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In the mobile telecommunications industry, thetechnology is represented by two separate, yetequally important groups: the mobile devices,and the cellular networks that connect them.(These are their stories...) 2
Evolution of cell networks 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G... generations of cellular network technology that describe the maturity and capabilities of cellular networks most obvious trend is speed/bandwidth increase 3
Feature phone era: 1998 -2008camerasaddition of packet-switched data services to networksallowed ﬁrst use of the Internet on a phone.little real innovation and inconsistent interpretation of agreedupon standards.WAP 1.0 and WML provided a “dumbed down” version ofthe webstiﬂed by network operators who focussed on providingdownloadable ringtones, wallpapers, themes etc they couldsell through network portals.poor adoption of mobile web by consumers Motorola RAZR 7
Smart phones: 2002 -presentsome overlap between what is considered afeature phone and a smart phone.use a common operating system, a largerscreen size, a QWERTY keyboard or stylusfor input, and Wi-Fi or another form of high-speed wireless connectivity.consistent frameworks for creatingapplications and services, and a reusableinfrastructure to innovateWAP 2.0 speciﬁed use of cut down versionsof XHTML (XHTML-MP) and CSS, bringingdevelopment back in line with the desktopweb.Though standards compliance is still poor. 8
Some early mobile web browsers TextNetHopper for Apple Pocket Internet Explorer Opera Mini Newton 3.0 http://www.phonearena.com/news/Evolution-of-mobile-web-browsing_id9059 9
Touch phone era: January9, 2007 - presentThough the majority of the technology in the originaliPhone had already been available from othermanufacturers, what was notable about the iPhonewas how it changed every-day perceptions of whatmobile technology can do.It made using the mobile web worth while from aconsumer standpoint.http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/18/iphone-users-are-mobile-web-junkies/It made developing for the mobile web worth whilefrom a content provider and developer standpoint.Standards compliant web browsers that use the samerendering engines as their desktop counterparts. 11
Why mobile?Of the 6 Billion people onEarth, 3.6 Billion people own orhave access to mobile devices.Of those 1.6 Billion (andgrowing rapidly) have access tothe web through a mobiledevice.Thats 500 million more people predicted growth of mobile web accessthan have access to Internetconnected desktop computers. 13
“The [mobile] phone is bigger in its reach than the car(800 million), TV (1.5 billion), or Internet (1.1 billion). Itwill make bigger changes in the next decade than anyof these did. The [mobile] phone adds the combinedutility of the ﬁxed telephone, Internet, computer, creditcard, and TV. The phone will impact your life in moreways than we can imagine, because of its multi-functionality aspect, and its reach.” - Tomi Ahonenhttp://fora.tv/2009/09/24/ 14
Worldwide, the share of Internet pageviews originating frommobile devices increased 148% in the year to December ’09 http://www.quantcast.com/docs/display/info/Mobile+Report 15
Worldwide, the share of Internet pageviews originating frommobile devices increased 148% in the year to December ’09 http://www.quantcast.com/docs/display/info/Mobile+Report 17
Operating System share of mobile web http://gs.statcounter.com 18
Browser share of mobile web http://gs.statcounter.com 19
Browser share of mobile web by region - Africa http://gs.statcounter.com 20
Browser share of mobile web by region - South America http://gs.statcounter.com 21
Browser share of mobile web by region - Asia http://gs.statcounter.com 22
Browser share of mobile web by region - Japan http://gs.statcounter.com 23
Browser share of mobile web by region - Europe http://gs.statcounter.com 24
Browser share of mobile web by region - North America http://gs.statcounter.com 25
Browser share of mobile web by region - Oceania http://gs.statcounter.com 26
Identifying target market The global mobile device market is especially fragmented. Usage trends rarely map neatly across geography or demographics such as age, wealth, gender, education, profession etc. It is therefore critical more-so than ever to identify and proﬁle your target users’ needs and capabilities. 27
How do people use themobile web?Most common content segments are news, email,weather, sports, city guides, and social networksMobile users tend to perform quick, task basedbehaviours, often whilst in-between other tasks ormulti-tasking.
Mobile usage in Australia2009 43% of online Australians now own a smartphone 26% of social network users participated in mobile social networking in the past year. 66% of mobile social networkers are under 35 years of age http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/global/australia-getting-more-social- online-as-facebook-leads-and-twitter-grows/ 29
Mobile internet usage in Australia 201096% of Australianconsumers own amobile phoneof these 41% use it toaccess the internet (upfrom 26% last year) http://www.about.sensis.com.au/small-business/sensis-ebusiness-report/ 30
Mobile internet usage in Australia 2010Accessing information wasa key use of internet onmobile phones, withlooking for maps, weatherand news the topapplications.Social networking was alsoa highly used application;on par with people lookingfor information on productsand services (56% each). http://www.about.sensis.com.au/small-business/sensis-ebusiness-report/ 31
Mobile internet usage in Australia 2010Australians are not just usingthe internet on their mobilephones when other methods ofconnection are not available.The most frequently nominatedplaces for Australians to usethe internet on their mobilephones was at home or work(42%), regardless of the factthat they were likely to haveother methods to connect tothe internet at either of theselocations. http://www.about.sensis.com.au/small-business/sensis-ebusiness-report/ 32
Developing a mobile strategy1. Deﬁne the users’ context.2. Determine users’ goals and how they are altered by context.3. Determine the tasks the users want to perform to achieve goals.4. Filter content by context, such as location, media, and model.
ContextMobile devices have an unparalleled ability to leverage thecontext in which information is consumed (and produced)Context refers to the surroundings, circumstances,environment, background, or settings which determine, specify,or clarify meaning - a mental model to establish understanding. physical context (e.g. location) media context (what device is being used to access the content) modal context (user’s state of mind)
Context Wikitude eRuv: A Street History in Semacode
Context Who are your users? What do you know about them? What type of behaviour can you assume or predict? What is happening? What are the circumstances in which they will best absorb the content you intend to present? When will they interact? When they are home and have large amounts of time? At work, where they have short periods of focus? During idle periods, while waiting for a train? Where are they? Are they in a public space or a private space? Are they inside or outside? Is it day or is it night? Why will they use your app? What value will they gain from your content or services in their present situation? How are they using their mobile devices? Are they held in the hand or in the pocket? How are they holding it? Open or closed? Portrait or landscape?from Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling
Application contextutility: informative: short, task-based scenarios only goal is to provide information. Importance is on providing relevant minimal input, at-a-glance information information up front. e.g. calculator, clock, weather e.g. news sites, google reader, forecast wikipedialocale: productivity: use geolocation data to add context heavily task-based content and to information - e.g. ﬁnd restaurants services. close to me. e.g. ebay, banking e.g. google maps, foursquare immersive: designed to consume the user’s attention. often for entertainment purposes. e.g. games, video, google street-view
Application contextfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling
Sovereign vs Transientapplication sovereign application monopolises the users attention for long periods of time (e.g. wordprocessor) transient application comes and goes, presenting a single, high-relief function with a tightly restricted set of accompanying controls. The program is called when needed, it appears and performs its job, then it quickly leaves (e.g. instant messaging/SMS application) desktop applications tend to be sovereign while mobile applications tend to be transient.
Advantages of MobileDevicesPopularityPersonal and personalisablePortableConstant connectivity, always on and always with youAt the point of creative impulseBuilt-in payment channelCaptures social context of media consumption/productionCan interact with their environment
Mobile devices can interactwith their environment clock camera calendar microphone telephony thermometer messaging geolocation ambient light altitude compass
Mobile is a usage scenario more than aform factor mobile users are mobile they expect applications to adapt to their (unpredictable) surroundings
Mobile Device Design Constraints Input Limited keypad, small keys Pointing device? Touch? D-pad? Affects navigation Bandwidth & Cost Speed and latency issues, especially for lengthy content or content that requires a lot of navigation between pages
Mobile Device Design Constraints Device fragmentation Proprietary browsers The range of device and browser capabilities is much, much more varied than on the desktop Taming the madness - databases like Device Atlas and WURFL which contain data on thousands of mobile devices.
Implementation options for mobile applicationsfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling
Native mobile application Pros Cons Offer best user experience, Cannot be easily ported to leveraging all device features. other mobile platforms - multiple device support is Built in revenue model (app costly. stores) Require certiﬁcation and distribution from a third party that you have no control over. Require you to share revenue with the one or more third parties. 49
W3C Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/mobile-bp
Mobile browser capabilitiesfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling
Main Mobile Browser Engines Webkit Presto Gecko Trident Safari Chrome Mobile Safari Firefox Opera Internet ExplorerAndroid Browser Firefox Mobile Opera Mobile IE Mobile Blackberry (Fennec) Palm Kindle 53
WebkitSame rendering engine as used in Safari and Chromeon the desktop - capable of rendering the “real web”on mobile.Standards compliant.Used in mobile browsers by Apple, Android and Nokia,which together account for by far the largest chunk ofof the mobile internet market.Inﬂuencing other browsers to catch up fast. 54
HTML 5 to the rescue.HTML 5, and the current climate of New functionality allowed by HTMLintense development around 5 includes:optimising both desktop and native support for audio andmobile browsers for web video (without plugin)applications are quickly closing thegap between web and native canvas element for drawing /applications, especially in the animationmobile domain. document editinghttp://html5demos.com/ ofﬂine storage (keep workinghttp:// without internet connection)www.chromeexperiments.com/ drag and drophttp://www.apple.com/html5/ geolocation 55
Trends towards the future... The trends are towards even more “native” feel. persistence push more APIs for accessing phone features (telephony, address book, location, camera, media, ﬁlesystem etc.) embedded web (pervasive throughout phone os) http://www.slideshare.net/pgolding/mobile-web-evolution-rich- mobile-applications-and-realtime-web-ux http://www.slideshare.net/ricferraro/evolution-of-mobile-web-ric- ferraro-presentation
Native application vs web application -the narrowing gap. http://www.slideshare.net/mihaiionescu/html5-and-google-chrome-devfest09
Native application vs web application? either way the implementation may differ, the design principles are very much the same
Designing for multiple screen sizes andorientations http://mobiforge.com/designing/story/effective-design-multiple-screen-sizes http://sender11.typepad.com/sender11/2008/04/mobile-screen-s.html
Pixel density physical screen size and resolution do not map as neatly on mobile as they do on desktop pixel density is increasing faster than physical screen size (ﬁngers remain largely the same)
Designing for multiple screen sizes and orientations Decide early on which screen sizes you will design for (needs analysis). Write semantic code that communicates without the addition of complex visuals. Where possible use ﬂexible layouts that automatically adapt/scale to screen width. (Modern, touch browsers are good at doing this themselves with pinch-zoom, tap-zoom and auto- orientation) Responsive web design with CSS media queries - http://www.alistapart.com/articles/ responsive-web-design/ Deﬁne rules for content adaption across screen sizes.
Information architecture -Navigation Most make or break component of mobile interface design. Users will quickly get frustrated with poor navigation and go elsewhere / give up. Affected by both display and input and compounded by the network latency.
Design touch friendly webpagesFinger tips are typically around 10mm in sizeSpace elements far enough apart to avoid overlapsbetween touch targets.A stylus can easily be used on an interface designed fortouch, but not the other way round.Take advantage of multi-touch gesturesuse sensors, local storage, contextual form inputs etcto reduce required manual input.
Navigation - desktop vs mobileTypical desktop webpagelayout with horizontal primarynavigation and secondarysidebar navigation does notmap well to the mobile
Navigation - desktop vs mobile Typical mobile webpage layout Design for vertical scrolling The most contextual information at the top Content consumes majority of the screen Exit points at the bottom
Navigation - mobile The most common method of creating mobile navigation schemes is to use a simple vertical list of options, often assigning and listing the corresponding numbers (0–9) to the accesskeys for keypad navigation. Showing multiple levels of navigation within your list usually doesn’t work well because it gives users too many options and consumes valuable screen area. A better way is to show only the options related to the page they’re viewing. http://mobiforge.com/book/mobile-web-navigation-paradigms
Putting contextually relevant informationabove the fold The area of a page that is viewable without scrolling (known as “above the fold”) is much smaller on a mobile screen. The most contextually relevant information should appear above the fold.
Don’t reinvent the wheel Often (but not always) common design problem patterns have common solutions. Take advantage of the research and expertise of others. http://patterns.design4mobile.com/index.php/ Main_Page#Design_Patterns http://patterntap.com/ http://www.mobileawesomeness.com/ http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/01/13/
Designing for different mobile browser capabilitiesfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling
Progressive enhancement / graceful degradationfrom Mobile Design and DevelopmentPractical concepts and techniques for creating mobile sites and web apps by Brian Fling
Keep content, logic and presentation separate Model-View-Controller Framework e.g. Template Views e.g. Wordpress Controller e.g. MySQL Database Model
Keep content, logic and presentation separate Desktop e.g. Template Mobile Views Views e.g. Wordpress Controller e.g. MySQL Database Model
Wordpress Mobile Pack Plugin http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wordpress-mobile- pack/ Selects themes based on the type of user visiting the site.
XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet LanguageTransformations) Content is deﬁned as XML and then XSLT is used, along with multiple markup languages like HTML, XHTML, WML, XHTML Basic, XHTML-MP, and so on, to provide the proper rendering markup for the viewing context http://www.w3schools.com/xsl/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XSLT
Device Independent Authoring Language(DIAL) Working draft standard for a markup language for the ﬁltering and presentation of Web page content available across different delivery contexts. intended XML language proﬁle of XHTML2 (also a draft) http://www.w3.org/TR/dial/
CSS media querieshttp://css-tricks.com/6731-css-media-queries/http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-mediaqueries/
Desktop Web to Mobile WebWhat content/functionality from my desktop web site willbe useful on a mobile device? How will it need to be re-presented so that it works in a mobile context? Will it still be familiar to the user once it is re-presented?What content/functionality will I leave out of the mobilewebsite? Will it break?What extra or enhanced functionality can a mobilewebsite offer my users that the desktop version doesnot?
Desktop Web to Mobile WebDesktop Shared functionality, different presentation Extended/enhanced functionality Mobile
What are the range of devicecapabilities my mobile websitewill target? What devices do my prospective users have? What devices are capable of providing the functionality my users will want? Trade-off of functionality vs. risk of alienating users with incapable devices
Option 1 - Do NothingDesktop version of site is served to mobile devices un-altered
Option 2 - Multi-Serve Same page content delivered to mobile and desktop devices, but CSS and resources (e.g. images) are tailored to the smaller form factor
Option 3 - Mobile-SpeciﬁcMobile-speciﬁc content is created and served to mobiledevices.
In practical terms... A single 500KB webpage will take a minute to download over a GSM connection. This is the best case scenario - cell networks almost never operate near theoretical maximum speeds and this doesn’t take into account typically high cell network latency and slow browser rendering speed on low-powered mobile devices. The same page could be downloaded and rendered in under a second on a modern desktop browser over a wiﬁ connection.
Users won’t see what they can’tbe bothered to wait for to display Most uses ﬁnd wait times more than a few seconds unacceptable. Tolerance is even less if page refreshes are frequent or the context is that of an application where perceived lag will be compared with native apps.
A picture isn’t always wortha thousand words. It takes roughly the same amount of space to store a character as a pixel. Therefore a 70px x 70px image takes as long to download as 1000 words of text. Compress your images (duh). Resolution and colour depth both affect image size. Find out what the display capabilities of your target devices are and only serve images of the required dimensions and colour depth. Many older browsers give the option (often by default) to view pages without images, so make sure to code your HTML semantically so it makes sense without them (e.g. include alt-text)
Testing mobile websitesIn an ideal world you would have one of every deviceyour are targeting to test on.Try and at least test on one real device that is indicativeof your main target market.If you can’t afford one, borrow, or even test on demodevices in store.Get the users to test for you with their own devices -provide an easy method for users to give feedback.
Usability TestingTest with real users in real contexts. Active - go to the users. Conduct workshops, trials etc. Passive - provide a way for users to send you feedback.
Functional Testing Tests if your implementation is functional - the features/ mechanics of your site.
Contextual Testing Tests if your design has successfully solved the design problem. How does the user experience render on the device? Does it load quickly, correctly? Progress indicators? On wi-ﬁ, 3G, 2G? Do the physical features of the device work correctly? (keys, orientation change etc.) What happens if the device loses its connection? Can it work in ofﬂine mode and recover once connection is re-established. Does geolocation provide an acceptable level of accuracy in different environments? etc.
Testing mobile websites -Desktop testing User agent switcher extension for Firefox - http://chrispederick.com/ work/user-agent-switcher/
Testing mobile websites -Desktop testing Opera’s small-screen view
Testing mobile websites -Simulators and Emulators dotMobi emulator - http://mtld.mobi/emulator.php
Mobile Emulators & SimulatorsModel Ofﬁcial Platform Type Browser testing CompatibilityApple iOS Ofﬁcial iOS Simulator Safari MacGoogle Android Ofﬁcial Android Emulator Android Win, Mac, UnixNokia Symbian Ofﬁcial Symbian Emulator S60 Browser WinWindows Phone 7 Ofﬁcial Windows Phone Emulator Internet Explorer WinBlackBerry Ofﬁcial RIM OS Emulator RIM Browser WinHP webOS Ofﬁcial webOS Virtual Machine webOS Win, Mac, UnixOpera Mobile Ofﬁcial multi-platform Simulator Opera Mobile Win, Mac, UnixOpera Mini Ofﬁcial multi-platform Online Emulator Opera Mini Win, Mac, UnixFirefox for Mobile Ofﬁcial multi-platform Simulator Firefox Mobile Win, Mac, Unix https://github.com/shichuan/mobile-html5-boilerplate/wiki/Mobile-Emulators-%26-Simulators
Testing mobile websites -Remote Access to Real DevicesDevice Anywhere - http://www.deviceanywhere.com/
The Cipher Cities MobileWeb Design Process...
Research the FieldFeasibility analysis Current device capabilities and future trends Market saturation Web mobile usage statistics Different delivery approaches: native application vs mobile web browser
Research the Field http://www.mobileawesomeness.com/
Workshop Design Ideas and User Case Scenarios
So what did we decide?Enhanced Play ability to search and join games on the move start and stop games access game descriptions and informationBuild tools that took advantage of ‘on site’ buildingMessaging
And the cycle continues User Testing Feedback Workshops Design Develop
In Conclusion... Always design for the users They provide the context for the application of theoretical design principles Interface development is an iterative and ongoing process. Interface design never goes from idea to resolution in one step…