normal” (fully- functioning) consciousness • P e r s is t e n t v e g e t a t iv e s t a t e• Full coma that lasts more than a month• Terri Schiavo • M in im a lly c o n s c io u s s t a t e• Deliberate movement and communication are possible• Jan Grzebski
Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness• Psychologists can examine and measure consciousness (e.g., fMRI)• Consciousness arises from brain circuits’ activity
The Global Workplace Model• In some cases brain-injured patients are unaware of their deficits (“hemineglect”)• Consciousness arises through brain processes that are active at any point in time• No single area of the brain responsible for general “awareness”
The Split Brain• Awareness of the world is associated with functioning in different parts of the brain
The Split Brain• Corpus callosum removed• Two halves of the brain cannot receive information directly from each other• Studies show the relation between specific brain regions and conscious experience• Early observations were that split-brain patients had no discernable problems• Sperry & Gazanniga’s (1960s) research proved otherwise
The Split Brain• Language center located in left hemisphere• Split brain patients cannot report on an object presented in their left visual field• They could correctly choose the object (with their left hand) • Right hemisphere handles spatial tasks• Split-brain patients could not arrange blocks correctly when using their right hand• Left-handed, the task was effortless
The Interpreter• The left hemisphere attempts to make sense of right-hemisphere actions
The Interpreter Speculates• The left hemisphere tries to m a k e s e n s e o f t h e w o r l d (e.g., imposing narrative structure, seeking patterns)• The right hemisphere s i m p l y e x p e r i e n c e s the world• Brain hemispheres work together to construct our experience of the world
Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior• We are aware of some mental processes and unaware of others• S u b lim in a l p e r c e p t io n : Processing information by sensory systems without conscious awareness• F r e u d i a n s l i p : An unconscious thought expressed at an inappropriate moment• S t e r e o t y p e a c t i v a t i o n : Is it automatic? – Bargh et al. (1996) found research participants primed with stereotypes about the elderly unconsciously behaved in ways consistent with
The Smart Unconscious• G o o d a d v ic e : “ Yo u ’ d b e t t e r s le e p o n it . ” • Unconscious processing of problems can lead to superior solutions (Dijksterhuis, 2004) • Even conscious thinking can undermine good decision- making (Wilson & Schooler, 1991)
5.2 What Is Sleep?L e a r n in g O b je c t iv e s• Describe the stages of sleep.• Identify common sleep disorders.• Discuss the functions of sleep and dreaming.
What Is Sleep?• Sleep is biologically regulated• Circadian rhythms• Melatonin secretion linked to light-dark cycles• Some adults report needing 7-9 hours a night• 70-year-old “Miss M.” gets by on one hour per night!
Sleep Is an Altered State of Consciousness• Sleep: Awareness of the outside world is turned off (mostly)• So why don’t we fall out of bed?• EEG: The brain is active in sleep
Stages of Sleep• Sleep is not an “on-off” event• Sleep stages• Historically: 5 distinct stages• Currently: Stages 3 & 4 are now joined
REM Sleep• The sleep cycle reverses after about 90 minutes• Enter REM (paradoxical) stage• Most dreaming occurs in REM sleep• Amount of time spent in REM increases• Cycle through this pattern around 5 times per night
Sleep Disorders• I n s o m n i a : Difficulty falling or staying asleep• O b s t r u c t iv e S le e p A p n e a : Breathing may stop hundreds of times per night• N a r c o l e p s y : Sufferers unexpectedly fall asleep• R E M B e h a v io r D is o r d e r : Sufferers act out their dreams• S o m n a m b u l i s m : Sleep walking
Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior• Sleep serves important biological purposes: – Restoration – Circadian rhythms – Facilitation of learning
Restoration and Sleep Deprivation• R e s t o r a t i v e T h e o r y : Sleep allows the body to rest and repair itself• The evidence: – Sleep increases after strenuous physical activity – Growth hormones secreted in sleep – Replenishes the brain’s energy stores – Strengthens the immune system
Restoration and Sleep DeprivationE f f e c t s o f s le e p d e p r iv a t io n :• Mood problems (e.g., irritability)• Decrements in cognitive performance (e.g., attention and short-term memory lapses)• May compromise the immune system• Falling asleep for a few seconds to a minute (m i c r o s l e e p s ) can impair ability to perform critical tasks (e.g., driving)
Circadian RhythmsC ir c a d ia n r h y t h m t h e o r y :• Many creatures are quiet and inactive during the night because darkness is the time when danger is highest• Reduced risk of exposure to predators • H u m a n s : Are adapted to sleep at night because our early ancestors were more at risk in the dark
Facilitation of LearningS l e e p : Strengthens neural connections needed for learning to occur• Research shows memory in participants who slept was greater than those who didn’t (Drosopoulos, Schulze, Fischer, & Born, 2007)• REM and slow-wave (stages 3 & 4) important for learning to take place• Participants who completed a complex task and later dreamed about it subsequently performed better on the task than non-dreaming participants (Wamsley, Tucker, Payne, Benavides, & Stickgold, 2010)• Students spend more time in REM during exam periods
People Dream while Sleeping• D r e a m s : Products of an altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused with reality
REM Dreams and Non-REM Dreams• R E M d r e a m s : More likely to be bizarre and include intense emotions, visual and auditory hallucinations, and uncritical acceptance of illogical events • N o n - R E M d r e a m s : Relatively dull (e.g., what sweater should I wear?)
REM Dreams and Non-REM DreamsE x p la n a t io n :• N o n - R E M : General de-activation of many brain regions• R E M : Brain structures associated with motivation, emotion, reward, vision are active; pre-frontal cortex is not
What Do Dreams Mean?F r e u d : Dreams contain hidden content that represents unconscious conflicts• M a n i f e s t c o n t e n t : The plot of a dream; the way the dream is remembered• L a t e n t c o n t e n t : What a dream symbolizes; the material that is disguised in a dream to protect the dreams from confronting direct reality• N o s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e that dreams represent hidden conflicts or for the special symbolic meaning of dream images
Activation-Synthesis TheoryTh e th e o r y:• The brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memories (Hobson et al., 2000)• Emotion centers (limbic system) in the brain are active, which explains the intense emotions; frontal cortices are not active, which explains the uncritical acceptance of illogical events
Activation-Synthesis TheoryT h e c r it ic s :• Dreams are not as chaotic as the activation-synthesis theory suggests (Domhoff, 2003)• Often similar to “everyday life” waking experience
Evolved Threat-Rehearsal Theory• T h o u g h t q u e s t i o n : Why do people often dream about threatening events?• A n s w e r : Perhaps dreams help us prepare to cope with real waking events. • Dreams sometimes simulate threatening events so that people can rehearse strategies for coping (Revonsuo, 2000)• Dreams may have adaptive value if rehearsal helps us survive and reproduce
5.3 What Is Altered Consciousness?L e a r n in g O b je c t iv e s• Discuss the effects of hypnosis and mediation on consciousness.• Define the concept of flow.• Discuss the consequences of escaping the self.
What Is Altered Consciousness?• Awareness varies naturally over the course of the day • Potentially altered by: h y p n o s i s , m e d i t a t i o n , and i m m e r s i o n i n a n a c t i o n (i.e., flow)
Hypnosis Is Induced through Suggestion• H y p n o s i s : A social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action• I n d u c t i o n : Hypnotist makes a series of suggestions• “You are becoming sleepy. Your eyelids are drooping” • If all goes well, the subject(s) behave in ways consistent with suggestions• Hypnosis works primarily for people who are
Theories of Hypnosis• S o c io c o g n it iv e T h e o r y : Hypnotized subjects are role-playing (i.e., acting how they believe hypnotized subjects are supposed to act)• D i s s o c i a t i o n T h e o r y : Hypnosis is a “trance-like” state where conscious awareness is separated from other aspects of consciousness• S t r o n g e s t e v id e n c e f o r d i s s o c i a t i o n t h e o r y : Numerous studies show the analgesic effects of
Hypnosis for Pain• H y p n o t i c a n a l g e s i a : Clinical evidence shows hypnosis can be used to treat immediate (e.g., surgery, burns) and chronic (e.g., arthritis, cancer) pain (Patterson & Jensen, 2003)• S e l f -h y p n o s i s : Also be shown to be effective in improving recovery from surgery• C l i n i c a l e v i d e n c e : Hypnosis doesn’t reduce the s e n s a t i o n of pain, but rather alters our
Meditation Produces Relaxation• M e d i t a t i o n : A mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or on a sense of awarenessE f f e c t s o f m e d it a t io n :• One study found greater stress reduction and attention among participants who meditated compared to a group that underwent relaxation training (Tang et al., 2007)• Another study showed that when participants were made to feel sad, those who received meditation training were less sad than those who had not (Farb et al., 2010)
People Can Lose Themselves in Activities• We are unaware of most of what we think and do… • There are activities in which we can “lose ourselves” and enter an altered state
Exercise, Religious Prayer, and Flow• R u n n e r ’ s h i g h : Involves a shift in consciousness away from the self (endorphins too) accompanied by euphoria• R e l i g i o u s e c s t a s y : Directs attention away from the self and toward spiritual awareness• “ F l o w ” : Total engagement in an act for its own sake (not focused on reward or on escaping one’s problems)
Escaping the Self• E s c a p is t b e h a v io r s i n c l u d e : drug and alcohol use, excessive television viewing, surfing the Web, texting, playing of video games (e.g., World of Warcraft)• P u r p o s e o f e s c a p is t b e h a v i o r : Distracts people from their problems; helps them avoid feeling bad about themselves
Escaping the Self• E s c a p is t b e h a v io r r e d u c e s s e l f -a w a r e n e s s , which can lead to: – Lowered long-term planning (e.g., poor foresight) – Reduced meaningful thought (e.g., less effective at anticipating consequences of one’s actions) – Lowered inhibitions
5.4 How Do Drugs Affect Consciousness?L e a r n in g O b je c t iv e s• Describe the neurochemical, psychological, and behavioral effects of marijuana, stimulants, MDMA, opiates, and alcohol.• Identify physiological and psychological factors associated with addiction.
How Do Drugs Affect Consciousness?• Drugs have been used throughout history to create altered states• Around 250 million people use illicit drugs each year (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009)• Other widely-used drugs include alcohol, prescription medications, caffeine and nicotine• Drugs are a mixed blessing
People Use—and Abuse— Many Psychoactive Drugs• Drugs are useful in the treatment of many medical conditions, but r e c r e a t i o n a l d r u g use can have negative consequences
People Use—and Abuse— Many Psychoactive Drugs• P s y c h o a c t i v e d r u g s : Mind altering substances that change the brain’s neurochemistry (marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA, opiates)• D r u g e f f e c t s : The effects of a particular drug depends on which neurotransmitter system it activates (e.g., methamphetamine acts on the dopamine system)
Marijuana• Most widely used illicit drug• Not easily categorized as a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen• Produces a relaxed, contented mood, more vivid perceptions• Experienced users appreciate the effects more than novices (Kuhn, Swartzwelder, & Wilson, 2003)• Psychoactive ingredient: THC• Operates at c a n n a b a n o i d receptors• Medical use is controversial
Cocaine• Long history of use in the United States (Coca-Cola)• Stimulant• Users experience increased alertness, increased confidence and sociability• Increases dopamine levels at synapses• Habitual use of cocaine in large quantities can lead to paranoia, psychotic behavior, and violence (Ottieger, Tressell, Inciardi, & Rosales, 1992)
Amphetamines• Long history of use for weight loss, staying awake• Seldom used for legitimate medical purposes• Methamphetamine: World’s second most commonly used illicit drug• Increases dopamine production; blocks reuptake• Damages brain structures responsible for cognition, memory and emotion (Kim et al., 2006; Thompson et al., 2004)• Causes considerable physical damage
MDMA• “Ecstasy” has gained in popularity since the “raves” of the 1990s• High school students’ use increased from 3.7% to 4.7% between 2009 and 2010 (National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2010)• Users feel energized and may hallucinate• Lowers dopamine; increases/depletes serotonin availability• May produce depression, memory loss, difficulty in completing complex tasks (Fischer et al., 1995; Kalechstein et al., 2007)
Opiates• Used historically to relieve severe pain• Depressant• Heroin, morphine, codeine• Users experience analgesia, relaxation, euphoria• Highly addictive due to effects at opiate receptors (pleasure) and dopamine receptors (increased wanting of the drug)• Long-term use can lead to attention and memory problems (Gruber, Silveri, & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007)
• O n t h e o n e h a n d : Moderate drinking is an accepted aspect of social interaction Alcohol Is the• O n t h e o t h e r h a n d : Alcohol is a Most Widely Abused Drug major contributor to many social ills…• Spousal abuse• Traffic fatalities• Unsafe sex• Loss of productivity at work
Gender Differences in Alcohol Consumption across Cultures• According to the World Health Organization, when compared to women, men are twice as likely to report: – Binge drinking – Chronic drinking – Recent alcohol intoxication• Wh a t a c c o u nts fo r o b s e rve d g e n d e r d if f e r e n c e s ? – Women metabolize alcohol slower than men and can get the same effects while consuming less – Women’s drinking may be hidden/unreported
Expectations• Many people drink because they believe alcohol will have a positive effect on their emotions and behavior: – Improve social skills – Enhance sexual pleasure – Boost confidence and power• Evidence for the power of learned beliefs: Research participants who believed that they had drank alcohol acted in ways consistent with people who actually consumed it (Hull & Bond, 1986)
Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects• A d d i c t i o n : Drug use that remains compulsive despite its negative consequences• P h y s i c a l d e p e n d e n c e involves: – Tolerance: Increasing amounts of a drug is needed to achieve the intended effect – Withdrawal: Physiological and psychological state characterized by feelings of anxiety, tension, and cravings for the addictive substance• P s y c h o lo g ic a l d e p e n d e n c e involves: Drug cravings without tolerance or withdrawal
Addiction’s CausesWhy do people become addicted?P h y s io lo g ic a l:• Activation of brain d o p a m i n e systems that play a role in the pleasurable experience drugs create and regions (the i n s u l a ) that govern cravings• Heredity may play a role (e.g., alcoholism)P s y c h o lo g ic a l:• The “sensation-seeking” personality trait• Social learning (e.g., “modeling” of drug use by significant others)
Addiction’s Context• We cannot ignore the effects of social and environment context when explaining addiction• Robins, Helzer and Davis (1975) conducted a large-scale study of 898 U.S. soldiers during Vietnam War• The researchers found widespread drug use (over 90%) among U.S. soldiers• 1 in 5 returned to the United States addicted to drugs• Once home, approximately 95% of the addicts quit using drugs• Removed from the stress of combat, they no longer needed drugs to escape