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Design issues and processes


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  • 1. Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media
    Design issues and processes
  • 2. Contents
    Interaction design
    Experience design
    Design strategy
    Development lifecycles
    Systems development lifecycle
    Agile lifecycle
    Methods and techniques
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 3. Design
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 4. Design
    From google
    A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is built or made
    Decide upon the look and functioning of (a building, garment, or other object), typically by making a detailed drawing of it
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 5. Design
    Design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the mufti-faceted qualities of
    Services, and their
    Systems in whole life cycles
    Design is also…
    the central factor of innovative humanization of technologies; and
    the crucial factor of cultural and economic exchange
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 6. Design
    The rational model states that
    Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and objectives
    The design process is plan-driven
    The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 7. Design
    The action-centered model
    Designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates
    The design process is improvised
    No universal sequence of stages is apparent
    Analysis, design and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 8. Interaction design
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 9. Interaction design
    According to Allan Cooper…
    Interaction design is the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services
    Further, interaction design is heavily focused on satisfying the needs and desires of the people who will use the product
    It is, however, about behavior and not so much focused on form or appearance
    And behavior is much harder to observe and understand than appearance
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 10. Interaction design
    Dan Saffer identifies three ways of looking at interaction design
    These are views centered in
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 11. The technology centered view
    Interaction designers make technology, particularly digital technology, useful and pleasurable to use
    This is why the rise of software and the Internet was also de rise of the field if interaction design
    Interaction designers take the raw stuff produced by engineers and programmers and mold it into products that people enjoy using
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 12. The behaviorist view
    According to Jodi Forlizzi and Robert Reimann…
    Interaction design is about defining the behavior of artifacts, environments and systems
    This view obviously focus on functionality and feedback being concerned on how products behave and provide feedback based on what the people engaged with them are doing
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 13. The social interaction view
    Interaction design is inherently social, revolving around facilitating communication between humans through products
    Technology is nearly irrelevant in this view
    Any kind of object or device can make a connection between people and these connections can take many forms
    They can be one-to-one, as with a telephone call
    They can be one-to many, as with a blog
    They can be many-to-many, as in the stock market
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 14. Interaction design
    Although these are distinct conceptualizations of what interaction design is, the common ground is that…
    …they all perceive interaction design as an applied art that solves specific problems, under a particular set of circumstances, using the available materials
    However, generalizations have been made and true rules have emerged that defy the applied art claim
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 15. Interaction design
    Common to all conceptualizations of interaction design are the four approaches to address it
    User centered design
    Activity centered design
    Systems design
    Genius design
    All have been used to create successful products
    And it is typically up designers to select the approach that better addresses the problem at hand
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 16. Interaction design
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 17. Interaction design
    Again, common assertions apply
    These approaches can be used in many different situations to create distinct products and services
    Most problematic situations can be improved by deploying at least one of these approaches
    The best designers are those who can move between approaches, applying the best approach to the problem at hand
    An individual designer will probably gravitate toward one specific approach in detriment of others
    Designers will generally work with the approaches they feel most comfortable however, some other approach might be the best way to address a given problem so interaction designers should know all four
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 18. Experience design
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 19. Experience design
    But what is this experience or user experience?
    Different people understand it in very different ways
    A group of user experience experts has been working on a white paper, which is an important step towards a common understanding of the concept of user experience however, a number a distinct definitions still coexist, which indicate that this is not yet a mature concept
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
    Available in our shared dropbox
  • 20. But what is this experience or user experience?
    The term user experience is often used as a synonym for…
    user interface
    interaction experience
    interaction design
    customer experience
    web site appeal
    wow effect
    general experience
    …or as an umbrella term incorporating all or many of these concepts
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 21. Experience design
    Some definitions…
    All the aspects of how people use an interactive product: the way it feels in their hands, how well they understand how it works, how they feel about it while they’re using it, how well it serves their purposes, and how well it fits into the entire context in which they are using it.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 22. Experience design
    Some definitions…
    All aspects of the end-user’s interaction with the company, its services, and its products. The first requirement for an exemplary user experience is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without fuss or bother. Next comes simplicity and elegance that produce products that are a joy to own, a joy to use. True user experience goes far beyond giving customers what they say they want, or providing checklist features. In order to achieve high-quality user experience in a company’s offerings there must be a seamless merging of the services of multiple disciplines, including engineering, marketing, graphical and industrial design, and interface design.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 23. Experience design
    Some definitions…
    A consequence of a user’s internal state (predispositions, expectations, needs, motivation, mood, etc.), the characteristics of the designed system (e.g. complexity, purpose, usability, functionality, etc.) and the context (or the environment) within which the interaction occurs (e.g. organisational/social setting, meaningfulness of the activity, voluntariness of use, etc.)
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 24. Experience design
    So, how can we address experience design?
    Marc Hassenzahldistinguishes three different levels, when designing an experience through the interaction with an object…
    The Why level
    The What level; and
    The How level
    Marc Hassenzhal is also one the co-authors of the definition of user experience presented in the previous slide
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 25. The why level
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 26. The what level
    The What addresses the things people can do through an interactive product, such as…
    making a telephone call
    buying a book
    listening to a song
    It is reflected by a products' functionality
    The What is often intimately tied to the technology itself or a certain product genre.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 27. The how level
    The How level addresses acting through an object on an operational, sensory-motor level
    Buttons pressed
    Knobs turned
    Menus navigated
    Touch screens stroked
    Remotes waggled
    The How is tied to the actual object to be designed and its context of use
    It is the typical realm of the interaction designer…
    to make given functionality accessible in an aesthetically pleasing way.
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 28. (back to) The why level
    The Why aims to clarify the needs and emotions involved in an activity, the meaning, the experience
    Only then, it determines…
    the functionality that is able to provide the experience (the What); and
    an appropriate way of putting the functionality to action (the How)
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 29. From the Why to the What and the How
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 30. Design strategy
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 31. Design strategy
    Design strategy is the product and project planning that takes place at the beginning of a design process
    It is a combination of…
    defining a vision for the end state of a project, and
    determining the tactics needed to execute that vision
    It is composed of:
    Framing the problem (or opportunity) to be addressed
    Determining key differentiators for the product to be design
    Visualizing and selling the strategy to the organization
    Creating a product roadmap and a project plan to achieve its goals
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 32. Design strategy
    Although design strategies are usually driven by business strategies
    The reverse can also happen
    After the success of the iPod, Apple Computer became just Apple when as it realized that its future was also in consumer electronics
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 33. Design strategy
    As it happens with design in general, a design strategy is usually achieve through a series of divergent and convergent steps, involving…
    And also…
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 34. Design strategy
    But what is it exactly?
    Instead of letting a wish like “let’s design this new widget” drive
    a design process, making a design strategy explicit, allows questions like…
    What should we be designing hat will meet our organization’s needs and the needs of our customers?
    How should that solution be manifest? As a widget or something else?
    …determine how the design process should be driven
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 35. Common development lifecycles
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 36. Common development lifecycles
    A development lifecycle is a project management framework
    Current development lifecycles are the result of accumulated experience and best practices but should not, nevertheless, be dogmatically adopted
    Although not sole relevant project management frameworks, these two approaches are the predominant development lifecycles
    System development lifecycle, and
    Agile lifecycle
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 37. System development lifecycle
    This is a framework used to describe the process for building information systems
    It is intended to develop information systems in a very
    Structured, and
    methodical way
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 38. System development lifecycle
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 39. Agile development
    Agile development is based on an iterative and incremental approach
    Requirements and solutions evolve throughout the project by means of collaboration between self-organizing, cross-functional teams
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 40. Agile development
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 41. Agile development
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 42. Agile development
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 43. Methods and techniques
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 44. Methods and techniques
    To finalize, we will just go over some of methods and techniques used when designing for new media
    These include…
    Card sorting
    Paper prototyping, wireframe prototyping, etc…
    And many others…
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 45. Personas
    A personais an artifact that consists of a narrative relating to a desired user or customer's daily behavior patterns…
    using specific details, not generalities
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 46. Personas
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 47. Scenarios
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 48. Card sorting
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 49. Card sorting
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 50. Paper prototyping
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 51. Wireframe prototyping
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 52. And many others…
    Methods for concept ideas
    Contextual Laddering
    Experiential Contextual Inquiry
    Methods for early prototypes
    Group-based expert walkthrough
    Perspective-Based Inspection
    Expert evaluation
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011
  • 53. Design issues and processes recap
    Interaction design
    Experience design
    Design strategy
    Development lifecycles
    Systems development lifecycle
    Agile lifecycle
    Methods and techniques
    David Lamas, TLU, 2011