ExperimentalInput andOutput<br />Overview of concepts, visions and arguments for extending conventional interaction techni...
Preview<br />Alternative approaches<br />Ubiquitous computing<br />Design considerations<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillo...
Alternative approaches<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
Alternative approaches<br />Enhancing current input and output devices<br />Keyboards<br />Pointing devices<br />High-degr...
Alternative approaches<br />Exploring assistive input and output technologies<br />Devices that provide essential accessib...
Alternative approaches<br />Sip-and-puff systems, which are activated by inhaling or exhaling<br />Wands and sticks worn o...
Alternative approaches<br />Discover ubiquitous computing<br />Which is what we are about to do!<br />David Lamas & Zahhar...
Ubiquitous computing<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
Ubiquitous computing<br />A term coined at the 1990s at Xerox PARC to describe a program addressing the issue that…<br />“...
Ubiquitous computing<br />According to Mark Weiser…<br />The idea of integrating computers seamless into  the world at lar...
Ubiquitous computing<br />(Still) according to Mark Weiser…<br />Perhaps most diametrically opposed to our vision is the n...
Ubiquitous computing<br />(Still) according to Mark Weiser…<br />Most of the computers that participate in embodied virtua...
Ubiquitous computing<br />Weiser wrote this paper in the pre-Web era<br />His vision of many small and powerful computers,...
Side note<br />Adidas_1<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
Ubiquitous computing<br />In 2005<br />CPU technology prices fall to the point that information processing is now powerful...
Moore’s law<br />To understand why ubiquitous computing is particularly relevant today, it is valuable to look closely to ...
Moore’s law<br />Gordon Moore’s initial assertion on semiconductor industry’s profit margin is usually paraphrased as a la...
Moore’s law<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
Moore’s law<br />Since new technology gets more powerful very quickly, old technology drops in price just as quickly<br />...
Moore’s law corollary<br /><ul><li>Moore’s law corollary depicted in a graph conceptually portraying three eras of modern ...
…and highlighting the fact that nowadays we no longer measure the ICT density in terms of person per computer but rather i...
But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />Ubiquitous computing refers to the practice of embedding information processing and...
But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as Pervasive computing<br />Pervasive computing refers to...
But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as Physical Computing<br />Physical computing describes h...
But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as Ambient Intelligence<br />Ambient intelligence describ...
But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as the Internet of Things<br />The Internet of Things sug...
Ubiquitous computing	<br />So, although…<br />Ubiquitous computing<br />Pervasive computing<br />Physical computing<br />A...
Design considerations<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
Design considerations<br />Rapidly evolving technology and changing social patterns have made identifying best ubiquitous ...
Design considerations<br />It is however clear that the following design disciplines do contribute, in some extent, to des...
Identity design<br />The identity is what makes the product memorable and unique <br />It is what carries much of the emot...
Interface design<br />Interface design is the design of a single mode of functionality<br />This could be a single screen ...
Industrial design<br />Ubiquitous computing products are, for the most part, physical objects<br />Unlike software, they h...
Interaction design<br />When using a device or environment, people need to understand how to accomplish their goals<br />T...
Information design<br />Much interaction design focus on getting input into a device but output is just as important<br />...
Service design<br />From a business perspective, service design unifies the way users interact with an organization to cre...
Information architecture <br />Every information and navigation task requires an information architecture that matches use...
Back to design considerations<br />When designing ubiquitous computing devices the frame is no longer the chrome around a ...
Interaction metaphors<br />As said before…<br />Designing new technologies with unfamiliar interactions is a constant chal...
Information as a material<br />Finally, it is worth considering the implications of thinking of information as a material<...
Information as a material<br />Once information is considered a design material, it becomes possible to ask a new range of...
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Experimental Input and Output

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Experimental Input and Output

  1. 1. ExperimentalInput andOutput<br />Overview of concepts, visions and arguments for extending conventional interaction techniques <br />
  2. 2. Preview<br />Alternative approaches<br />Ubiquitous computing<br />Design considerations<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  3. 3. Alternative approaches<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  4. 4. Alternative approaches<br />Enhancing current input and output devices<br />Keyboards<br />Pointing devices<br />High-degree of freedom devices<br />Composite devices<br />Video input/output devices<br />Audio input/output devices<br />Printers<br />Modelers<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  5. 5. Alternative approaches<br />Exploring assistive input and output technologies<br />Devices that provide essential accessibility to computers for those with significant vision, hearing, dexterity and mobility, language and communication, or learning needs, such as<br /> Alternative keyboards featuring larger or smaller-than-standard keys or keyboards, alternative key configurations, and keyboards for use with one hand<br />Electronic pointing devices used to control the cursor on the screen without use of hands using ultrasound, infrared beams, eye movements, nerve signals, or brain waves<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  6. 6. Alternative approaches<br />Sip-and-puff systems, which are activated by inhaling or exhaling<br />Wands and sticks worn on the head, held in the mouth or strapped to the chin and used to press keys on the keyboard<br />Joysticks manipulated by hand, feet, chin, and used to control the cursor on screen<br />Trackballsto move the cursor on screen<br />Touch screens, which allow direct selection or activation of the computer by touching the screen, making it easier to select an option directly rather than through a mouse movement or keyboard<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  7. 7. Alternative approaches<br />Discover ubiquitous computing<br />Which is what we are about to do!<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  8. 8. Ubiquitous computing<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  9. 9. Ubiquitous computing<br />A term coined at the 1990s at Xerox PARC to describe a program addressing the issue that…<br />“technology is part of accomplishing social action and that personal computers are too complex and hard to use, to demanding of attention, too isolating from other people and activities, and to dominating”<br />These ideas were described by Xerox PARC’s CTO (Mark Weiser) in his 1991 article on the “The Computer in the 21st Century” published in the Scientific American magazine<br />A sharp contrast to then perceived computing state of the art technologies such as portable computers and virtual reality <br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  10. 10. Ubiquitous computing<br />According to Mark Weiser…<br />The idea of integrating computers seamless into the world at large runs counter to a number of present-day trends. Ubiquitous computing is this context does not just mean computers that can be carried down to the beach, jungle or airport. Even the most powerful notebook computer, with access to a worldwide information network, still focuses attention on a single box.<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  11. 11. Ubiquitous computing<br />(Still) according to Mark Weiser…<br />Perhaps most diametrically opposed to our vision is the notion of virtual reality, which attempts to make a world inside the computer. Although it may have its purpose in allowing people to explore realms otherwise inaccessible, virtual reality is only a map, not a territory. It excludes desks, offices, other people not wearing goggles or body suits… Virtual reality focuses an enormous apparatus on simulating the world rather than on invisibly enhancing the world that exists.<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  12. 12. Ubiquitous computing<br />(Still) according to Mark Weiser…<br />Most of the computers that participate in embodied virtually will be invisible in fact as well as in metaphor. Already computers in light switches, thermostats, stereos and ovens help to activate the world. These machines and more will be interconnected in a ubiquitous network. <br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  13. 13. Ubiquitous computing<br />Weiser wrote this paper in the pre-Web era<br />His vision of many small and powerful computers, in different sizes, working simultaneously for one person (or small group) as simply unaffordable<br />It wasn’t until 2005 that his vision begun to take place<br />Although enabling technologies started to become available earlier, only in 2005 a range of industry factors made possible efficient development of products fitting Weiser’s vision of ubiquitous computing<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  14. 14. Side note<br />Adidas_1<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  15. 15. Ubiquitous computing<br />In 2005<br />CPU technology prices fall to the point that information processing is now powerful and inexpensive<br />The internet becomes familiar with clear social and commercial benefits (outside the scientific and engineering communities) <br />Communication and data exchange protocols are now mature and widespread<br />Digital telephony is firmly established and many people carry lightweight computers in the form of mobile phones<br />Wireless communication becomes common and successful with millions of access points throughout the world<br />Designers spent the first dotcom boom developing a wide range of interactive products and are now experienced with interaction design for networked services<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  16. 16. Moore’s law<br />To understand why ubiquitous computing is particularly relevant today, it is valuable to look closely to an unexpected corollary of Moore’s law<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  17. 17. Moore’s law<br />Gordon Moore’s initial assertion on semiconductor industry’s profit margin is usually paraphrased as a law predicting that processor transistor densities would double every two years<br />An unexpected corollary of Moore’s Law is that as new information processing technology gets more powerful, older technology gets cheaper without becoming any less powerful<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  18. 18. Moore’s law<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  19. 19. Moore’s law<br />Since new technology gets more powerful very quickly, old technology drops in price just as quickly<br />And again, although older technology gets cheaper, it looses none of its ability to process information<br />Thus, older information processing technology is still really powerful but now it is really cheap<br />At the time of its release, the i486 processor cost about €1200 (in 2010 Euros) and could execute 16 MIPS<br />Today a processor like the ATTiny offers the same level or performance by €0.40<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  20. 20. Moore’s law corollary<br /><ul><li>Moore’s law corollary depicted in a graph conceptually portraying three eras of modern computing…
  21. 21. …and highlighting the fact that nowadays we no longer measure the ICT density in terms of person per computer but rather in terms of computers person</li></ul>David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  22. 22. But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />Ubiquitous computing refers to the practice of embedding information processing and network communication in everyday, human environments to continuously provide services, information and communication<br />And this is what ubiquitous computing, UBICOMP for friends, is all about<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  23. 23. But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as Pervasive computing<br />Pervasive computing refers to the prevalence of this new mode of using digital technology<br />The term also refers to the increasing integration of ICT into people’s lives and environments, made possible by the growing availability of microprocessors with inbuilt communications facilities<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  24. 24. But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as Physical Computing<br />Physical computing describes how people interact with computing through physical objects, rather than in an online or on monolithic, general purpose computers<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  25. 25. But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as Ambient Intelligence<br />Ambient intelligence describes how these devices appear to integrate algorithmic reasoning (intelligence) into human-built spaces so that it becomes part of the atmosphere (ambient) of the environment<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  26. 26. But what is ubiquitous computing?<br />It is also conceptualized as the Internet of Things<br />The Internet of Things suggests a world in which digitally identifiable objects relate to each other in a way that is analogous to how purely digital information is organized on the Internet (specifically, the Web)<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  27. 27. Ubiquitous computing <br />So, although…<br />Ubiquitous computing<br />Pervasive computing<br />Physical computing<br />Ambient intelligence<br />The internet of things<br />…all carry slightly different meaning, they end up being the different aspects of the same phenomenon<br />The fact that nowadays we no longer measure the ICT density in terms of person per computer but rather in terms of computers person<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  28. 28. Design considerations<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  29. 29. Design considerations<br />Rapidly evolving technology and changing social patterns have made identifying best ubiquitous computing design practices difficult<br />Ubiquitous computing products are hybrids of hardware, software and services<br />It is still not clear what skills are required to design such products much less what the titles of the people who hold those skills should be<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  30. 30. Design considerations<br />It is however clear that the following design disciplines do contribute, in some extent, to designing ubiquitous computing products:<br />Identity design<br />Interface design<br />Industrial design<br />Interaction design<br />Service design<br />Information architecture<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  31. 31. Identity design<br />The identity is what makes the product memorable and unique <br />It is what carries much of the emotional weight of the product and, in some cases, might even rival its functionality<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  32. 32. Interface design<br />Interface design is the design of a single mode of functionality<br />This could be a single screen in a software (or web) application or may be the way a single function works in a device<br />Interface design hence emphasizes aspects such as task flow, feedback and consistency over other aspects of the overall design<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  33. 33. Industrial design<br />Ubiquitous computing products are, for the most part, physical objects<br />Unlike software, they have shape, texture, color, weight, temperature, and buttons, and dials and displays<br />For instance, an ATM requires specialized controls and these controls must match the ergonomic requirements, the capabilities of construction materials, the heat and power properties of the device, etc…<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  34. 34. Interaction design<br />When using a device or environment, people need to understand how to accomplish their goals<br />They need to know what choices are available and how to make them<br />Interaction design determines how the various user interfaces fit and flow together as a whole<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  35. 35. Information design<br />Much interaction design focus on getting input into a device but output is just as important<br />Information designers visually organize and prioritize representations of information to match people’s needs and maximize clarity<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  36. 36. Service design<br />From a business perspective, service design unifies the way users interact with an organization to create a consistent set of methods to relate to a company<br />From the user perspective, service design creates the tools that people use to access a service in concert with designing the service itself<br />In other words…<br />Rather than treating tools as individual consumer facing products and the service itself as a purely internal project, service design treats them as different facets of the same thing thus promoting consistancy<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  37. 37. Information architecture <br />Every information and navigation task requires an information architecture that matches users’ needs, expectations, and understanding<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  38. 38. Back to design considerations<br />When designing ubiquitous computing devices the frame is no longer the chrome around a browser window<br />The frame is the world<br />In this sense, designing an ubiquitous computing product today is designing probably something for the first time<br />And designing something for the first time requires special attention to the social and cultural environment in which these products will be used<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  39. 39. Interaction metaphors<br />As said before…<br />Designing new technologies with unfamiliar interactions is a constant challenge in ubiquitous computing.<br />How can an object that may not be obviously computational communicate its capabilities without requiring enormous amounts of external documentation or training?<br />Mapping one category of ideas to another is the basis of metaphor which have long been part of how we think about design<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  40. 40. Information as a material<br />Finally, it is worth considering the implications of thinking of information as a material<br />In this case:<br />Information processing no longer needs to be the purpose of an object, but one of the many qualities that enables it to be useful and desirable in ways that are more directly related to people’s wants and needs<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  41. 41. Information as a material<br />Once information is considered a design material, it becomes possible to ask a new range of questions about it:<br />What are the properties of information as a design material?<br />How can information processing be used by designers?<br />How well is information processing used today?Can better use be made of it?<br />Will adding information processing create a better functional experience? A better esthetic experience?<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
  42. 42. Review<br />Alternative approaches<br />Ubiquitous computing<br />Design considerations<br />David Lamas & Zahhar Kirillov, TLU, 2011<br />
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