What Makes a Job Green?

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Presentation by Rose Baker and David Passmore at 2009 Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Board Symposium, University Park, Pennsylvania, June 9, 2009. You may download copies of these slides as an …

Presentation by Rose Baker and David Passmore at 2009 Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Board Symposium, University Park, Pennsylvania, June 9, 2009. You may download copies of these slides as an Adobe PDF at http://Baker-Passmore-Green.notlong.com.

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  • Presentation by Rose Baker and David Passmore at 2009 Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Board Symposium, University Park, Pennsylvania, June 9, 2009. You may download copies of these slides as an Adobe PDF at http://Baker-Passmore-Green.notlong.com.
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  • “This moment of peril must be turned to one of progress,” President Barack Obama said as he signed on January 26, 2009 his first two Presidential Memoranda aimed at putting the U.S. on the path to energy independence (The White House, 2009, ¶1). The President further said that, Over the last few days we’ve learned that Microsoft, Intel, United Airlines, Home Depot, Sprint Nextel, and Caterpillar are each cutting thousands of jobs. These are not just numbers on a page. As with the millions of jobs lost in 2008, these are working men and women whose families have been disrupted and whose dreams have been put on hold. (The White House, 2009, ¶8)We owe it to each of them and to every, single American to act with a sense of urgency and common purpose. We can’t afford distractions and we cannot afford delays. And that is why I look forward to signing an American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan that will put millions of Americans to work and lay the foundation for stable growth that our economy needs and that our people demand. (The White House, 2009, ¶9)At a time of such great challenge for America, no single issue is as fundamental to our future as energy....Embedded in American soil and the wind and the sun, we have the resources to change....It will be the policy of my administration to reverse our dependence on foreign oil, while building a new energy economy that will create millions of jobs. (The White House, 2009, ¶10, 12, 13)
  • “This moment of peril must be turned to one of progress,” President Barack Obama said as he signed on January 26, 2009 his first two Presidential Memoranda aimed at putting the U.S. on the path to energy independence (The White House, 2009, ¶1). The President further said that, Over the last few days we’ve learned that Microsoft, Intel, United Airlines, Home Depot, Sprint Nextel, and Caterpillar are each cutting thousands of jobs. These are not just numbers on a page. As with the millions of jobs lost in 2008, these are working men and women whose families have been disrupted and whose dreams have been put on hold. (The White House, 2009, ¶8)We owe it to each of them and to every, single American to act with a sense of urgency and common purpose. We can’t afford distractions and we cannot afford delays. And that is why I look forward to signing an American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan that will put millions of Americans to work and lay the foundation for stable growth that our economy needs and that our people demand. (The White House, 2009, ¶9)At a time of such great challenge for America, no single issue is as fundamental to our future as energy....Embedded in American soil and the wind and the sun, we have the resources to change....It will be the policy of my administration to reverse our dependence on foreign oil, while building a new energy economy that will create millions of jobs. (The White House, 2009, ¶10, 12, 13)
  • The stimulus for building a new energy economy is The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. No. 111–5, 2009), a federal public law passed by the 111th United States Congress. Based largely on broad proposals made by President Barack Obama, the Act is intended to provide a stimulus to the U.S. economy in the wake of the economic downturn brought about by the subprime mortgage crisis and the credit crunch that emerged from this crisis. The bill includes federal tax cuts, expansion of unemployment benefits and other social welfare provisions, and domestic spending in education, health care, and infrastructure, including the energy sector.
  • The stimulus for building a new energy economy is The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. No. 111–5, 2009), a federal public law passed by the 111th United States Congress. Based largely on broad proposals made by President Barack Obama, the Act is intended to provide a stimulus to the U.S. economy in the wake of the economic downturn brought about by the subprime mortgage crisis and the credit crunch that emerged from this crisis. The bill includes federal tax cuts, expansion of unemployment benefits and other social welfare provisions, and domestic spending in education, health care, and infrastructure, including the energy sector.
  • Investments of $43 billion and tax credits totalling $22 billion are targeted toward energy (“Where is your money going,” 2009, table & table footnote).
  • Investments of $43 billion and tax credits totalling $22 billion are targeted toward energy (“Where is your money going,” 2009, table & table footnote).
  • Investments of $43 billion and tax credits totalling $22 billion are targeted toward energy (“Where is your money going,” 2009, table & table footnote).
  • Externality—An externality is an effect of a purchase or use decision by one set of parties on others who did not have a choice and whose interests were not taken into account. an economic effect that results from an economic choice but is not reflected in market prices
  • According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009), private sector employment declined between March and April 2009 by 611,000 jobs, and the percentage of the labor force that was unemployed rose from 8.5% to 8.9%. The U.S. economy lost 5.7 million jobs between the start of the recession in December 2007 and April 2009 (the longest U.S. recession since the 1930s) across nearly all major private–sector industries. According to a Voice of America report (Arcega, 2009), many of the unemployed are using their hiatus from paid employment to invest in education and training that they hope will prepare them for the green jobs that they believe will become available abundantly in the future. Hope has not faded. For many, hope is newly invested in green jobs.
  • The macroeconomic benefits of investment in new technologies, greater productivity, improvements in the U.S. balance of trade, and increased real disposable income across the nation. They also include the microeconomic benefits of lower costs of doing business and reduced household energy expenditures.These advantages are manifested in job growth, income growth, and of course, a cleaner environment.
  • Definitions come in a variety of flavors. Many definitions offered for the phrase, green jobs, are what analytic philosopher, Charles Stevenson (1938), probably would have classified as persuasive definitions—that is, definitions which “give a new conceptual meaning to a familiar word…with the conscious or unconscious purpose of changing, by this means, the direction of people’s interests” (p. 331). The result is a phrase that holds “vague conceptual meaning and rich emotive meaning” (Stevenson, 1938, p. 333). In this way, persuasive definitions receive high marks for marketing, but low marks for clarity. Deliberation should be moving beyond the need to market the new energy economy. The evidence already seems persuasive. Rather, more clarity about the nature and structure of the new energy economy—and the jobs it will require—is necessary to make progress.Some definitions of green jobs can be viewed as extensional (see Cruse, 2000)—that is, green jobs are defined by attempting to list all instances of jobs that seem to exist. Perhaps the “truth is the whole,” as Hegel (1807) suggested, but the essence of green jobs is difficult to apprehend after examining long lists of jobs that a committee denoted as green according to some unexplained or loosely defined rules. Although lists of jobs defined as green by some authority or group might illustrate or suggest generally the nature of green jobs, review of raw lists provides no systematic basis for divining a green job.Some definitions of green jobs are best described as ostensive—that is, green jobs are defined by presenting for review a selection of jobs that are considered to exemplify the entire class of green jobs. A phrase defined ostensively, however, does not convey explicitly the differentiating attributes of the entity being defined. Instead, penetrating the Aristotelean essence of the matter is left to the observer of the example, in the uncertain hope that some common meaning is communicated. When someone says, “Here, look, this is a green job,” we are left to discern the unique features that make that job green as well as to generalize this taxonomic knowledge to classify any other jobs as green or not green. An ostensive definition of the phrase, green job, often turns out to be indirect and obtuse.Without a doubt, seeing an example often conveys more meaning to some people than reading the words of a definition. However, as Wittgenstein (1953) wrote, The ostensive definition explains the use—the meaning—of the word when the overall role of the word in language is clear. Thus if I know that someone means to explain a colour–word to me, the ostensive definition “That is called ‘sepia’ ” will help me to understand the word.... One has already to know (or be able to do) something in order to be capable of asking a thing’s name. (p. 24)In this way, an ostensive definition of green jobs certainly is helpful, but not entirely sufficient, for policy analysis and development.What is needed to put a fine point on the meaning of green jobs is what logicians describe as an intensional definition, which provides the meaning of a term by specifying all the properties required to arrive at the definition. An intensional definition identifies all necessary and sufficient conditions for belonging to the set being defined (Garza–Cuaraon, 1991). An intensional definition of green jobs would connote the attributes that circumscribe instances of the “green jobs” concept and would provide a rule–based method for sorting instances of jobs into sets of jobs that are, at the highest level, green or not green. Biologists employ intensional definitions to define species by their genus (a broad category of a organism) and differentia (properties of the species that other members of the genus do not have). For example, California mussels are part of the genus, mytilus (medium-sized to large saltwater mussels, marine bivalve molluscs that are expolited as food and used in mariculture) with the differentia, californianus (found along the west coast of North America, and mainly in the intertidal zone off California). Mytiluscalifornianus—simply, a mussel (a general classification of a particular marine animal) found near California (a unique feature of this particular type of mussel). Extensional and ostensive definitions of the California mussel would be described as denotative definitions because they refer to particular instances of muscles (“Here are pictures of a large number of California mussels.” Or, “See this? It is california mussel.”). An ostensive definitions of the California mussel would be described as a connotative definition because it refers to the essence of this type of muscle by which all other mussels could be identified by applying taxonomic criteria as specifically California mussels rather than some other type of mussel, such as mytilusedulis, mytilustrossulus, or mytilusgalloprovincialis.Not only is a genus–differentia definition useful for taxonomic classification in science, but such a definition also is valuable in other realms. Borrowing, then, from the biological genus–differentia approach to creating definitions, a green job is, simply, a job (genus) that is green (differentia). A successful connotative, intensional definition of a green job would refer to the differentiating characteristics of the job, the genus, that are so clear that a green job (the genus modified by the differentia) can be no longer confused with a job of any other type. Perhaps this path for defining green jobs ostensively sounds trivial, obvious, and unnecessarily pedantic, but, as the old idiom suggests, “The devil is in the details.” And, defining “green” in the context of green jobs is not trivial, obvious, or academic. Persuasive, ostensive, and extensional definitions of green jobs currently in vogue plainly fail to provide any grist for the policy analysis and formulation mill. A rigorous connotative, intensional definition of green jobs definition would exhibit what philosophers of science describe as intersubjective verifiability. This is the capacity of a concept to be readily and accurately communicated between different individuals and to be reproduced under varying circumstances for the purposes of verification (Martin, 2000, p. 64). Intersubjective verifiability is the congruence that results when two independent observers can use the established criteria to classify a phenomenon in the same way. For instance, two observers, separately consulting guides describing the physical characteristics and behavior, identify a bird in the field as an instance of Passeriformes Tyrannidae, or, more colloquially, an Acadian Flycatcher. Or, two dermatologists in separate hospitals arrive at the same diagnosis of Crytococcusneoformens fungal infection after reviewing histologic findings from a liver transplant patient. Or, two mechanics conclude independently, “Yep, the fuel pump’s bad,” after inspecting an automobile. And, our ideal is that, two job analysts could conclude independently, “Yep, that’s a green job,” based on the their common application of intensional criteria. So, we advocate in this report the pursuit of an intensional, connotative definition of the phrase, green jobs, to arrive at a working definition for use in planning and evaluating human capital needs in a new energy economy. The quotation by Prager at the beginning of this section cautions that “The important things in life cannot be precisely defined or measured.” Yet, Lord Kelvin asserts that “To measure is to know.”

Transcript

  • 1. What Makes a Job Green? 2009 Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Board Symposium June 9, 2009 Rose M. Baker & David L. Passmore Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative
  • 2. Rose Baker Assistant Professor & Director Center for Regional Economic & Workforce Analysis David Passmore Professor& Director Penn State Institute for Research in Training & Development Penn State Workforce Education &Development Initiative
  • 3.  Context  Why a definition is important  Economic framework for a definition  Ways that jobs are green  Developing a workforce to support the new energy economy What we will do today…
  • 4.  Context  Why a definition is important  Economic framework for a definition  Ways that jobs are green  Developing a workforce to support the new energy economy What makes a job green?
  • 5. “This moment of peril must be turned to one of progress.” Vision…
  • 6. “It will be the policy of my administration to reverse our dependence on foreign oil, while building a new energy economy that will create millions of jobs.” Vision…
  • 7. American Recovery & Revitalization Act of 2009 Legislation…
  • 8. “Revive the renewable energy industry and provide the capital over the next three years to eventually double domestic renewable energy capacity… Legislation…
  • 9. [and] undertake the largest weatherization program in history by modernizing 75 percent of federal building space and more than one million homes.” Legislation…
  • 10. 86% of energy used in U.S. in 2007 is from petroleum, natural gas, & coal Dependence on fossil fuels
  • 11. Nuclear, hydro, & renewable sources complete the U.S. energy portfolio Dependence on fossil fuels
  • 12.  Creates negative externalities  Threatens national security  Interferes with climate system Dependence on fossil fuels
  • 13. • 611,000 jobs lost between March & April 2009 • Unemployment rose from 8.5% to 8.9% • 5.7 million jobs lost between December 2007 and April 2009 Recent labor market stresses
  • 14. “It is all good news.” —Roger Bezdek in report for American Solar Energy Society Hope…
  • 15.  Context  Why a definition is important  Economic framework for a definition  Ways that jobs are green  Developing a workforce to support the new energy economy What makes a job green?
  • 16. What is a green job?
  • 17. Types of definitions • Persuasive—new conceptual meaning to a familiar word • Extensional—denotes all instances of the concept • Ostensive—provides an example of the concept • Intensional—rule–based list of necessary & sufficient conditions for sorting instances of a concept
  • 18.  Context  Why a definition is important  Economic framework for a definition  Ways that jobs are green  Developing a workforce to support the new energy economy What makes a job green?
  • 19. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 Input–output table
  • 20. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 interindustry ind 3 transactions ind 4 Production sector of economy
  • 21. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 purchases of producers ind 2 ind 2 from ind 1 ind 3 ind 4 Production sector of economy
  • 22. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 purchases of producers ind 3 ind 2 from ind 2; or, ind 2 ind 3 produces for ind 3 ind 4 Production sector of economy
  • 23. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers All purchases ind 2 of ind 1; aka industry ind 3 supply chain ind 4 Production sector of economy
  • 24. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 ind 1 < personal consumption > producers ind < 2 government purchases > ind 2 < investment > ind 3 ind 3 < export > ind 4 ind 4 Consumption sector of economy
  • 25. production + consumption = total output final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 Total output of economy
  • 26. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 3 10 25 4 10 62 producers 4 2 10 18 34 68 ind 2 ind 3 10 15 1 3 7 36 ind 4 23 2 0 4 45 74 Input–output table with hypothetical interindustry transactions & delivery to final demand
  • 27. final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 ind 1 < each industry, requires a certain number of people to ind 2create each dollar’s worth of ind 2 total economic output > ind 3 ind 3 ind 4 ind 4 Industry employment
  • 28. final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 ind 1 < if it takes .001 workers to create $1 of economic output, ind 2 ind 2 then, ind 3 ind 3 ind 4 ind 4 Industry employment
  • 29. final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output < if it takes .001 workers to create $1 of economic output, ind 2 then, with $1 billion of total industrial output, 1 million ind 3 workers are required > ind 4 Industry employment
  • 30. final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 < changes in labor intensity ind 2 or in total economic output create changes in numbers ind 3 & kinds of jobs > ind 4 Industry employment
  • 31. final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output < industries use different labor intensities > ind 1 < industries use different occupations > ind 2 ind 3 < occupational employment differs by industry > ind 4 Occupational employment
  • 32.  Context  Why a definition is important  Economic framework for a definition  Ways that jobs are green  Developing a workforce to support the new energy economy What makes a job green?
  • 33. Jobs exist because goods & services are produced & purchased “Green” jobs exist because goods and services are produced & purchased that convert, distribute, or conserve energy. The facts of economic life…
  • 34.  D outputs made by industries  D inputs used by industries  D labor intensities used within industries  D occupational staffing patterns used within industries New energy economy: D of amount & type of resources used & products made
  • 35. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 In context of input–output table
  • 36. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 D in amounts of goods ind 3 & services produced ind 4 D outputs made by industries
  • 37. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 D in types of goods & ind 3 services produced ind 4 D outputs made by industries
  • 38. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 D in amounts &types producers ind 2 of goods & services purchased as inputs to ind 3 production ind 4 D inputs used by industries
  • 39. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 D in amounts of labor ind 3 required to make output ind 4 D labor intensities used within industries
  • 40. purchasers final total ind 1 ind 2 ind 3 ind 4 demand output ind 1 producers ind 2 D in types of labor ind 3 required to make output ind 4 D occupational staffing patterns used within industries
  • 41.  Context  Why a definition is important  Economic framework for a definition  Ways that jobs are green  Developing a workforce to support the new energy economy What makes a job green?
  • 42. What are the amounts and types of workers required now & in the future for the new energy economy? One key element of information for workforce development strategy
  • 43. establishment  firm  industry
  • 44. establishment  firm  industry
  • 45. establishment  firm  industry
  • 46. establishment  firm  industry
  • 47. position  job  occupation
  • 48. position  job  occupation
  • 49. position  job  occupation
  • 50. position  job  occupation
  • 51.  Context  Why a definition is important  Economic framework for a definition  Ways that jobs are green  Developing a workforce to support the new energy economy Where we have been…
  • 52. What Makes a Job Green? 2009 Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Board Symposium June 9, 2009 Rose M. Baker & David L. Passmore Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative