A raven is the first birdreleased from Noah‟s Ark (Gen 8:7).
San Onofre a.k.a St Onuphrius by the Spanish painter, Francisco Collantes (1599-1656) Museo del Prado
St Paule theHermit with St Anthony the Great Coptic (Egyptian 4th century) "Now, I know that you are one of the children of God. For 70 years, the Lord has been sending to me everyday, half a loaf ofbread, but today, the Lord is sending your food also.”
Elijah Fed by the Raven c. 1510 Giovanni Girolamo Savoldo
VelasquezSaint Anthony Abbot and St. Paul the Hermit c. 1642 Mattia Preti St. Paul the Hermit Circa 1660
Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston 1818
St Anthony and St Paul in the Desert David Teniers 1636-38
When presented a choice between a Dangerous and a Neutral Mask, Crows accurately identify the Dangerous
Two Main Questions1) Can American Crows learn to recognize individual people?2) Does social learning take place?
Acquisition of Information• Individual “trial and error” Learning – Allows Flexibility – But, Dangerous• Social Learning – Flexible – Reduced Cost
Three Opportunities for Observational Learning1) At time of capture2) Associating with crows who were captured when they encounter the trapping mask at a later date3) Young of crows who had been captured
Spread in the GeographicalExtent of Scoldingthe Extraordinary Face over 3.3 Years
Urban Site (B.) shows a result similar to thecampus study butnot elsewhere (A.) Downtown urban site has similar density and unpredictable identity of humans as does the pilot campus site Dangerous mask downtown was bald man, most similar to extraordinary face from campus
Individuals with the Direct Experience of Being CapturedLearned to Discriminate Faces More Accurately Than ThoseOnly Observing Capture or Subsequent Scolding of Captors
Vertical Learning• We put a radio tag on young crows (without ourselves wearing a mask) whose parents scold the dangerous mask• While under parental care, the young observe their parents scold the dangerous mask• Independent of parental care, the young crow scolds the dangerous mask