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Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
Interactive Media
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Interactive Media

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Slides from the Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media course of the Interactive Media and Knowledge Environments master program (Tallinn University).

Slides from the Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media course of the Interactive Media and Knowledge Environments master program (Tallinn University).

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  • 1. Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media
    Interactive Media
  • 2. Contents
    Etymology
    Essential characteristics
    The environmental thesis and the anti-deterministic view
    Technology acceptance models
    Digital natives and digital immigrants
    The Millennials
    Innovation adoption stages
    A look into the future
    Related careers
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    2
  • 3. Computing in the humanities
    1978
    Computing in the humanities is a field dominated by amateurs, in the best sense of this word. Nothing forces a critic to put texts on a computer; no composer is compelled to seek the aid of a machine; even the programmers employed on this kind of project are likely to be there by inclination rather than by accident. Economic motives are also largely absent: in general, nobody makes or saves money by using computers for such applications, and only occasionally can the machine save time.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    3
  • 4. Immersed
    2011
    Interactive technologies are all around us…
    Paying bills
    Buying food
    Fueling our cars
    Opening doors
    Global positioning systems
    Closed-circuit television
    Electronically recorded transactions
    Mobile phones
    Social networks
    Information rivers
    Tablets
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 5. Immersed
    2011
    Interactive technologies are all around us…
    Touch and multi-touch displays
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    5
  • 6. Immersed
    2011
    Interactive technologies are all around us…
    Augmented reality
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    6
  • 7. Immersed
    2011
    Interactive technologies are all around us…
    Ambient intelligence
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    7
  • 8. Interactive media
    Inter
    Among, between
    Action
    The fact or process of doing something, typically to achieve an aim
    Media
    The plural form of medium, an agency or means of doing something, something we use to communicate with
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    8
  • 9. Interactive media
    Interactive media is…
    The integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerized environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes
    Related to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user’s actions by presenting content such as text, graphics, animation, video, audio, etc…
    Interactive media…
    allows users to participate and edit the content
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    9
  • 10. Interactive media
    But some argue that interactive media is not…
    limited to electronic media or digital media
    They include board games, pop-up books and flip might be also considered examples of printed interactive media
    Some will even argue that books with a simple table of contents or index may be considered interactive due to the non-linear control mechanism in the medium…
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    10
  • 11. Interactive media
    And interactive media is not…
    New media
    On one hand, interactive media enables the dynamic life of the new media content and its interactive relationship with the prosumers
    On the other, interactive media might just be used to “update” older media
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    11
  • 12. Essential characteristics
    On one hand, interactive media retains some of the qualities of both artistic media and mass media
    But in the other hand, the very nature of these older media forms has been subjected to change by the qualities of computing devices
    As such and with the relationship between old and new interactive media in mind
    It is important to establish what is new about interactive media. In other words, what makes interactive media be interactive media.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    12
  • 13. Essential characteristics
    The technological convergence of multiple media
    Intermedia
    Multimedia
    Hypermedia
    Generative content creation
    The digitization, abstraction and simulation of old media
    Increased fidelity
    Quality of representation
    Non-linearity
    Immediacy
    The interactive authoring and interpretation of meaning
    Interaction with and through the enabling technology
    Relating production and interpretation
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    13
  • 14. Essential characteristics
    The fact is that…
    Interactive media is changing the way in which we relate to our surroundings by changing the nature of the media that we are already familiar with
    One should ask…
    How do we establish what these changes and the resulting characteristics of
    interactive media are?
    Today, we will address this question peeking at some theoretical landmarks…
    The environmental thesis
    The anti-deterministic view
    The technology acceptance models
    The notions of digital native and digital immigrants
    The Millennials
    Innovation adoption stages
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    14
  • 15. The environmental thesis
    For McLuhan (1967) we are metaphorically fish that are unaware of the mediating water that surrounds us
    Fish of course, having evolved to be perfectly adapted to the life in the medium of water, are not aware of its existence
    Water is the ecological niche into which they were born into
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    15
  • 16. The anti-deterministic view
    For Williams (1974) it is human agency and the activities of societies and cultures that affect the nature of technology, not the other way around
    In this case…
    Technology is always developed with some human need or intention in mind
    It is aimed at solving some problem or improving some pre-existing social situation
    People are always in control of its development
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    16
  • 17. Technology acceptance model
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    17
    Davis F. D. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quartely, 13/1989, pp. 319–339.
  • 18. Extension of the acceptance model
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    18
    Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F. D. 2000. Theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46: 2, pp. 186–204.
  • 19. Unified theory of acceptance and use
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    19
    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B. and Davis, F. D. 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27. No. 3, September, pp. 425–478.
  • 20. Basic acceptance model concepts
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    20
    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B. and Davis, F. D. 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27. No. 3, September, pp. 425–478.
  • 21. Digital natives
    Digital natives grew up using digital technology, and they’re often acting as guides for digital immigrants
    They are typically Millennials
    (There are no precise dates for when the Millennial generation starts and ends, and commentators have used birth dates ranging somewhere from the mid-1970s[6] to the mid 1990s, with some sources including as late as the early 2000’s)
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    21
    http://abm.typepad.com/mediapace/2008/07/index.html
  • 22. Millennials?
    Also named…
    Generation Now
    has been used as well to reflect the urge for instant-gratification that technology has imparted
    Computer Generation
    Generation D
    for Digital
    Generation M
    for Millennium or Multi-Task
    Net Gen
    a shortened form of Net Generation
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    22
  • 23. Millennials?
    Some interesting facts…
    97% own a computer
    94% own a cell phone
    76% use Instant Messaging
    15% of IM users are logged on 24/7
    34% use Web sites as their primary source of news
    28% own a blog and 44% read blogs
    49% download music using peer-to-peer file sharing
    75% of college students have a Facebook account
    60% own some type of portable music or video device such as an iPod
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    23
  • 24. Digital immigrants
    Digital immigrants like their information delivered in a linear, logical sequence, but digital natives prefer random access to hyperlinked information
    They already entered the digital world as adults
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    24
  • 25. Innovation adoption stages
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    25
    Rogers, E. M. 1995. The diffusion of innovations. Fourth edition. New York. Free Press.
  • 26. Innovation adoption stages
    Innovators
    Innovators are the first individuals to adopt an innovation. Innovators are willing to take risks, youngest in age, have the highest social class, have great financial lucidity, very social and have closest contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators. Risk tolerance has them adopting technologies which may ultimately fail. Financial resources help absorb these failures.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    26
    Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 27. Innovation adoption stages
    Early Adopters
    This is the second fastest category of individuals who adopt an innovation. These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the other adopter categories. Early adopters are typically younger in age, have a higher social status, have more financial lucidity, advanced education, and are more socially forward than late adopters. More discrete in adoption choices than innovators. Realize judicious choice of adoption will help them maintain central communication position.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    27
    Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 28. Innovation adoption stages
    Early Majority
    Individuals in this category adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time. This time of adoption is significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. Early Majority tend to be slower in the adoption process, have above average social status, contact with early adopters, and seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    28
    Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 29. Innovation adoption stages
    Late Majority
    Individuals in this category will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. These individuals approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticism and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. Late Majority are typically skeptical about an innovation, have below average social status, very little financial lucidity, in contact with others in late majority and early majority, very little opinion leadership.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    29
    Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 30. Innovation adoption stages
    Laggards
    Individuals in this category are the last to adopt an innovation. Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents and tend to be advanced in age. Laggards typically tend to be focused on “traditions”, have lowest social status, lowest financial fluidity, oldest of all other adopters, in contact with only family and close friends, very little to no opinion leadership.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    30
    Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 31. Innovation adoption chasm
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    31
    Moore, G. A. 1999. Crossing the Chasm. Second Edition. Capstone Publishing, Oxford.
  • 32. A look into the future
    Five powerful trends
    Most growth in the interactive media market will occur outside of today’s high income, or “advanced,” economies
    Global governance of the Internet will remain substantially unchanged
    Digital natives will relate to the Internet in markedly different ways than earlier generations
    The QWERTY keyboard will not be the primary interface with the Internet
    Consumers will pay for Internet connectivity in a much wider range of ways
    (with flat pricing a rarity)
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    32
    Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  • 33. A look into the future
    Three areas of uncertainty
    Will broadband network build-out be extensive as a result of the combined effect of private and public investment, or more limited?
    Will technological progress be characterized more by breakthroughs or mostly represent incremental advances?
    Will user behavior, including the appetite for ever-richer interactive media applications, lead to demand growth being unbridled or more constrained?
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    33
    Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  • 34. A look into the future
    Four possible scenarios
    Fluid frontiers
    A world in which the Internet becomes pervasive and centrifugal
    Technology continues to make connectivity and devices more and more affordable, in spite of limited investment in network build-out, while global entrepreneurship and fierce competition ensure that the wide range of needs and demands from across the world are met quickly and from equally diverse setups and locations
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    34
    Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  • 35. A look into the future
    Four possible scenarios
    Insecure growth
    A world in which users, individuals and business alike, are inhibited from intensive reliance on the Internet
    Relentless cyber attacks driven by wide-ranging motivations defy the preventive capabilities of governments and international bodies
    Secure alternatives emerge, but they are expensive
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    35
    Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  • 36. A look into the future
    Four possible scenarios
    Short of the promise
    A frugal world in which prolonged economic stagnation in many countries takes its toll on the spread of the Internet
    Technology offers no compensating breakthroughs, and protectionist policy responses to economic weakness make matters worse both in economic terms and with regard to network technology adoption
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    36
    Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  • 37. A look into the future
    Four possible scenarios
    Bursting at the seams
    A world in which the Internet becomes a victim of its own success
    Demand for IP-based services is boundless, but capacity constraints and occasional bottlenecks create a gap between the expectations and reality of Internet use
    Meanwhile, international technology standards don’t come to pass, in part because of a global backlash against decades of U.S. technology dominance
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    37
    Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  • 38. Related careers
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    38
    http://www.skillset.org/interactive/careers/
  • 39. Related careers
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    39
    http://www.skillset.org/interactive/careers/
    Where the bars fade out, this indicates that career progression usually requires moving into a different role at this point - typically to one that is adjacent or nearby on the diagram above
    Where the bars do not fade out, this indicates that career progression is possible within the role, with increasingly senior positions usually being available
  • 40. Interactive media recap
    Etymology
    Essential characteristics
    The environmental thesis and the anti-deterministic view
    Technology acceptance models
    Digital natives and digital immigrants
    The Millennials
    Innovation adoption stages
    A look into the future
    Related careers
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    40
  • 41. One final question
    So… do we drive or are we driven by the development of interactive media?
    Does any of the initially presented models prevail?
    Does the answer depend on our digital citizenship status?
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    41

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