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Unit 6 Bill Becomes Law
 

Unit 6 Bill Becomes Law

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    Unit 6 Bill Becomes Law Unit 6 Bill Becomes Law Presentation Transcript

    • HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW
    • OUR BILL WILL BE INTRODUCED IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
      • Most bills can be introduced in EITHER the House or the Senate.
      • The only exception are revenue bills, which MUST begin in the House of Representatives.
    • TYPES OF BILLS
      • Public Bills--apply to the entire nation
      • Private Bills--apply to specific areas or a specific group of people
      • Joint Resolution- carries the force of law, used to propose Constitutional amendments
    • A BILL IS INTRODUCED IN THE HOUSE BY DROPPING IT INTO THE “ HOPPER ” .
    • After the bill is placed in the hopper, it is numbered, read & referred to committee by the Speaker of the House.
    • HOW THE SPEAKER CAN “ MESS ” WITH A BILL
      • Multiple Referrals--sending a bill to multiple committees
        • Simultaneous referral--several committees get the bill at the same time
        • Sequential referral--sending the bill to one committee, then another, then another, etc.
          • Good way to kill a bill!!!!!
    • COMMITTEES Where the ACTION is!!!
      • This is where bills are really studied & worked on.
      • Committees hold hearings to gather information about a bill.
    • COMMITTEES
      • All committees are chaired by a member of the majority party.
      • The majority party has more members on each committee.
      • The chairperson decides when the committee will meet & sets the agenda for the committee--decides which bills will be discussed.
    • COMMITTEE ACTION
      • Pass the bill as is.
      • Amend the bill--it must go through “mark up” if this happens.
      • Kill the bill.
      • Rewrite the bill--it goes to the floor as a “committee” bill.
      • Recommend the bill unfavorably.
      • Pigeonhole the bill--this means that it sits in a pile & the committee never gets to it.
    • DISCHARGE PETITION
      • You use a “ discharge petition ” to get your bill out of committee if it’s been pigeonholed . This forces the committee to take action on the bill & move it on to the next stage. You must have a majority of members’ signatures to get a discharge petition. Discharge petitions can be used in the House ONLY!!!
    • RULES COMMITTEE
      • This is the next step in the House of Representatives.
      • This is a VERY powerful committee because ALL bills go through this committee and it decides which bills go on to the floor for debate.
      • The majority party has a 2 to 1 majority on this committee.
    • RULES COMMITTEE OPTIONS
      • Open Rule--this means that the bill can be amended on the floor during debate.
      • Closed Rule- no amendments will be allowed during floor debate--it must be passed or killed as is.
      • No Rule- the bill is dead without a rule of debate.
    • FLOOR DEBATE
      • IF a bill is given a Rule of Debate by the Rules Committee, it is placed on a Calendar .
        • The Calendar is the order that bills
        • will come up on the floor for debate.
        • -Bills are placed on the Calendar, it’s not first-come, first-served.
    • FLOOR DEBATE
      • This gives all of the members of the House a chance to debate the bill.
      • There must be at least 218 members present. This is a quorum.
    • FLOOR DEBATE
      • A bill gets its 2nd reading, then the floor is open for debate.
      • When debate is concluded, the bill is read for a 3rd time.
      • Each member may speak for up to 1 hour.
    • THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES VOTES
      • If it isn’t a controversial bill, they will use a “ voice vote ”.
      • If it could be a close vote, the House will use a “ roll- call vote ”. This is computerized.
    •  
    • THE NEXT STEP
      • If the bill passes, it goes to the Senate.
      • If the bill does not receive a majority of votes--at least 218--it’s dead!! The bill must be reintroduced & start the process all over :(
    • THE SENATE
      • The bill is referred to committee so that members of the Senate can now study the bill.
    • COMMITTEE ACTION
      • The committee in the Senate has the same options as the committee in the House. They can kill it, pass it, rewrite it, amend it or recommend it unfavorably.
    • FLOOR DEBATE
      • If the bill passes the committee with a majority vote, it goes directly to the floor of the Senate.
      • The Senate does not have the Rules Committee like the House.
    • FLOOR DEBATE
      • Floor debate in the Senate is similar to floor debate in the House.
      • The bill gets its 2nd reading, is debated, gets its 3rd reading and is voted on.
    • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HOUSE & SENATE FLOOR DEBATE
      • Amendments do not have to be related to the bill.
      • In the Senate, there is no time limit, so Senators can filibuster.
      • This means that you can “talk a bill to death”. Once you have been given permission to speak, you can talk about anything.
    • THE FILIBUSTER
      • As long as someone is talking, no business can take place.
      • The filibuster is used by the minority party to get the majority party to compromise.
      • The Democrats are currently filibustering Pres. Bush’s nominees to federal courts.
      • A filibuster can be ended by invoking cloture.
        • It takes 60 votes to invoke cloture, so it is VERY difficult to end a filibuster.
    • THE VOTE IN THE SENATE
      • Senators also vote with a voice vote or a roll call vote.
      • The difference between the Senate & the House is the Senate’s roll call vote is not computerized. The Secretary of the Senate calls each Senator’s name--twice.
    • OPTIONS
      • If the bill is passed, in the exact same form as passed by the House, the bill goes to the President.
    • OPTIONS
      • If the Senate makes a small change in the bill, it goes back to the floor of the House. If the House approves the change, THEN it goes to the President.
      • If the House doesn’t approve the bill, it is dead
    • CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
      • If the Senate makes significant changes in the bill, it is sent to a Conference Committee. This committee has members of the House & Senate on it. They meet & come up with a compromise bill.
    • CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
      • The compromise bill is then sent to the floor of the House & the floor of the Senate.
      • If BOTH chambers approve, the bill goes to the President.
      • If one or both vote the bill down, it’s dead!!
    • TO THE PRESIDENT!!!!
      • Once the President receives the bill, he has 10 days to take action on the bill.
    • PRESIDENT ’ S OPTIONS
      • He can sign the bill into law.
      • He can veto the bill & it goes back to Congress. They can override his veto with a 2/3 vote.
      • He can allow it to become a law without his signature
      • OR
    • POCKET VETO
      • He can do nothing, if Congress is NOT in session , and the bill is dead.
    • THE END!!!