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  • What year was the rail line installed? Eleven story building was probably 2 buildings, the Brewhouse and the Storage house, both 5 stories, and one with a basement???
  • Note: 300 barrel not 300 gallon. Production numbers may have been based on sales recorded in tax documents and annual reports and not actual production quantities. Today a barrel of beer is 31 US gallons, a half barrel keg is 15.5 gallons. The modern US beer barrel is 31 US gallons (117.34777 L), half a gallon less than the traditional wine barrel. In the UK, barrels contain 36 imperial gallons. The terms "keg" and "cask" refer to containers of any size, the distinction being that kegs are used for beers intended to be served. Cask ales undergo part of their fermentation process in their containers, called casks. Casks are available in several sizes, and it is common to refer to "a firkin" or "a kil" (kilderkin) instead of a cask. Dry Goods Barrels are also used as a unit of measurement for dry goods, such as flour or produce. Traditionally, a barrel is 196 pounds (89 kg) of flour (wheat or rye), with other substances to more local variation. In modern times, produce barrels for all dry goods contain 7,056 cubic inches, about 115.627 L. In 1917 the Standard Barrel Act for Fruits, Vegetables, and Dry Commodities legislation was established in the U.S. that specified the standard barrel size and measurements for fruits and vegetables, and commodities and penalized merchants who didn’t use standardized barrels. Wine barrels or casks range in size from 60 to 80 gallons, whiskey barrels are 53 gallons, and the majority on the barrels on the market are 60 gallon barrels. The huge wooden vats in the tunnels used to store beer at a constant 48 degrees were probably much larger than 60 gallons. A 4 bbl microbrewery system can brew approximately 124 gallons or roughly 2 wine barrels per batch.
  • The gentle air-drying of malted barley led to the creation of the Pilsner style of beer in the mid-1800s. One of the greatest innovations was the development of gentler malt kilning techniques The malts used to brew the first golden colored Pilsner style beers were delicately kilned in an innovative new process in 1842. Kilns that dried malt with indirect, hot-air heat rather than direct heat.
  • Where was the government metering room in the bottlehouse?
  • Eric Kuhlman, PM at Arcspec in greater Chicago area. Bradley University, Bachelor of Science, Marketing
  • In exchange for this opportunity I'm going to ask if the schools would fund the housing bill or a portion of the housing.
  • American Breweriana Associationjseelow142@comcast.net810-385-7101
  • Dick brother brewery v

    1. 1. David G. Jones davidjones@md.metrocast.net
    2. 2. Ideas for Wellman Building Development 1. 2. Brewery Tours throughout the buildings and neighborhood Public Market (German/International Food Market) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Deli counters: Hy-Vee, County Market, Butcher Block, Kohls = Specialty German meats: sauerbraten, schnitzel, schwatzwurst, etc Bakeries: Underbrinks, Krazy Cakes… German Spent Grain bread… Thai, Mexican, Latin American, Vietnamese, Pilipino, etc. grocery stores Relocate farmers markets (mall and Washington square) Open 3 days a week Illinois Alliance Program information booth for “farm to table” and “farm to restaurant” programs Restaurant / café affiliated with microbrewery Microbrewery and tasting room Utilize malting room to produce malt. Exclusive production deal to produce malt only for Dick Brothers. Information booths for National Brewery Museum Milwaukee, WI, American Brewiana Association, and German American Heritage Center in Davenport IA Brewery School Internship Practicals Dick Brothers Brewery Memorabilia Museum Assumption: building will be subdivided into 3 or more leasable/procurable sections. Unusable sections of the building, i.e. portions of the upstairs in the south east corner, will be closed off until long term repairs can be made.
    3. 3. Dick Brothers Brewery Time Line
    4. 4. 1909: Boiler house, water tower constructed 223 S. 9th Dick Brothers Brewery Time Line 1914: Ice House built at 924 Jersey (rear) 1901: 3 buildings erected: Office at 901 York, Malt House at 905 York, and Stockhouse at 917 York 1896 – 1897: Brewhouse, Storage House erected at 905 York 1901: New Stockhouse: 917 York 1939: Dick Homestead on 9th and York demolished 1909: Bottling House constructed at 908-910 York 1872 – 1876: Old Stockhouse erected at 925 York 1864 - Old Brewhouse built 912 – 914 York 1920’s: Garage constructed at 916 York, Barn – 225 S. 10th (rear) Discrepancies: 1) Malt house was in south building not 905 York. 2) Stock house has 2 erection dates: 1901 and 18721876 and 2 locations. 3) 1996 - 1897 an eleven story brewhouse was building at 905 York.
    5. 5. 1857 – 1872: Dick brothers built their original brewery with an annual capacity of about 1,500 barrels of lager beer; within the next 15 years, it would produce about 70,000 barrels annually The small shack that was built in 1857 was eventually replaced around 1870 by 27 buildings, covering nearly 10 acres of land and the mammoth brass and copper brewkettle that brewed 275 barrels every 24 hours was housed in a five story building. The operation of the brewery before 1875 was almost entirely carried on south of York Street. The brewery added a malting room around 1870 and has been doing its own malting up to Prohibition. Bottling was added in 1880, and artificial refrigeration was installed in 1882. 1860 -1890: 100,000 barrels a year 1918: 135,000 barrels per year 1920 – 1933: Prohibition, Nearo Beer Produced 1940: 150,000 barrels a year, production begins to declined December 30, 1903: 300-barrel rice cooker exploded. The explosion destroyed the fifth floor which contained a 300 barrel tank of water for storage purposes (Hot Liquor Tank) and a 600 bushel malt hopper. The fourth floor had a 500 barrel and a 200 barrel hot water tanks (Mash Tun / Lauter Tun?). The second floor had a 300 barrel copper brewkettle. Each level had 12 inch concrete floors. The basement of the “Brewhouse” once housed a saloon.
    6. 6. Dick Brothers Building German/International “Public Market”: • Delicatessen and bakeries • Specialty meats and cheeses • Fresh fruit and vegetables • Multiple food vendors and retail food distributors Layout cohesive for: • 3 business units • Enter at tasting room/bar, walk through art gallery to dinner • Food truck bays • Art gallery and art studio space • Brewery tours and tourism • Overflow and large event seating • Utilization of existing spring water • Expansion once capital is flowing
    7. 7. Public Market German/International Food Market) 1. Deli counters: Hy-Vee, County Market, Butcher Block, Kohls = Specialty meats and cheeses: sauerbraten, schnitzel, schwatzwurst, etc. 2. Bakeries: Underbrinks, Krazy Cakes… German Spent Grain bread (Biertreberbrot), soft pretzels, etc. 3. Thai, Mexican, Latin American, Vietnamese, Pilipino, etc. grocery stores 4. Relocate farmers markets (mall and Washington square) for fresh vegetables 5. Open 3-4 days a week 6. Illinois Stewardship Alliance information booth for “farm to table” and “farm to restaurant” programs
    8. 8. Bricked archway cellar was used as a grain malting room where the Dick Brothers Company malted their own barley grains. Humidity and temperature in basement was correct to start the seeds germinating, a part of the malting process, and then the malted barley grains were moved upstairs for further processing. The brewery malted its own barley in the malting cellar located above the old fermenting cellar. This cellar, with sturdy brick pillars supporting the vaulted brick ceilings, lay far back in the present lower levels of the building used in the later times as the bottling house. By the end of the 1930’s it was used for storage purposes. After the stock house was build on the north side of York in 1875, the caverns continued in use for another ten years. Then, with the development of refrigeration methods and brewing became a year-round business, the brewery expanded and the old cellars were abandoned.
    9. 9. Malting Process In malting the grains steep in cool water until they sprout and just before converting from a seed into a small plant they are quickly dried in a kiln and lightly toasted. The malting process activates starch dissolving enzymes in the grain and makes the kernel more crumbly and receptive to water. The kilning may be done with just enough heat to dry out the malt, and can even be accomplished with the sun or in the rafters of a dry barn. The steeping step could have been accomplished in the arched malting room, the couching step could have been accomplished on the main floor, and the “passive kilning” and mellowing steps could have been done in the upper stories of the “Bottlehouse”. The smoke stack indicates that there may have been a kiln used for drying grains. The entire malting process could have took as little as 4 weeks and as much as 2 months. Steps Steeping: The grain is soaked in dechlorinated water for 60 to 80 hours at around 60: F but never higher than 70: F. Change water twice a day to ensure plenty of oxygen is available for seed germination. 1 gallon of water per pound of grain. Calcium Hydroxide (lime) may be added to the steep water to prevent mold and help leach bitter, astringent materials from the husk. Couching: This is the seven day period during which sprouting occurs. This process generates heat so careful management of the thickness of the pile of grains, about 12–16 inches, is needed to keep the process at the desired 59: to 65: F. It is important to aerate the grain during germination, to introduce oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide generated by the sprouting plants. Proper modification is indicated by a shoot (tap root) equal in length to the kernel, which grows underneath the protective husk. It was turned at intervals to achieve even growth and over the next fourteen days or so it is turned and moved towards the kiln. The temperature was also controlled by ventilation. A day or two after the grain was turned out on to the floor, an agreeable smell was given off, and roots soon began to appear. A day or so later the future stem began to swell, and the kernel became friable and sweettasting. As the germination proceeded the grain was spread thinner on the floor. The process was halted before the stem burst the husk. Kilning: The drying process to remove and reduce moisture levels in the malt from 45% to below 5%. Germination is stopped. The barley is moved into the kiln, 4–6 inches, for between two and four days. Two stage kilning is used. 1. a low-temperature kilning to dry out the grains which lasts 48 hours and malt does not get above 112: F; 2. Malt is then cured for 5 hours at 176: F. Mellowing: Grains are allowed to sit for a couple of weeks or more after kilning to waft away harsher compounds developed during the kilning.
    10. 10. Types and Sources of Malt • • • There are two types of malted barley, distinguished by the number of rows of grain in each ear. Six-row barleys create a firmer, crisper, huskier character, championed by some ale producers. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers and imparts a soft, sweet flavor, as favored by lager brewers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager style beers, especially when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used, whereas two-row malted summer barley is preferred for traditional German beers. Fine malting barley is cultivated mainly in the northern hemisphere, notably in a band of countries just to the north of 45° latitude. Famous growing areas include Moravia and Bohemia in the Czech Republic; the Munich Basin of Bavaria, Germany; Denmark; the English regions of Wessex, East Anglia and the Vale of York; the Scottish Borders and the Moray Firth; the American Midwestern states (especially North Dakota) and the northwest; as well as Saskatchewan and Alberta in Canada. The Dick Brothers probably emulated German malting techniques but used local available American 6 row barley grains. In order to recreate the Dick Brother’s lager beer styles while using “old world” kilning techniques and passive refrigeration using tunnels and caverns, etc… Malt 2 row and 6 row barley September through December from North Dakota and have wheat, soft white winter wheat, coarse ground corn, and grits supplied by local farmers in Tristate region. Rice to be bought at wholesale market price. Utilize passive air drying in the rafters and low temperature kilning / ventilation.
    11. 11. Malt Company Entice malt companies to operate a seasonal (Sept – January) malting facility at Dick Brothers Brewery in return for advertising space in the brewery tour and exclusive malt sales to Dick Brother’s microbrewery using Dick Brother’s proprietary malting techniques. The gentle air-drying of malted barley led to the creation of the Pilsner style of beer in the mid-1800s. One of the greatest innovations was the development of gentler malt kilning techniques. The malts used to brew the first golden colored Pilsner style beers were delicately kilned in an innovative new process in 1842. Kilns that dried malt with indirect, hot-air heat rather than direct heat.
    12. 12. Fermentation and Lagering Lager beer is fermented for 7 days at 48: to 52: F and conditioned 3 to 6 weeks at 33: to 38: F. Beer was typically brewed during the winter and stored for summer use. September and October were the grain harvest months, October and November were the malting months, and November, December, and January the brewing months. At the start of their endeavor, the Dick Brothers were producing 1,500 barrels per year, at 275 barrels per batch, which is about 5 batches over these three winter months. At the height of the Dick Brothers operation, capacity was at 150,000 barrels a year or approximately 1.5 batches per day year round. Steep wooden steps lead down into the fermenting cellar. In the old fermenting cellar was a small well-like opening in the southwest corner which gave access to the storage caverns another level down. The tunnel was topped with huge flagstones and was ten feet wide and high. Its arched ceiling was bricked with old fashioned brick masonry of the lime mortar era. The mortar continued to be in excellent state of preservation when they were rediscovered in 1939. This cellar once housed the big wooden beer vats in endless rows. Into these vats aged a mellow lager beer in a constant temperature of 48 degrees of the caverns. When summer came, the brewery workers, by the dim light of lanterns, drew off the beer into quarter barrels. The barrels were then hoisted on a crude chain hoist through the well-like openings into the tunnel cellar Artificial refrigeration was installed in 1882
    13. 13. Tunnels and Caverns 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1857 the Dick Brothers began excavating for a network of storage cellars under the south brewery building 750 gallon wooden vats stored beer for lagering in tunnels dug below basement level. These tunnels consisted of three “laterals” nearly a half block each in length that ran east and west along York, partly beneath the sidewalk on the south side of York, partly underlying the street. This main tunnel extended from the eastern line of the bottling house buildings westward almost to ninth, where it ended in the large ice storage cellar with stone masonry walls and arched masonry ceiling. East of the place where this main east-west tunnel was located, a more modern tunnel angled beneath York from the North side of the street, originating in the old stock house building erected in 1876. This newer tunnel carried the pipes used to transport beer from the main brewery plant north of York to the government meter room, where all beer to be bottled was measured and taxed. To get down into the old storage cellars, it was necessary to use lanterns, or in later days a flashlight, and wear boots because of the muckiness of the main east-west tunnel. The entrance was gained through the old fermenting cellar lying below the ground floor of the bottling house. The old steep wooden steps leading down into the fermenting cellar rotted away many years ago. Once down the ladder into the fermenting cellar, a small well-like opening in the southwest corner dropped to the level of the old storage caverns. Another ladder then had to be used to reach the even lower storage cellars of 1856-57. The lateral led into the central one of the three caverns. These were about ten feet wide and nearly that high, with arched ceilings bricked with old-fashioned brick masonry of lime-mortar era. The floor was not level, more than two-thirds being a raised dirt platform. Originally, this was topped with huge flagstones, and on the flagstones rested the big wooden beer vats, in rows, each with a capacity of some 750 gallons. The caverns were not used after 1885. The old casks were removed, and the old flagstones upon which they rested were used for fire and bridge walls in the boilers. Later, the eastern end of the main tunnel was walled off, and the northern end of the eastern lateral was closed. When the big chimney of the old boiler house south of York was built, its great stone foundation ran right down through the middle of the western lateral.
    14. 14. Alley (old Rail line) Office Brewhouse Storage House 10th St. Water Tower, Boilers , Refrigeration , Engineering Old Stock House, Rac king House Stock House Lateral 3 Ice Storage Lateral 2 Lateral 1 Alley 9th St. York St.
    15. 15. Beer Aging/Storage Beer Barrels Walkway Walkway Tunnel Cross Section Wood Beer Barrel Aging Wood Beer Barrel Aging Walkway Tunnel Overhead
    16. 16. Traditional Non Mechanized Brewing Timeline I.e. without the aid of refrigeration, temperature / humidity control, etc. September October November December January Harvest (grains go from field to brewery) Malting Process (Steeping = 3 days, Couching = 7 days, Kilning = 3 days or 2 weeks air dry, mellowing = 2+ weeks) Milling and Measuring grains = 1 day Mashing grains into wort and boiling beer (1 day) Brewing commences Fermentation (Primary fermentation 7 to 14 days) Lagering (2ndary fermentation 3 to 6 weeks or 2 months) Drawing into 1/4 barrels and distribution February March April May June July August
    17. 17. The Original Dick Brothers Quincy Brewery Recipe(s) The majority of the beers made by the Dick Brothers were of the American Pilsner style which was based on the German/Bohemian Pilsner styles. The Dick Brothers beer was simply branded differently over the years. The other styles they brewed were a Bock Beer, and ???, and a Nearo beer during prohibition. Based on historical brewery records, assumptions made on equipment size, batch capacity, German brewing styles and techniques, water chemistry profiles, confirmations made at present day brewery (vat sizes, placements, number of barrels, etc.), malting techniques, storage and lagering techniques, available ingredients, refrigeration incorporation, brewmaster’s notes, annual reports, correspondence letters, confirmation from ancestors… The original Dick Brothers Brewery Recipe can easily be recreated.
    18. 18. Dick Brother’s Homes Kathleen Faye Roe Tonya and Ken Sparrow Dwight and Donna Kisner
    19. 19. One of Jacob's prized possessions was a light green stein that had a skull and crossbones carved into the top lid. His name as a written signature, is also inscribed on the lid. There is also a German saying written above the skull – “wishing one good health” possibly, “Gesuntheit” or “Alaf Sal Laf” or “wollen eine gute Gesundheit“ Jacob Dick’s Famous Stein Eric Kuhlman, QND 1984 grad, with stein belonging to his great, great, grandfath er, Jacob Dick.
    20. 20. Brewery Advocates • National Brewery Museum Milwaukee, WI – Potosi Brewery has very similar story to Dick Brothers – Joint venture between the Potosi Foundation and the American Breweriana Association – http://www.potosibrewery.com/ • American Brewiana Association – Their purpose is to advance the public knowledge of brewing and breweriana; to serve historians and collectors, and dedicated to the preservation of the memories and artifacts of America’s historic breweries! Membership consists of almost 3000 members in the USA and Chapters throughout the United States – http://www.americanbreweriana.org/ • German American Heritage Center in Davenport IA – Seeks to preserve the heritage of our German speaking ancestors for present and future generations and to enrich our knowledge of the German immigrant experience – http://www.gahc.org/
    21. 21. U.S. Brewing Schools Dick Brothers Brewing Internship Program: Complete 3 months to 1 year programs giving hands on experience in the brewing industry, from farm fields to finished product… from malting to marketing. Dick Brothers was established circa 1857 and at one point had a larger production than Anheuser Busch, and distribution as far as Mexico City. Students will participate in competitions that utilize the historic brewing aspects and techniques as well as new techniques taught in the school houses and collaborate with other brewers to sculpt craft beers. Students will collaborate on recipes, be involved in the whole process from malting to marketing, recreate historical recipes, calculate the old brewhouse efficiencies, diagram the historic brewing processes, write new business processes, etc. We are also hoping to get a malting company in house to utilize the old malt room and malt drying rafters. Students can establish relations with the malting company and learn malting techniques. 4 spots, one senior/grad (year), 2 senior/junior (year), 1 anything (3 months). Leave and go back to schoolhouse for remainder of education, onto full time brewery position, or export school training. The final test and challenge will be to convert some of the most hardest craft beer critics, catholic working class lite beer drinkers. • • • • • • • American Brewers Guild Central Washington University: Craft Beer Trade Certificate Master Brewer's Association of the Americas Oregon State University: Continuing Education for Brewing Professionals - Brewing Science courses Siebel Institute of Technology & World Brewing Academy University of California – Davis UC San Diego Extension: Professional Certificate in Brewing
    22. 22. Outreach Contacts • National Brewery Museum Milwaukee, WI • American Brewiana Association • German American Heritage Center in Davenport IA • Great River Economic Development Foundation
    23. 23. Assumptions to be validated... 1. Number of barrel marks on 5th floor of the brewhouse... probably indicates the number of barrels of grains and hence total poundage per batch. 2. Temperature of malt room October through December 3. Temperature of the first floor above malt room October through January (and humidity) 4. Temperature of tunnel if temps consistent at 32 to 48 degree range 5. Vessel dimensions on brew house floor 6. Barrel vs. gallon discrepancies 7. Malt floor square footage and corresponding grain coverage quantity / thickness 8. 4 barrel batch requirements for a year at farm to malthouse market prices 9. Malt kiln location or air dried in upper rooms... 10. Temps of upper rooms in bottle house Nov thru February 11. Where was the government room in the bottle house and where did the modern tunnel originate in the Old Stock House?
    24. 24. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Other History Bits 1869 The Dick Brothers started the Dick Brothers Milling Company. They built a large mill at the corner of Front and Delaware streets and erected a large elevator at No. 235 South Seventh street. Tellico Mill?? Dick Brothers had an icehouse on the bay which held 3,000 tons of ice, three icehouses on Spring St. and ice storage at the brewery which held 10,000 tons. The brew kettle was replaced with a 300 barrel vessel and brewed 275 barrels every 24 hours. Before 1875 almost all of the brewing was done on the south side of York. After refrigeration, long rows of aging casks with a capacity of three hundred barrels each were in another building… the old stock house or the racking house. John Breitstadt was superintendent and brewmaster. For more than two months, Breitstadt had been turning out from 250 to 500 barrels of beer a day. Brew kettle capacity was 275 barrels (300 barrels). The battery of 6 huge boilers furnished the energy to operate the plant and consumed three carloads of coal a week during the breaking-in period. Housed in the same building were two ice machines, one with a daily capacity of 125 tons and the other 150 tons, furnishing the refrigeration for the cooling cellars. On the south top of the boiler house was a large wooden cupola, on each side of which was a large fan. Inside this cupola there was a lattice work set at an angle of about forty-five degrees. On the lattice poured a miniature Niagara Falls. On the inside of the beer vats were coils of pipe, through which the water for the cupola ran, constantly cooling off the hot brew. This water kept going round and round and round, back to the big fans to be cooled again. When the raw beer reached a certain temperature, it was run over refrigeration coils and then pumped inot big casks where it underwent the fermenting process. Then it was pumped into aging casks. There were rows of these casks, holding twenty-five thousand barrels of beer. When it reached the proper age, it was moved again into the storage casks. There were thirty-four of these, each with a capacity of three hundred barrels of beer. The Dick Brothers owned two external springs with a large capacity of bubbling water. These had been furnishing the Dicks with water for seventy-five years, ever since the original brothers started the brewery. The water was inclined to be “hard” and was not used for making beer, although this was the foundation of the brewery. Across the street from the brew house was the bottling department and, under that department, the government warehouse, used to measure and tax the finished beer. Inside were rows of large tanks into which the beer was pumped from the filter house. Once measured and taxed the beer was permitted to be used in the bottling department, where the process was automatic. After prohibition, the first beer was delivered to local patrons on Friday, September 15, 1933. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Cullen-Harrison Act, legalizing alcohol content of 3.2% (by weight) and wine of similarly low alcohol content. The Cullen-Harrison Act became law on April 7, 1933, and on April 8, 1933, Anheuser-Busch, Inc. sent a team of Clydesdale horses to deliver a case of Budweiser to the White House. The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed on December 5, 1933 with ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment. First city brewery built in 51 x 42 foot building. 1888 saloons served “foamy” beer and then bock beer. 1910 the Schlitz brewery in Peoria started buying all the saloons.
    25. 25. References • Jacob Dick History from: http://www.obrockgenealogy.com/16/14721.html which cites Brewery History from http://www.americanbreweriana.org/history/dickbros.htm (no longer posted) • History of the Dick Brothers Quincy Illinois Brewers Bavaria Germany to Quincy Illinois; Researched and Compiled by Marcia Kuhlman Cray • Genealogy Ref I 929.2 CRA • Carl Landrum’s Quincy A Pictorial History • Carl Landrum’s Quincy. Volume’s 1 - 4 • Quincy Herald Whig news articles