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Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
Industrial Applications of Cryptography
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Industrial Applications of Cryptography

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In this talk we introduce some industrial implementations of cryptography. It is focusing on the electric power industry with specific aspects to power generation, transmission, distribution, and …

In this talk we introduce some industrial implementations of cryptography. It is focusing on the electric power industry with specific aspects to power generation, transmission, distribution, and retail in nuclear powerplants. The implications of storing sensitive personal data, invoicing, and customer’s money transfers will be described and discussed.

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  • 1. Industrial applications of cryptography David Podhola Prague College david.po@praguecollege.cz 30. kvˇtna 2011 eDavid Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 1 / 35
  • 2. AbstractIn this topic industrial implementations of cryptography will be introduced.It is focusing on the electric power industry with particular aspects topower generation in nuclear powerplants, transmission, distribution andretail. The implications of storing sensitive personal data as well as dealingwith invoicing and the customer’s money at the end will be described anddiscussed. David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 2 / 35
  • 3. Electricity David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 3 / 35
  • 4. Electricity“Phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electric charges.The word comes from the Greek elektron (“amber”); the Greeksdiscovered that amber rubbed with fur attracted light objects such asfeathers. Such effects due to stationary charges, or static electricity, werethe first electrical phenomena to be studied. Not until the early 19thcentury were static electricity and electric current shown to be aspects ofthe same phenomenon. The discovery of the electron, which carries acharge designated as negative, showed that the various manifestations ofelectricity are the result of the accumulation or motion of numbers ofelectrons. The invention of the incandescent lightbulb (1879) and theconstruction of the first central power station (1881) by Thomas AlvaEdison led to the rapid introduction of electric power into factories andhomes. See also James Clerk Maxwell.”1 1 Encyclopaedia Britannica David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 4 / 35
  • 5. Electric power industry David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 5 / 35
  • 6. Electric power industry“The electric power industry provides the production and delivery ofelectric energy, often known as power, or electricity, in sufficient quantitiesto areas that need electricity through a grid connection. The griddistributes electrical energy to customers. Electric power is generated bycentral power stations or by distributed generation.Many households and businesses need access to electricity, especially indeveloped nations, the demand being scarcer in developing nations.Demand for electricity is derived from the requirement for electricity inorder to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrialmachinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and commerciallighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. Because of this aspectof the industry, it is viewed as a public utility as infrastructure.”2 2 Wikipedia David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 6 / 35
  • 7. Current consumption of the Czech RepublicThis whole industry is run and controlled by a lot of computers. They havegreat numbers on their fingertips, but... David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 7 / 35
  • 8. ThreatsThreats:3 Intrusion: malicious attackers may intrude client or server by searching vulnerabilities, and the stable service of control boards may be threatened. Impersonation: operators who don’t have the right accounts but can enter , may impersonate operators who have the right accounts sand the stable service of control boards may be threatened. Tapping: malicious attackers may tap packets on the Internet, and data sent and received may be threatened. Obstruction: malicious attackers may attack client or server very often, and smooth operation may be threatened. Destruction: operators who have the right accounts may execute illegal operations unjustly, and the stable service of control boards may be threatened. 3 The Security Design of Remote Maintenance System for Nuclear Power Plants,based on ISO/IEC 15408 David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 8 / 35
  • 9. What is cryptography?The practice and study of hiding information.Now is much more complex than just encryption to apparent nonsense. David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 9 / 35
  • 10. Encryption and decryption David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 10 / 35
  • 11. Public-key cryptography David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 11 / 35
  • 12. Public-key cryptography David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 12 / 35
  • 13. Public key infrastructure CA = Certificate Authority RA = Registration Authority David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 13 / 35
  • 14. My public keyI am not afraid to show you my public key! David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 14 / 35
  • 15. SigningIf you have just your key, you can sign David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 15 / 35
  • 16. EncryptionIf you have both keys, you can encrypt David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 16 / 35
  • 17. General attributes of public keysIncreased security and convenience. private keys never need to transmitted or revealed to anyone digital signatures speed vulnerable to impersonation (attack on a certification authority) David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 17 / 35
  • 18. Electric power industryThe legal unbundling laid down in 2005 as part of the second Europeanenergy market package applies in 11 out of 27 EU countries. Generation Transmission Distribution (e.g. consumption measurements) Retailing (e.g. end customer invoicing) David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 18 / 35
  • 19. High level overview David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 19 / 35
  • 20. Organizations involved - CEPSCEPS jsc is a joint-stock company operating Transmission System (TS) ofthe Czech Republic by law. ensuring electricity transmission ensuring balance between electricity generation and consumption at any moment maintenance, modernization and development of TS equipment David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 20 / 35
  • 21. Organizations involved - OTE A processing and reporting business balance of elektricity according to data supplied by electricity market participants. An organization of short-term markets and balancing market with regulating energy in cooperation with transmission system operator. The evaluation and settlement of imbalances between the agreed and actual electricity supplies and consumption. Publishing monthly and annual reports about Czech elektricity market. Collecting metered data from deliveries and supplies for market paticipants. The evaluation and settlement of regulating energy. Administration of registry for trading with greenhouse gas emission allowances. David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 21 / 35
  • 22. OTE CADavid Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 22 / 35
  • 23. Electricity generation David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 23 / 35
  • 24. Electricity generationFor nuclear powerplants Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR) Section 73.21(g)(3) states, in part, “. . . Safeguards Informationshall be transmitted only by protected telecommunication circuits(including facsimile) approved by the NRC.” The Nuclear RegulatoryCommission (NRC) considers those encryption systems that the NationalInstitute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has determined conform tothe Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules in FederalInformation Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2, as being acceptable. TheSecretary of Commerce has made use of Cryptographic Module ValidationProgram products mandatory and binding for Federal agencies when aFederal agency determines that cryptography is necessary for protectingsensitive information. David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 24 / 35
  • 25. Stuxnet David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 25 / 35
  • 26. Stuxnet David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 26 / 35
  • 27. Transmission David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 27 / 35
  • 28. Distribution David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 28 / 35
  • 29. Distribution David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 29 / 35
  • 30. Retailing David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 30 / 35
  • 31. Communication David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 31 / 35
  • 32. Communication David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 32 / 35
  • 33. Communication David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 33 / 35
  • 34. SmartGrid David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 34 / 35
  • 35. Thank you! David Podhola david.po@praguecollege.cz, david@podhola.net http://david.podhola.net David Podhola (Prague College) Industrial applications of cryptography 30. kvˇtna 2011 e 35 / 35

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