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Interaction styles
 

Interaction styles

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Slides from the Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media course of the Interactive Media and Knowledge Environments master program (Tallinn University).

Slides from the Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media course of the Interactive Media and Knowledge Environments master program (Tallinn University).

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    Interaction styles Interaction styles Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media
      Interaction Styles
    • Contents
      Etymology
      The relation between the evolution of computing and the main interaction styles
      The technological hype cycle and adoption timings
      Related knowledge domains
      Beyond interacting with digital media
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      2
    • Personal computing
      1978
      It is generally thought that a computer must cost under USD 1000.00 to have mass-market appeal. A machine at that price today is a minimal computer system. It has as little as 8KB of user memory, uses audio cassettes for mass storage, and has a CRT display for output. Today’s computer is programmed in BASC. Small amounts of application software are available on cassettes.
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      3
    • Data storage
      1978
      A new approach to storing data in computers, using a tunable dye laser, is described in US Patent 4,101,976 awarded to scientists at IBM’s San Jose Research Laboratory. Based on a photochemical process called ‘hole burning’, the new system provides a unique method for increasing the amount of information that can be packed into a given space.
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      4
    • Mobile computing
      1994
      Recent advances in technology have provided portable computers with wireless interfaces that allow networked communication even while a user is mobile. Whereas today’s first-generation notebook computers and personal digital assistants are self-contained, networked mobile computers are part of a greater infrastructure. Mobile computing will very likely revolutionize the way we use computers.
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      5
    • Interaction styles
      Inter
      Among, between
      Action
      the fact or process of doing something, typically to achieve an aim
      Interaction
      Reciprocal action or influence
      Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another
      The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect
      Style
      A manner of doing something
      A way of painting, a way of writing…
      A way of interacting
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    • Interaction styles
      In our case…
      Ways of interacting with and through interactive media
      Ways of communicating with and by means of computerized environments
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      7
    • The evolution of computing
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      8
      Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
    • The evolution of computing
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      9
      Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
    • Main interaction styles
      Command line interfaces
      Graphical user interfaces
      Natural user interfaces
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      10
    • The evolution of computing
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      11
      Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
    • Physical programming
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      12
      In the beginning it was
      all about interacting
      with the computer
    • Card punching and reading
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      13
      Batch processing
    • A teletypewriter
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      14
      The birth of the Command
      Line Interface
    • Early graphic workstation
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      15
      An initial Graphic
      User Interface
    • A mouse prototype
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      16
      Invented by
      Douglas Engelbart
    • A video-display unit
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      17
      The oN-Line System
      featuring a display,
      a keyboard and mouse
    • The oN-Line System
      …or the Augmentation of Human Intellect
      A system envisioned by Douglas Engelbart, to help Increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems
      Increased capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of the following: more-rapid comprehension, better comprehension, the possibility of gaining a useful degree of comprehension in a situation that previously was too complex, speedier solutions, better solutions, and the possibility of finding solutions to problems that before seemed insolvable
      Complex situations we include the professional problems of diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers--whether the problem situation exists for twenty minutes or twenty years…
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      18
      http://www.dougengelbart.org/pubs/augment-3906.html
    • The oN-Line System
      The system was called oN-Line System, because it was also networked between multiple computers
      Computers were no longer isolated
      The display system was based on vector graphics technology and could display both text and solid lines on the same screen
      Because of limited memory space in the mainframe computer, it could only display upper-case characters, although true upper-case was displayed by the use of a short horizontal line directly above any capitalized letters
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      19
    • The evolution of computing
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      20
      Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
    • The Xerox Alto
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      21
      The Alto was not a microcomputer as such, although its components did fit under a desk
    • The Xerox Star
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      22
      The Star had some differences from the Alto, most significantly the ability to overlap windows was removed as it was thought too confusing for the general public…
    • The Apple Lisa
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      23
      The Lisa user interface invented some of the Graphical User Interface concepts we still use today. Icons could represent all files in the system and the drag and drop was used for file
    • The Apple Macintosh
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      24
    • The Apple Macintosh
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      25
    • Other early graphic user interfaces
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      26
    • The evolution of computing
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      27
      Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
    • A graphic user interface timeline
      Examples of graphic user interface styles are…
      Menu selection
      Forms fill-in
      Direct manipulation
      Metaphors (ie. The desktop)
      Web navigation
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      28
    • The evolution of computing
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      29
      Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
    • The evolution of computing
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      30
      Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
    • Natural user interfaces
      …is the common designation used by designers and developers of computer interfaces to refer to a user interface that is effectively invisible, or becomes invisible with successive learned interactions, to its users
      The word natural is used because most computer interfaces use artificial control devices whose operation has to be learned
      Such an interface relies on a user being able to carry out relatively natural motions, movements or gestures that they quickly discover control the computer application or manipulate the on-screen content
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      31
    • Natural user interfaces
      The most distinct identifier of a natural user interface is the lack of a physical keyboard and or mouse
      Hence, the most common examples are…
      (multi-)touch interfaces; and
      voice-operated interfaces
      The natural user interface removes the metaphors, and many of the artificially learned devices, to allow users to more directly manipulate content using more natural movements, motions and gestures
      Enthusiast defend that these interfaces are fast to learn and, as such, freely apply the adjective 'intuitive’ to describe how users interact with them
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      32
    • Perceptive pixel
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      33
    • Microsoft Surface
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      34
    • Xbox Kinect
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      35
    • Natural user interfaces are… not natural
      According to Don Norman
      Fundamental principles of knowledge of results, feedback, and a good conceptual model still rule
      The strength of the graphical user interface has little to do with its use of graphics
      It has to do with the ease of remembering actions, both in what actions are possible and how to invoke them
      Visible icons and visible menus are the mechanisms, and despite the well-known problems of scaling up to the demands of modern complex systems, they still allow one to explore and learn
      The important design rule of a GUI is visibility: through the menus, all possible actions can be made visible and, therefore, easily discoverable. The system can often be learned through exploration
      Systems that avoid these well-known methods suffer.
      Are natural user interfaces natural? No, he says, but they will be useful.
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      36
    • Other user interfaces
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      37
    • Other user interfaces
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      38
    • Other user interfaces
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      39
    • Technological hype cycle
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      40
      Linden, A. and Fenn, J. 2003. Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles. Strategic Analysis Report R-20-1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner Research.
    • Technological hype cycle
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      41
    • Technological hype cycle and adoption timings
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      42
      Linden, A. and Fenn, J. 2003. Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles. Strategic Analysis Report R-20-1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner Research.
    • Related knowledge domains
      Human-computer interaction
      The study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings
      Recent advances in mobile, ubiquitous, social, and tangible computing technologies have moved human-computer interaction into practically all areas of human activity
      This has led to a shift away from the usual stress on usability to a much richer scope of user experience, where user's feelings, motivations, and values are given as much, if not more, attention than efficiency, effectiveness and basic subjective satisfaction
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      43
    • Related knowledge domains
      Interaction design
      A design discipline dedicated to defining the behavior of artifacts, environments and systems
      User experience design
      The field of user experience was established to cover the holistic perspective to how a person feels about using a system
      The focus is on pleasure and value rather than on performance
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      44
    • Human-computer interaction
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      45
    • Human-computer interaction
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      46
    • Interaction design
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      47
    • User experience design
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      48
    • User experience design
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      49
    • But…
      Interactivityis not limited to technological systems
      People have been interacting with each other as long as humans have been a species
      From this broader viewpoint, reasoning about interaction styles should also address the interaction between human beings by means of a interactive media
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      50
    • Interaction styles recap
      Etymology
      The relation between the evolution of computing and the main interaction styles
      The technological hype cycle and adoption timings
      Related knowledge domains
      Beyond interacting with digital media
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      51
    • Two final questions
      How do you see the evolution of interacting with and through interactive media?
      Are natural user interfaces the future or part of the future?
      Are the previous interaction styles dead or condemned?
      Should mobile user interfaces be regarded as a completely new interaction style?
      If so, what would their distinctive characteristics be?
      David Lamas, TLU, 2011
      52