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Mobile Web Design & Development 2012 Lecture
 

Mobile Web Design & Development 2012 Lecture

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A history of the mobile web, a discussion of mobile design constraints and opportunities, and an analysis of some mobile design methodologies.

A history of the mobile web, a discussion of mobile design constraints and opportunities, and an analysis of some mobile design methodologies.

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    Mobile Web Design & Development 2012 Lecture Mobile Web Design & Development 2012 Lecture Presentation Transcript

    • Mobile Web Design & Development 2 1 1
    • In the mobile telecommunications industry, thetechnology is represented by two separate, yetequally important groups: the mobile devices,and the cellular networks that connect them.(These are their stories...) 2 2
    • Evolution of cell networks 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G... generations of cellular network technology that describe the maturity and capabilities of cellular networks most obvious trend is speed/bandwidth increase 3 3
    • Evolution of mobile devices 4 4
    • Brick era: 1973 - 1988 Motorola DynaTAC 5 5
    • Candybar era: 1988 - 1998Critical mass. Mainstream.SMS (first non-voice communication) 6 6
    • Feature phone era: 1998 -2008 cameras addition of packet-switched data services to networks allowed first use of the Internet on a phone. little real innovation and inconsistent interpretation of agreed upon standards. WAP 1.0 and WML provided a “dumbed down” version of the web stifled by network operators who focussed on providing downloadable ringtones, wallpapers, themes etc they could sell through network portals. poor adoption of mobile web by consumers Motorola RAZR 7 7
    • Smart phones: 2002 -presentsome overlap between what is considered afeature phone and a smart phone.use a common operating system, a largerscreen size, a QWERTY keyboard or stylus forinput, and Wi-Fi or another form of high-speedwireless connectivity.consistent frameworks for creating applicationsand services, and a reusable infrastructure toinnovateWAP 2.0 specified use of cut down versions ofXHTML (XHTML-MP) and CSS, bringingdevelopment back in line with the desktop web.Though standards compliance is still poor. 8 8
    • Some early mobile web browsers TextNetHopper for Apple Opera Mini Pocket Internet Explorer 3.0 Newton http://www.phonearena.com/news/Evolution-of-mobile-web-browsing_id9059 9 9
    • 10 10
    • Touch phone era: January 9,2007 - presentThough the majority of the technology in the originaliPhone had already been available from othermanufacturers, what was notable about the iPhonewas how it changed every-day perceptions of whatmobile technology can do.It made using the mobile web worth while from aconsumer standpoint.http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/18/iphone-users-are-mobile-web-junkies/It made developing for the mobile web worth whilefrom a content provider and developer standpoint.Standards compliant web browsers that use the samerendering engines as their desktop counterparts. 11 11
    • 12 12
    • Why mobile?Of the 6 Billion people onEarth, 3.6 Billion people own orhave access to mobile devices.Of those 1.6 Billion (andgrowing rapidly) have accessto the web through a mobiledevice.Thats 500 million more peoplethan have access to Internet predicted growth of mobile web accessconnected desktopcomputers. 13 13
    • “The [mobile] phone is bigger in its reach than the car (800million), TV (1.5 billion), or Internet (1.1 billion). It will makebigger changes in the next decade than any of these did.The [mobile] phone adds the combined utility of the fixedtelephone, Internet, computer, credit card, and TV. Thephone will impact your life in more ways than we canimagine, because of its multi-functionality aspect, and itsreach.” - Tomi Ahonenhttp://fora.tv/2009/09/24/Mobile_Phones_The_Next_4_Billion_with_Tomi_Ahonen 14 14
    • Worldwide, the share of Internet pageviews originating from mobile devices increased 148% in the year to December ’09 http://www.quantcast.com/docs/display/info/Mobile+Report 15 15
    • Global population vs Mobile population 16 16
    • Worldwide, the share of Internet pageviews originating from mobile devices increased 148% in the year to December ’09 http://www.quantcast.com/docs/display/info/Mobile+Report 17 17
    • Operating System share of mobile web http://gs.statcounter.com 18 18
    • Browser share of mobile web http://gs.statcounter.com 19 19
    • Browser share of mobile web by region - Africa http://gs.statcounter.com 20 20
    • Browser share of mobile web by region - South America http://gs.statcounter.com 21 21
    • Browser share of mobile web by region - Asia http://gs.statcounter.com 22 22
    • Browser share of mobile web by region - Japan http://gs.statcounter.com 23 23
    • Browser share of mobile web by region - Europe http://gs.statcounter.com 24 24
    • Browser share of mobile web by region - North America http://gs.statcounter.com 25 25
    • Browser share of mobile web by region - Oceania http://gs.statcounter.com 26 26
    • Identifying target market The global mobile device market is especially fragmented. Usage trends rarely map neatly across geography or demographics such as age, wealth, gender, education, profession etc. It is therefore critical more-so than ever to identify and profile your target users’ needs and capabilities. 27 27
    • How do people use themobile web?Most common content segments are news, email,weather, sports, city guides, and social networksMobile users tend to perform quick, task basedbehaviours, often whilst in-between other tasks or multi-tasking. 28
    • Mobile usage in Australia2009 43% of online Australians now own a smartphone 26% of social network users participated in mobile social networking in the past year. 66% of mobile social networkers are under 35 years of age http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/global/australia-getting-more-social-online- as-facebook-leads-and-twitter-grows/ 29 29
    • Mobile internet usage in Australia 201096% of Australianconsumers own amobile phoneof these 41% use it toaccess the internet (upfrom 26% last year) http://www.about.sensis.com.au/small-business/sensis-ebusiness-report/ 30 30
    • Mobile internet usage in Australia 2010Accessing information wasa key use of internet onmobile phones, withlooking for maps, weatherand news the topapplications.Social networking was alsoa highly used application;on par with people lookingfor information on productsand services (56% each). http://www.about.sensis.com.au/small-business/sensis-ebusiness-report/ 31 31
    • Mobile internet usage in Australia 2010Australians are not just usingthe internet on their mobilephones when other methodsof connection are not available.The most frequently nominatedplaces for Australians to usethe internet on their mobilephones was at home or work(42%), regardless of the factthat they were likely to haveother methods to connect tothe internet at either of theselocations. http://www.about.sensis.com.au/small-business/sensis-ebusiness-report/ 32 32
    • Developing a mobile strategy1. Define the users’ context.2. Determine users’ goals and how they are altered by context.3. Determine the tasks the users want to perform to achieve goals.4. Filter content by context, such as location, media, and model. 33
    • ContextMobile devices have an unparalleled ability to leverage thecontext in which information is consumed (and produced)Context refers to the surroundings, circumstances,environment, background, or settings which determine, specify,or clarify meaning - a mental model to establish understanding. physical context (e.g. location) media context (what device is being used to access the content) modal context (user’s state of mind) 34
    • Context Wikitude eRuv: A Street History in Semacode 35
    • Context Who are your users? What do you know about them? What type of behaviour can you assume or predict? What is happening? What are the circumstances in which they will best absorb the content you intend to present? When will they interact? When they are home and have large amounts of time? At work, where they have short periods of focus? During idle periods, while waiting for a train? Where are they? Are they in a public space or a private space? Are they inside or outside? Is it day or is it night? Why will they use your app? What value will they gain from your content or services in their present situation? How are they using their mobile devices? Are they held in the hand or in the pocket? How are they holding it? Open or closed? Portrait or landscape?from Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling 36
    • Application context informative:utility: only goal is to provide information. short, task-based scenarios Importance is on providing relevant minimal input, at-a-glance information information up front. e.g. calculator, clock, weather forecast e.g. news sites, google reader, wikipedialocale: productivity: use geolocation data to add context to information - e.g. find restaurants close heavily task-based content and to me. services. e.g. google maps, foursquare e.g. ebay, banking immersive: designed to consume the user’s attention. often for entertainment purposes. e.g. games, video, google street-view 37
    • Application contextfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling 38
    • Sovereign vs Transientapplication sovereign application monopolises the users attention for long periods of time (e.g. wordprocessor) transient application comes and goes, presenting a single, high-relief function with a tightly restricted set of accompanying controls. The program is called when needed, it appears and performs its job, then it quickly leaves (e.g. instant messaging/SMS application) desktop applications tend to be sovereign while mobile applications tend to be transient. 39
    • Advantages of MobileDevices Popularity Personal and personalisable Portable Constant connectivity, always on and always with you At the point of creative impulse Built-in payment channel Captures social context of media consumption/production Can interact with their environment 40
    • Mobile devices can interactwith their environment clock camera calendar microphone telephony thermometer messaging geolocation ambient light altitude compass 41
    • Mobile is a usage scenario more than aform factor mobile users are mobile they expect applications to adapt to their (unpredictable) surroundings 42
    • Mobile Device Design Constraints Presentation Issues Screen size, resolution, colour reproduction http://sender11.typepad.com/sender11/2008/04/mobile-screen-s.html 43
    • Mobile Device Design Constraints Input Limited keypad, small keys Pointing device? Touch? D-pad? Affects navigation Bandwidth & Cost Speed and latency issues, especially for lengthy content or content that requires a lot of navigation between pages 44
    • Mobile Device Design Constraints Hardware limitations Processing power, memory, battery life etc. Usage environment is unpredictable and changing (e.g. lighting conditions) User Goals more immediate and goal-directed intentions than desktop web users Limited, adhoc or no standards compliance Limited implementations of html, css and JavaScript 45
    • Mobile Device Design Constraints Device fragmentation Proprietary browsers The range of device and browser capabilities is much, much more varied than on the desktop Taming the madness - databases like Device Atlas and WURFL which contain data on thousands of mobile devices. 46
    • Implementation options formobile applicationsfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling 47
    • Native application vs webapplication? http://www.alistapart.com/articles/apps-vs-the-web/ http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/ will_mobile_web_apps_eventually_replace_native_apps.ph p http://mobileanalyticssimplified.com/post/439404358/the- future-is-the-mobile-web-not-the-mobile-app 48
    • Native mobile application Pros Cons Offer best user experience, Cannot be easily ported to leveraging all device features. other mobile platforms - multiple device support is Built in revenue model (app costly. stores) Require certification and distribution from a third party that you have no control over. Require you to share revenue with one or more third parties. 49 49
    • Mobile web application Pros Cons Easy to create, using Can be challenging (but basic HTML, CSS, and not impossible) to support JavaScript knowledge. across multiple devices. Simple to deploy across They don’t always support multiple handsets. native application features, like offline mode, location Content is accessible on lookup, filesystem access, any mobile web browser. camera, etc. 50 50
    • Multiple phone web basedapplication frameworks Allow you to write your application using HTML/CSS/ Javascript, but then package it as a native application for multiple mobile platforms. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Multiple_phone_web_based_application_framework 51 51
    • W3C Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/mobile-bp 52
    • Mobile browser capabilitiesfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling 53
    • Main Mobile Browser Engines Webkit Presto Gecko Trident Safari Chrome Mobile Safari Firefox Opera Internet ExplorerAndroid Browser Firefox Mobile Opera Mobile IE Mobile Blackberry (Fennec) Palm Kindle 54 54
    • WebkitSame rendering engine as used in Safari and Chrome onthe desktop - capable of rendering the “real web” onmobile.Standards compliant.Used in mobile browsers by Apple, Android and Nokia,which together account for by far the largest chunk of ofthe mobile internet market.Influencing other browsers to catch up fast. 55 55
    • HTML 5 to the rescue.HTML 5, and the current climate of New functionality allowed by HTMLintense development around 5 includes:optimising both desktop and native support for audio andmobile browsers for web video (without plugin)applications are quickly closing thegap between web and native canvas element for drawing /applications, especially in the animationmobile domain. document editinghttp://html5demos.com/ offline storage (keep workinghttp:// without internet connection)www.chromeexperiments.com/ drag and drophttp://www.apple.com/html5/ geolocation 56 56
    • Geolocationhttp://dev.w3.org/geo/api/spec-source.htmlhttp://diveintohtml5.org/geolocation.htmlhttp://mobile.tutsplus.com/tutorials/html5/html5-geolocation/https://student.ci.qut.edu.au/~sade/geo/geo-watch-example.html 57 57
    • CSS 3allows for creating more complex designs using theminimum of images, making it ideal for mobile design gradients transitions animations custom typographyhttp://www.css3.info/preview/ 58 58
    • Javascript DHTML AJAX event handling (e.g. multi-touch events) http://tlrobinson.net/blog/2008/07/11/multitouch- javascript-virtual-light-table-on-iphone-v20/ http://jquerymobile.com/ 59 59
    • Full-screen web apps <meta content="width=device-width, user-scalable=no, initial-scale=1.0" name="viewport" /> <meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-capable" content="yes" /> <meta name="apple-mobile-web-app-status-bar-style" content="black" /> <link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="images/myappicon.png"/> <link rel="apple-touch-startup-image" href="images/startup.png"/> http://developer.apple.com/library/IOS/#documentation/AppleApplications/Reference/SafariWebContent/ConfiguringWebApplications/ConfiguringWebApplications.html 60 60
    • Trends towards the future... The trends are towards even more “native” feel. persistence push more APIs for accessing phone features (telephony, address book, location, camera, media, filesystem etc.) embedded web (pervasive throughout phone os) http://www.slideshare.net/pgolding/mobile-web-evolution-rich- mobile-applications-and-realtime-web-ux http://www.slideshare.net/ricferraro/evolution-of-mobile-web-ric- ferraro-presentation 61
    • Native application vs web application -the narrowing gap. http://www.slideshare.net/mihaiionescu/html5-and-google-chrome-devfest09 62
    • Native application vs web application? either way the implementation may differ, the design principles are very much the same 63
    • 64
    • Designing for multiple screen sizes andorientations http://mobiforge.com/designing/story/effective-design-multiple-screen-sizes http://sender11.typepad.com/sender11/2008/04/mobile-screen-s.html 65
    • Average screen size is increasing. 66
    • Pixel density physical screen size and resolution do not map as neatly on mobile as they do on desktop pixel density is increasing faster than physical screen size (fingers remain largely the same) 67
    • Designing for multiple screen sizes and orientations Decide early on which screen sizes you will design for (needs analysis). Write semantic code that communicates without the addition of complex visuals. Where possible use flexible layouts that automatically adapt/scale to screen width. (Modern, touch browsers are good at doing this themselves with pinch-zoom, tap-zoom and auto-orientation) Responsive web design with CSS media queries - http://www.alistapart.com/articles/responsive- web-design/ Define rules for content adaption across screen sizes. 68
    • Viewport meta tags<meta name="HandheldFriendly" content="true" /><meta name="MobileOptimized" content="320" /><meta name="Viewport" content="width=device-width" /> 69
    • Viewport meta tags With Without 70
    • Information architecture -Navigation Most make or break component of mobile interface design. Users will quickly get frustrated with poor navigation and go elsewhere / give up. Affected by both display and input and compounded by the network latency. 71
    • Navigation - input Scroll Touch 72
    • Design touch friendly webpages Finger tips are typically around 10mm in size Space elements far enough apart to avoid overlaps between touch targets. A stylus can easily be used on an interface designed for touch, but not the other way round. Take advantage of multi-touch gestures use sensors, local storage, contextual form inputs etc to reduce required manual input. 73
    • Contextual HTML5 form inputs 74 74
    • Contextual HTML5 form inputs 75 75
    • Mobile contextual links <a href="tel:0412345678">Call Me</a> <a href="sms:0412345678">SMS Me</a> 76 76
    • Navigation - desktop vs mobileTypical desktop webpagelayout with horizontal primarynavigation and secondarysidebar navigation does notmap well to the mobile 77
    • Navigation - desktop vs mobile Typical mobile webpage layout Design for vertical scrolling The most contextual information at the top Content consumes majority of the screen Exit points at the bottom 78
    • Navigation - mobile The most common method of creating mobile navigation schemes is to use a simple vertical list of options, often assigning and listing the corresponding numbers (0–9) to the accesskeys for keypad navigation. Showing multiple levels of navigation within your list usually doesn’t work well because it gives users too many options and consumes valuable screen area. A better way is to show only the options related to the page they’re viewing. http://mobiforge.com/book/mobile-web-navigation-paradigms 79
    • Putting contextually relevant informationabove the fold The area of a page that is viewable without scrolling (known as “above the fold”) is much smaller on a mobile screen. The most contextually relevant information should appear above the fold. 80
    • Use top-aligned labels forforms 81
    • Don’t reinvent the wheel Often (but not always) common design problem patterns have common solutions. Take advantage of the research and expertise of others. http://patterns.design4mobile.com/index.php/ Main_Page#Design_Patterns http://patterntap.com/ http://www.mobileawesomeness.com/ http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/01/13/mobile- 82
    • Designing for different mobilebrowser capabilitiesfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling 83
    • Progressive enhancement / gracefuldegradationfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling 84
    • Keep content, logic and presentation separate Model-View-Controller Framework e.g. Template Views e.g. Wordpress Controller e.g. MySQL Database Model 85
    • Keep content, logic and presentation separate Desktop e.g. Template Mobile Views Views e.g. Wordpress Controller e.g. MySQL Database Model 86
    • Wordpress Mobile Pack Plugin http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wordpress-mobile- pack/ Selects themes based on the type of user visiting the site. 87
    • XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet LanguageTransformations) Content is defined as XML and then XSLT is used, along with multiple markup languages like HTML, XHTML, WML, XHTML Basic, XHTML-MP, and so on, to provide the proper rendering markup for the viewing context http://www.w3schools.com/xsl/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XSLT 88
    • Device Independent Authoring Language(DIAL) Working draft standard for a markup language for the filtering and presentation of Web page content available across different delivery contexts. intended XML language profile of XHTML2 (also a draft) http://www.w3.org/TR/dial/ 89
    • CSS media querieshttp://css-tricks.com/6731-css-media-queries/http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-mediaqueries/ 90
    • Detect client capabilities withJavascript mo http://diveintohtml5.org/detect.html#geolocation 91
    • ModernizrModernizr is a small JavaScript library that detects theavailability of native implementations for next-generation WebTechnologies. http://www.modernizr.com/ 92
    • Desktop Web to Mobile WebWhat content/functionality from my desktop web site willbe useful on a mobile device? How will it need to be re-presented so that it works in a mobile context? Will it still be familiar to the user once it is re-presented?What content/functionality will I leave out of the mobilewebsite? Will it break?What extra or enhanced functionality can a mobile websiteoffer my users that the desktop version does not? 93
    • Desktop Web to Mobile WebDesktop Shared functionality, different presentation Extended/enhanced functionality Mobile 94
    • Cipher Cities Desktop Vs Mobile 95
    • Cipher Cities Desktop Vs Mobile 96
    • What are the range of devicecapabilities my mobile websitewill target? What devices do my prospective users have? What devices are capable of providing the functionality my users will want? Trade-off of functionality vs. risk of alienating users with incapable devices 97
    • Option 1 - Do Nothing Desktop version of site is served to mobile devices un- altered 98
    • Option 2 - Multi-Serve Same page content delivered to mobile and desktop devices, but CSS and resources (e.g. images) are tailored to the smaller form factor 99
    • Option 3 - Mobile-Specific Mobile-specific content is created and served to mobile devices. 100
    • SPEEED! 101
    • In practical terms... A single 500KB webpage will take a minute to download over a GSM connection. This is the best case scenario - cell networks almost never operate near theoretical maximum speeds and this doesn’t take into account typically high cell network latency and slow browser rendering speed on low-powered mobile devices. The same page could be downloaded and rendered in under a second on a modern desktop browser over a wifi connection. 102
    • Users won’t see what they can’tbe bothered to wait for to display Most uses find wait times more than a few seconds unacceptable. Tolerance is even less if page refreshes are frequent or the context is that of an application where perceived lag will be compared with native apps. 103
    • A picture isn’t always worth athousand words. It takes roughly the same amount of space to store a character as a pixel. Therefore a 70px x 70px image takes as long to download as 1000 words of text. Compress your images (duh). Resolution and colour depth both affect image size. Find out what the display capabilities of your target devices are and only serve images of the required dimensions and colour depth. Many older browsers give the option (often by default) to view pages without images, so make sure to code your HTML semantically so it makes sense without them (e.g. include alt-text) 104
    • Other speed optimisations Keep it simple. If it’s not necessary, don’t include it. This includes content (text/image/audio/video etc.) styles, javascript etc. This applies to download and rendering speed. Complex stylesheets and javascript require more CPU time and as a result adversely affect battery life. Avoid over-pagination. Due to network latency, it may take longer to refresh the page twice than to load double the content. Text can be compressed just like images. Always use minified versions of code libraries and serve compressed HTML/CSS/Javscript if the browser supports it. http://betterexplained.com/articles/how-to-optimize-your-site-with-gzip- compression/ 105
    • Testing mobile websites -Desktop testing A good deal of your testing can be done on a desktop web browser. In the case of modern, webkit mobile browsers they should effectively render the same. In the least case you can verify and validate the majority of HTML, CSS and Javascript and do some functional testing. http://validator.w3.org/mobile/ You can use iframes to simulate mobile viewports 106
    • Testing mobile websites In an ideal world you would have one of every device your are targeting to test on. Try and at least test on one real device that is indicative of your main target market. If you can’t afford one, borrow, or even test on demo devices in store. Get the users to test for you with their own devices - provide an easy method for users to give feedback. 107
    • Usability TestingTest with real users in real contexts. Active - go to the users. Conduct workshops, trials etc. Passive - provide a way for users to send you feedback. 108
    • Functional Testing Tests if your implementation is functional - the features/ mechanics of your site. 109
    • Contextual Testing Tests if your design has successfully solved the design problem. How does the user experience render on the device? Does it load quickly, correctly? Progress indicators? On wi-fi, 3G, 2G? Do the physical features of the device work correctly? (keys, orientation change etc.) What happens if the device loses its connection? Can it work in offline mode and recover once connection is re-established. Does geolocation provide an acceptable level of accuracy in different environments? etc. 110
    • Testing mobile websites -Desktop testing User agent switcher extension for Firefox - http://chrispederick.com/ work/user-agent-switcher/ 111
    • Testing mobile websites -Desktop testing Opera’s small-screen view 112
    • Testing mobile websites -Simulators and Emulators dotMobi emulator - http://mtld.mobi/emulator.php 113
    • Mobile Emulators & SimulatorsModel Official Platform Type Browser testing CompatibilityApple iOS Official iOS Simulator Safari MacGoogle Android Official Android Emulator Android Win, Mac, UnixNokia Symbian Official Symbian Emulator S60 Browser WinWindows Phone 7 Official Windows Phone Emulator Internet Explorer WinBlackBerry Official RIM OS Emulator RIM Browser WinHP webOS Official webOS Virtual Machine webOS Win, Mac, UnixOpera Mobile Official multi-platform Simulator Opera Mobile Win, Mac, UnixOpera Mini Official multi-platform Online Emulator Opera Mini Win, Mac, UnixFirefox for Mobile Official multi-platform Simulator Firefox Mobile Win, Mac, Unix https://github.com/shichuan/mobile-html5-boilerplate/wiki/Mobile-Emulators-%26-Simulators 114
    • Testing mobile websites -Remote Access to Real DevicesDevice Anywhere - http://www.deviceanywhere.com/ 115
    • The Cipher Cities Mobile WebDesign Process... 116
    • Research the FieldFeasibility analysis Current device capabilities and future trends Market saturation Web mobile usage statistics Different delivery approaches: native application vs mobile web browser 117
    • Research the Field http://www.mobileawesomeness.com/ 118
    • Workshop Design Ideas and User Case Scenarios 119
    • Digital Mockups 120
    • So what did we decide?Enhanced Play ability to search and join games on the move start and stop games access game descriptions and informationBuild tools that took advantage of ‘on site’ buildingMessaging 121
    • So what did we decide? 122
    • Login 123
    • Home 124
    • Game Details / Game Poster 125
    • Play 126
    • Builder 127
    • Messaging 128
    • Categorisation & Navigation 129
    • And the cycle continues User Testing Feedback Workshops Design Develop 130
    • In Conclusion... Always design for the users They provide the context for the application of theoretical design principles Interface development is an iterative and ongoing process. Interface design never goes from idea to resolution in one step… 131