Interactive Media

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Slides from the Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media course of the Interactive Media and Knowledge Environments master program (Tallinn University).

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Interactive Media

  1. 1. Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media<br />Interactive Media<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Etymology<br />Essential characteristics<br />The environmental thesis and the anti-deterministic view<br />Technology acceptance models<br />Digital natives and digital immigrants<br />The Millennials<br />Innovation adoption stages<br />A look into the future<br />Related careers<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Computing in the humanities<br />1978<br />Computing in the humanities is a field dominated by amateurs, in the best sense of this word. Nothing forces a critic to put texts on a computer; no composer is compelled to seek the aid of a machine; even the programmers employed on this kind of project are likely to be there by inclination rather than by accident. Economic motives are also largely absent: in general, nobody makes or saves money by using computers for such applications, and only occasionally can the machine save time.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Immersed<br />2011<br />Interactive technologies are all around us…<br /> Paying bills<br />Buying food<br />Fueling our cars<br />Opening doors<br />Global positioning systems<br />Closed-circuit television<br />Electronically recorded transactions<br />Mobile phones<br />Social networks<br />Information rivers<br />Tablets<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />
  5. 5. Immersed<br />2011<br />Interactive technologies are all around us…<br />Touch and multi-touch displays<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Immersed<br />2011<br />Interactive technologies are all around us…<br />Augmented reality<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Immersed<br />2011<br />Interactive technologies are all around us…<br />Ambient intelligence<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Interactive media<br />Inter<br />Among, between<br />Action<br />The fact or process of doing something, typically to achieve an aim <br />Media<br />The plural form of medium, an agency or means of doing something, something we use to communicate with<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Interactive media<br />Interactive media is…<br />The integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerized environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes<br />Related to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user’s actions by presenting content such as text, graphics, animation, video, audio, etc…<br />Interactive media…<br />allows users to participate and edit the content<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Interactive media<br />But some argue that interactive media is not…<br />limited to electronic media or digital media<br /> They include board games, pop-up books and flip might be also considered examples of printed interactive media<br /> Some will even argue that books with a simple table of contents or index may be considered interactive due to the non-linear control mechanism in the medium…<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Interactive media<br />And interactive media is not…<br />New media<br />On one hand, interactive media enables the dynamic life of the new media content and its interactive relationship with the prosumers<br />On the other, interactive media might just be used to “update” older media<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Essential characteristics<br />On one hand, interactive media retains some of the qualities of both artistic media and mass media<br />But in the other hand, the very nature of these older media forms has been subjected to change by the qualities of computing devices<br />As such and with the relationship between old and new interactive media in mind<br />It is important to establish what is new about interactive media. In other words, what makes interactive media be interactive media.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Essential characteristics<br />The technological convergence of multiple media<br />Intermedia<br />Multimedia<br />Hypermedia<br />Generative content creation<br />The digitization, abstraction and simulation of old media<br />Increased fidelity<br />Quality of representation<br />Non-linearity<br />Immediacy<br />The interactive authoring and interpretation of meaning<br />Interaction with and through the enabling technology<br />Relating production and interpretation<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Essential characteristics<br />The fact is that…<br />Interactive media is changing the way in which we relate to our surroundings by changing the nature of the media that we are already familiar with<br />One should ask…<br />How do we establish what these changes and the resulting characteristics of<br />interactive media are?<br />Today, we will address this question peeking at some theoretical landmarks…<br />The environmental thesis<br />The anti-deterministic view<br />The technology acceptance models<br />The notions of digital native and digital immigrants<br />The Millennials<br />Innovation adoption stages<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />14<br />
  15. 15. The environmental thesis<br />For McLuhan (1967) we are metaphorically fish that are unaware of the mediating water that surrounds us<br />Fish of course, having evolved to be perfectly adapted to the life in the medium of water, are not aware of its existence<br />Water is the ecological niche into which they were born into<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />15<br />
  16. 16. The anti-deterministic view<br />For Williams (1974) it is human agency and the activities of societies and cultures that affect the nature of technology, not the other way around<br />In this case…<br />Technology is always developed with some human need or intention in mind<br />It is aimed at solving some problem or improving some pre-existing social situation<br />People are always in control of its development <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Technology acceptance model<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />17<br />Davis F. D. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quartely, 13/1989, pp. 319–339.<br />
  18. 18. Extension of the acceptance model<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />18<br />Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F. D. 2000. Theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46: 2, pp. 186–204.<br />
  19. 19. Unified theory of acceptance and use<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />19<br />Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B. and Davis, F. D. 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27. No. 3, September, pp. 425–478.<br />
  20. 20. Basic acceptance model concepts<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />20<br />Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B. and Davis, F. D. 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27. No. 3, September, pp. 425–478.<br />
  21. 21. Digital natives<br />Digital natives grew up using digital technology, and they’re often acting as guides for digital immigrants<br />They are typically Millennials<br />(There are no precise dates for when the Millennial generation starts and ends, and commentators have used birth dates ranging somewhere from the mid-1970s[6] to the mid 1990s, with some sources including as late as the early 2000’s)<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />21<br />http://abm.typepad.com/mediapace/2008/07/index.html<br />
  22. 22. Millennials?<br />Also named…<br />Generation Now<br />has been used as well to reflect the urge for instant-gratification that technology has imparted<br />Computer Generation<br />Generation D<br />for Digital<br />Generation M<br />for Millennium or Multi-Task<br />Net Gen<br /> a shortened form of Net Generation<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Millennials?<br />Some interesting facts…<br />97% own a computer<br />94% own a cell phone<br />76% use Instant Messaging<br />15% of IM users are logged on 24/7<br />34% use Web sites as their primary source of news<br />28% own a blog and 44% read blogs<br />49% download music using peer-to-peer file sharing<br />75% of college students have a Facebook account<br />60% own some type of portable music or video device such as an iPod<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Digital immigrants<br />Digital immigrants like their information delivered in a linear, logical sequence, but digital natives prefer random access to hyperlinked information<br />They already entered the digital world as adults<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Innovation adoption stages<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />25<br />Rogers, E. M. 1995. The diffusion of innovations. Fourth edition. New York. Free Press.<br />
  26. 26. Innovation adoption stages<br />Innovators<br />Innovators are the first individuals to adopt an innovation. Innovators are willing to take risks, youngest in age, have the highest social class, have great financial lucidity, very social and have closest contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators. Risk tolerance has them adopting technologies which may ultimately fail. Financial resources help absorb these failures.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />26<br />Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.<br />
  27. 27. Innovation adoption stages<br />Early Adopters<br />This is the second fastest category of individuals who adopt an innovation. These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the other adopter categories. Early adopters are typically younger in age, have a higher social status, have more financial lucidity, advanced education, and are more socially forward than late adopters. More discrete in adoption choices than innovators. Realize judicious choice of adoption will help them maintain central communication position.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />27<br />Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.<br />
  28. 28. Innovation adoption stages<br />Early Majority<br />Individuals in this category adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time. This time of adoption is significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. Early Majority tend to be slower in the adoption process, have above average social status, contact with early adopters, and seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />28<br />Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.<br />
  29. 29. Innovation adoption stages<br />Late Majority<br />Individuals in this category will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. These individuals approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticism and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. Late Majority are typically skeptical about an innovation, have below average social status, very little financial lucidity, in contact with others in late majority and early majority, very little opinion leadership.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />29<br />Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.<br />
  30. 30. Innovation adoption stages<br />Laggards<br />Individuals in this category are the last to adopt an innovation. Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents and tend to be advanced in age. Laggards typically tend to be focused on “traditions”, have lowest social status, lowest financial fluidity, oldest of all other adopters, in contact with only family and close friends, very little to no opinion leadership.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />30<br />Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.<br />
  31. 31. Innovation adoption chasm<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />31<br />Moore, G. A. 1999. Crossing the Chasm. Second Edition. Capstone Publishing, Oxford.<br />
  32. 32. A look into the future<br />Five powerful trends<br />Most growth in the interactive media market will occur outside of today’s high income, or “advanced,” economies<br />Global governance of the Internet will remain substantially unchanged<br />Digital natives will relate to the Internet in markedly different ways than earlier generations<br />The QWERTY keyboard will not be the primary interface with the Internet<br />Consumers will pay for Internet connectivity in a much wider range of ways<br />(with flat pricing a rarity)<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />32<br />Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.<br />
  33. 33. A look into the future<br />Three areas of uncertainty<br />Will broadband network build-out be extensive as a result of the combined effect of private and public investment, or more limited?<br />Will technological progress be characterized more by breakthroughs or mostly represent incremental advances?<br />Will user behavior, including the appetite for ever-richer interactive media applications, lead to demand growth being unbridled or more constrained?<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />33<br />Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.<br />
  34. 34. A look into the future<br />Four possible scenarios<br />Fluid frontiers<br /> A world in which the Internet becomes pervasive and centrifugal<br />Technology continues to make connectivity and devices more and more affordable, in spite of limited investment in network build-out, while global entrepreneurship and fierce competition ensure that the wide range of needs and demands from across the world are met quickly and from equally diverse setups and locations<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />34<br />Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.<br />
  35. 35. A look into the future<br />Four possible scenarios<br />Insecure growth<br /> A world in which users, individuals and business alike, are inhibited from intensive reliance on the Internet<br />Relentless cyber attacks driven by wide-ranging motivations defy the preventive capabilities of governments and international bodies<br />Secure alternatives emerge, but they are expensive<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />35<br />Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.<br />
  36. 36. A look into the future<br />Four possible scenarios<br />Short of the promise<br /> A frugal world in which prolonged economic stagnation in many countries takes its toll on the spread of the Internet<br /> Technology offers no compensating breakthroughs, and protectionist policy responses to economic weakness make matters worse both in economic terms and with regard to network technology adoption<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />36<br />Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.<br />
  37. 37. A look into the future<br />Four possible scenarios<br />Bursting at the seams<br /> A world in which the Internet becomes a victim of its own success<br />Demand for IP-based services is boundless, but capacity constraints and occasional bottlenecks create a gap between the expectations and reality of Internet use<br />Meanwhile, international technology standards don’t come to pass, in part because of a global backlash against decades of U.S. technology dominance<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />37<br />Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.<br />
  38. 38. Related careers<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />38<br />http://www.skillset.org/interactive/careers/<br />
  39. 39. Related careers<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />39<br />http://www.skillset.org/interactive/careers/<br />Where the bars fade out, this indicates that career progression usually requires moving into a different role at this point - typically to one that is adjacent or nearby on the diagram above<br />Where the bars do not fade out, this indicates that career progression is possible within the role, with increasingly senior positions usually being available<br />
  40. 40. Interactive media recap<br />Etymology<br />Essential characteristics<br />The environmental thesis and the anti-deterministic view<br />Technology acceptance models<br />Digital natives and digital immigrants<br />The Millennials<br />Innovation adoption stages<br />A look into the future<br />Related careers<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />40<br />
  41. 41. One final question<br />So… do we drive or are we driven by the development of interactive media?<br />Does any of the initially presented models prevail?<br />Does the answer depend on our digital citizenship status?<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />41<br />

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