2. Project Development.
• You have now found it important
to develop a nutrition project to
address a nutrition problem.
A project is a specific task or series of tasks
which, when completed, will produce a
A project occurs when you have a goal
and a plan to achieve that goal. The
journey, how you get there, is part of
• All sorts of people are involved in a
project. It needs to be designed, to be
managed, monitored and reviewed.
• Note that the tasks involved in a project
need to be clearly and comprehensively
defined before the project begins.
• A failure to understand the requirements
and desired end result can produce a
• A project can be of almost any size from
massive to minute. It can take weeks, months
or even years to complete or could be finished
in a day.
• There are several factors as part of every
successful project and the first one is knowing
exactly what is involved.
Most projects contain these basic
• They have a specific objective
• They have an agreed upon time span
• They involve something new or unique
• They have certain requirements such as
cost and a method of achievement
7. Project cycle
A project must follow a Project Cycle (Also called
project life cycle.
Stages through which practically every major
project goes through:
8. Project cycle
(1) Identification: stage where one project-idea out of several
alternatives is chosen and defined.
(2) Preparation: defined idea is carefully developed to the appraisal
(3) Appraisal: every aspect of the project idea is subjected to
systematic and comprehensive evaluation, and a project plan is
(4) Presentation: detailed plan is submitted for approval and
financing to the appropriate entities.
(5) Implementation: with necessary approvals and financing in
place, the project plan is implemented.
(6) Monitoring: at every stage the progress of the project is
assessed against the plan.
(7) Evaluation: upon completion the project is reassessed in terms
of its efficiency and performance. Also called project life cycle.
9. Project cycle
1. Identification: stage where one project-idea out
of several alternatives is chosen and defined.
You first need to identify a broad topic or
subject area within nutrition that interests you
and then within this identify a very specific area
in which there is either a gap in knowledge or
controversy that you can address in your
From this you will ultimately need to develop a
formal research question or hypothesis
10. Project cycle…
2. Preparation: defined idea is carefully
developed to the appraisal stage.
3. Appraisal: every aspect of the project idea is
subjected to systematic and comprehensive
evaluation, and a project plan is prepared.
11. Project cycle…
4. Presentation: detailed plan is submitted for
approval and financing to the appropriate
5. Implementation: with necessary approvals
and financing in place, the project plan is
12. Project cycle
At every stage the progress of the project is
assessed against the plan.
Monitoring is the way in which projects are
measured, managed and kept on track
according to the plans: if a project
cannot be monitored and measured, it
cannot be managed.
13. Monitoring …
Project management must keep asking the
questions: 'have the funds been disbursed on
schedule, will this activity lead to the planned
Are there any important Assumptions that
need attention and will the Outputs lead to
achieving Project Purpose?'
• A Monitoring tool must be
developed for this purpose
15. Project cycle
Upon completion the project is
reassessed in terms of its efficiency
Evaluation is when the assessment of the
project is undertaken and any lessons
learnt can be identified and
16. Evaluation …
A decision about Evaluation is taken at the
Formulation stage and the initial points
to be included should have been
drafted by the project design team.
• An evaluation tool must be
developed for this purpose
18. Monitoring and evaluation
monitoring and evaluation.
19. Monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation is the process of
collecting and analyzing information about
the project that tells you whether you are
on track to reach your objectives, and
whether or not the project achieved or
contributed to the desired impact.
20. Monitoring and evaluation
In order to know whether or not you are on
track to achieving your program’s objectives,
you must monitor the project during
implementation as well as evaluate its impact
at the end of the project.
Monitoring the progress of the project allows
you to adapt the program as needed to
ensure that you attain your objectives.
21. Monitoring and evaluation..
• It is necessary to plan for monitoring and
evaluation when you design your
• This will help you both to design an
effective program and ensure that you
plan (and budget) for appropriate
monitoring and evaluation activities.
22. Monitoring and evaluation..
The process of monitoring and evaluation generally
helps you answer the following questions:
• Are we doing what we said we were going to do?
• Are we achieving what we said we would achieve?
• Is the project design sound? How can it be
• What were the unintended consequences?
• Is our program causing the observed changes?
23. Monitoring and evaluation..
Or, in the Causal Pathway Framework language:
Inputs: Were program inputs available, adequate,
Activities: Were activities performed on schedule?
Outputs: Were outputs produced?
Were they of acceptable quality?
Effects: Were effects observed?
Impact: Was impact achieved?