The Ps Framework Mapping the landscape for the PLEs@CQUni project http://cddu.cqu.edu.au/index.php/PLEs%40CQUni
http://flickr.com/photos/adc/2305180584/ The Argument Organisational implementation of educational technology is hard Ther...
http://flickr.com/photos/donnagrayson/195244498/ I have a problem How can CQU make use of PLEs? How can this improve L&T @...
http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/ Implementation of educational technology into an organisation is a decision maki...
http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/ Linkages (Jamieson and Hyland, 2006) Pre-implementation decisions Factors consid...
http://flickr.com/photos/mathieustruck/114604639/ Pre-implementation decisions High volume of information High degree of c...
http://flickr.com/photos/broterham/47209266/ More complex  the decision More likely decisions are based on instinct (Banni...
Where is the evidence for e-learning? http://flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2422430207/
http://flickr.com/photos/tonivc/411231251/ ICT has penetrated tertiary education,  but has had more impact on administrati...
http://flickr.com/photos/tonivc/411231251/ <ul><li>In 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>57% CQUni courses had course sites, </li></ul...
http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Even more surprising is the almost universal adoption of just two commercial LM...
Attention deferral and  contextual insensitivity  may appear to be unproblematic in the face  of the overwhelming “proof” ...
http://flickr.com/photos/quinnanya/2690100005/ Is there one?
little or no theoretically grounded and rigorous research into the structures and processes required to encourage the adop...
More models, that demonstrate the  transferability and  scalability of  e-learning, are required (Salmon, 2005) http://fli...
A framework provides (Mischra and Koehler, 2006) http://flickr.com/photos/13533187@N00/2377250982/ New ways of looking at ...
http://flickr.com/photos/sukanto_debnath/519690623/ Frameworks and taxonomies are not new
http://flickr.com/photos/kjarrett/2562263662/ http://slurl.com/secondlife/Teaching%204/206/151/25It  Bloom's taxonomy
ACTIONS Model A ccess C ost T   eaching  and Learning I  nteractivity N ovelty S peed http://flickr.com/photos/hanspoldoja...
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ The Ps Framework A decision/ sense  making to aid understanding of institutional...
Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy (Mischra and Koehler, 2006) New ways of looking at a phenome...
http://flickr.com/photos/dunechaser/567753250/ Concepts that have proven  useful in ordering things  easily achieve such  ...
Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy
Product
http://flickr.com/photos/maisonbisson/170181701/ What is a PLE -  not ? A single tool Specified by Uni Owned by Uni Necess...
http://flickr.com/photos/angermann/327288144/ http://flickr.com/photos/cambodia4kidsorg/1896540633/ Probably involves soci...
Not, how CQU provides the learning tools How CQU connects with the learner's tools The logic of education systems should b...
We are all learners http://flickr.com/photos/scuoladiatene/316730382/
People
(Trigwell, 2001) Teaching staff must be engaged in any attempt to improve L&T
As knowledge workers academics  have considerable autonomy about  how they perform tasks and often  can and do resist the ...
http://flickr.com/photos/fullmetalgenesis/1403036441/ “ What people pressuring for management  to ‘drive’ cultural change ...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Sustained inattentional blindness http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos....
(Snowden, 2003) Humans do not make rational logical decisions based on information input, instead they pattern match with ...
A recurrent message arising from the  study of educational technologies, however,  is that it is not the provision of feat...
The adopter-based theories reject the assumption that  superior products will automatically be attractive to  potential ad...
(Dutton, Cheong et al. 2004) Expectations and values of students are as much a constraint on innovation as those of top ad...
http://flickr.com/photos/bootload/227128232/ Is it true?  Are they different?
http://flickr.com/photos/bitzcelt/388979184/sizes/l/ Can they make the change? Do they want to? Learner-centered
http://flickr.com/photos/bitzcelt/388979184/ Do they want us in their space?
The user doesn't know  what they want,  until they see it. Then they want something different! http://flickr.com/photos/nt...
Process
Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact....
Categories of Organisational Activity <ul><li>The adoption of PLEs entails a radical shift in  </li></ul><ul><li>how educa...
Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact....
Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Projects which involve high degrees of uncertainty or  change need to ...
Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Key success factors for radical change <ul><li>many ideas need to be e...
Purpose
http://flickr.com/photos/sixsteps/244244045/ No fixed purpose. Collaboratively,  negotiated around  needs and issues  of l...
Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Key success factors for radical change <ul><li>many ideas need to be e...
 
CQUniversity interacts in a customised way  to your individual requirements. Not all universities can say that and few  ca...
Not, how CQU provides the learning tools How CQU connects with the learner's tools The logic of education systems should b...
Organisational Social Technical Legal Place
http://flickr.com/photos/bryanesque/1472305343/ Information and Information Technology Used to be scarce
Not now http://flickr.com/photos/stijnnieuwendijk/145678780/
Default disc space for email accounts
http://flickr.com/photos/askpang/327577395/ Student/teachers != consumer/producer Role of Universities Globalisation Commo...
best practice is composed of, and framed by,  the varied perceptions and aspirations  of the multiple stakeholders who  co...
http://flickr.com/photos/chrisjfry/323461344/ Diversity
<ul><li>Best practice implies: </li></ul><ul><li>There is a best way to do something </li></ul><ul><li>We can identify and...
(Snowden, 2003) Humans do not make rational logical decisions based on information input, instead they pattern match with ...
http://flickr.com/photos/sea-turtle/295566974/ Not all systems are ordered in the sense of  repeating and empirically veri...
(Snowden, 2007) http://flickr.com/photos/mathemagenic/120780104/
Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy
Decisions need to be transparent better informed Ps Framework + Literature + Discussion helps http://flickr.com/photos/dia...
http://flickr.com/photos/marcusramberg/185508448/
<ul><li>Jamieson, K & Hyland, P. (2006).  Facotrs that influence Information Systems decisions and outcomes: A summary of ...
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The Ps Framework: Mapping the Educational Technology Landscape for the PLEs@CQUni Project

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Implementation of educational technology into organisations is hard. The Ps framework is an attempt to provide a sense-making aid to help improve the quality of these decisions. It is illustrated using considerations that have gone into the design of the PLEs@CQUni project.

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The Ps Framework: Mapping the Educational Technology Landscape for the PLEs@CQUni Project

  1. 1. The Ps Framework Mapping the landscape for the PLEs@CQUni project http://cddu.cqu.edu.au/index.php/PLEs%40CQUni
  2. 2. http://flickr.com/photos/adc/2305180584/ The Argument Organisational implementation of educational technology is hard There is need for guidance The Ps Framework provides useful guidance
  3. 3. http://flickr.com/photos/donnagrayson/195244498/ I have a problem How can CQU make use of PLEs? How can this improve L&T @ CQUni? How do you avoid problems of the past?
  4. 4. http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/ Implementation of educational technology into an organisation is a decision making exercise How? What? Why?
  5. 5. http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/ Linkages (Jamieson and Hyland, 2006) Pre-implementation decisions Factors considered in decisions Project outcomes
  6. 6. http://flickr.com/photos/mathieustruck/114604639/ Pre-implementation decisions High volume of information High degree of complexity High degree of uncertainty (Jamieson and Hyland, 2006)
  7. 7. http://flickr.com/photos/broterham/47209266/ More complex the decision More likely decisions are based on instinct (Bannister and Remenyi, 1999)
  8. 8. Where is the evidence for e-learning? http://flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2422430207/
  9. 9. http://flickr.com/photos/tonivc/411231251/ ICT has penetrated tertiary education, but has had more impact on administrative services (e.g. admissions, registration, fee payment, purchasing) than on the pedagogic fundamentals of the classroom.&quot; (OECD, 2005, p.15)
  10. 10. http://flickr.com/photos/tonivc/411231251/ <ul><li>In 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>57% CQUni courses had course sites, </li></ul><ul><li>Most with very limited usage </li></ul>
  11. 11. http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
  12. 12. http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
  13. 13. http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Even more surprising is the almost universal adoption of just two commercial LMSes, both now owned by the same company, by Australia's 39 universities, a sector which has traditionally aimed for diversity and innovation . Despite the complexities and risks, there appears to be something so seductive about an LMS that almost every university appears compelled to have one . (Coates, James and Baldwin, 2005)
  14. 14. Attention deferral and contextual insensitivity may appear to be unproblematic in the face of the overwhelming “proof” afforded by the larger community’s rush toward the innovation. (Swanson and Ramiller, 2004) http://flickr.com/photos/kt/31511354/
  15. 15. http://flickr.com/photos/quinnanya/2690100005/ Is there one?
  16. 16. little or no theoretically grounded and rigorous research into the structures and processes required to encourage the adoption of e-learning (Alavi & Leidner, 2001) http://flickr.com/photos/57402879@N00/279426190/
  17. 17. More models, that demonstrate the transferability and scalability of e-learning, are required (Salmon, 2005) http://flickr.com/photos/evapro/425230963/
  18. 18. A framework provides (Mischra and Koehler, 2006) http://flickr.com/photos/13533187@N00/2377250982/ New ways of looking at a phenomena Information on which to base sound, pragmatic decision making
  19. 19. http://flickr.com/photos/sukanto_debnath/519690623/ Frameworks and taxonomies are not new
  20. 20. http://flickr.com/photos/kjarrett/2562263662/ http://slurl.com/secondlife/Teaching%204/206/151/25It Bloom's taxonomy
  21. 21. ACTIONS Model A ccess C ost T eaching and Learning I nteractivity N ovelty S peed http://flickr.com/photos/hanspoldoja/465116796/ (Bates, 2000)
  22. 22. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ The Ps Framework A decision/ sense making to aid understanding of institutional implementation of e-learning
  23. 23. Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy (Mischra and Koehler, 2006) New ways of looking at a phenomena Information on which to base sound, pragmatic decision making A framework provides
  24. 24. http://flickr.com/photos/dunechaser/567753250/ Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens.
  25. 25. Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy
  26. 26. Product
  27. 27. http://flickr.com/photos/maisonbisson/170181701/ What is a PLE - not ? A single tool Specified by Uni Owned by Uni Necessarily involve ICT An LMS Common
  28. 28. http://flickr.com/photos/angermann/327288144/ http://flickr.com/photos/cambodia4kidsorg/1896540633/ Probably involves social software
  29. 29. Not, how CQU provides the learning tools How CQU connects with the learner's tools The logic of education systems should be reversed so that the system conforms to the learner, rather than the learner to the system. (Green et al, 2005) http://flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/116676896/
  30. 30. We are all learners http://flickr.com/photos/scuoladiatene/316730382/
  31. 31. People
  32. 32. (Trigwell, 2001) Teaching staff must be engaged in any attempt to improve L&T
  33. 33. As knowledge workers academics have considerable autonomy about how they perform tasks and often can and do resist the imposition of new technology and changes to routine (Jones, Gregor and Lynch, 2003) Knowledge workers own the means of production. It is the knowledge between their ears. And it is a totally portable and enormous capital asset. Peter Drucker The critical feature of a knowledge workforce is that its workers are not labor, they are capital. Peter Drucker http://flickr.com/photos/marklarson/2686836326/
  34. 34. http://flickr.com/photos/fullmetalgenesis/1403036441/ “ What people pressuring for management to ‘drive’ cultural change don’t understand is: a value is only a value when it is voluntarily chosen.” -- Bill O'Brien Top driven change…do(es) not reduce fear and distrust, nor unleash imagination and creativity, nor enhance the quality of thinking in the organization (Senge et al. 1999)
  35. 35. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ
  36. 36. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Sustained inattentional blindness http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos.html
  37. 37. (Snowden, 2003) Humans do not make rational logical decisions based on information input, instead they pattern match with either their own experience, or collective experience expressed as stories. It isn't even a best fit pattern match but a first fit pattern match.
  38. 38. A recurrent message arising from the study of educational technologies, however, is that it is not the provision of features but their uptake and use that really determines their educational value. (Coates, James, and Baldwin 2005) http://flickr.com/photos/digital_freak/183688774/
  39. 39. The adopter-based theories reject the assumption that superior products will automatically be attractive to potential adopters. They 'seek to understand the social context in which the innovation will be used and the social function the innovation will serve' (Jones and Lynch, 1999) http://flickr.com/photos/digital_freak/183688774/
  40. 40. (Dutton, Cheong et al. 2004) Expectations and values of students are as much a constraint on innovation as those of top administrators
  41. 41. http://flickr.com/photos/bootload/227128232/ Is it true? Are they different?
  42. 42. http://flickr.com/photos/bitzcelt/388979184/sizes/l/ Can they make the change? Do they want to? Learner-centered
  43. 43. http://flickr.com/photos/bitzcelt/388979184/ Do they want us in their space?
  44. 44. The user doesn't know what they want, until they see it. Then they want something different! http://flickr.com/photos/ntr23/730371240/
  45. 45. Process
  46. 46. Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact. Localised incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with low levels of uncertainty but wide organisational impact. Broad incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty but low organisational impact. Localised radical change or innovation Strategic Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty and wide organisational impact. Broad radical change or innovation Descriptions Characteristics
  47. 47. Categories of Organisational Activity <ul><li>The adoption of PLEs entails a radical shift in </li></ul><ul><li>how educational technology is used, </li></ul><ul><li>in organisational function, and </li></ul><ul><li>the ethos of education </li></ul>(Atwell, 2007) A move towards lifelong learning represents a significant paradigm shift (Longworth, 2002) Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact. Localised incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with low levels of uncertainty but wide organisational impact. Broad incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty but low organisational impact. Localised radical change or innovation Strategic Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty and wide organisational impact. Broad radical change or innovation Descriptions Characteristics
  48. 48. Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact. Localised incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with low levels of uncertainty but wide organisational impact. Broad incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty but low organisational impact. Localised radical change or innovation Strategic Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty and wide organisational impact. Broad radical change or innovation Descriptions Characteristics
  49. 49. Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Projects which involve high degrees of uncertainty or change need to be structured and managed differently from those which involve more routine changes. Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact. Localised incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with low levels of uncertainty but wide organisational impact. Broad incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty but low organisational impact. Localised radical change or innovation Strategic Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty and wide organisational impact. Broad radical change or innovation Descriptions Characteristics
  50. 50. Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Key success factors for radical change <ul><li>many ideas need to be explored </li></ul><ul><li>encourage open communication and idea sharing </li></ul><ul><li>project aims are based on broad strategic goals </li></ul><ul><li>micro scheduling and planning is inappropirate </li></ul><ul><li>flexibility required to adapt to change </li></ul><ul><li>accountability must emphasise progress and learning </li></ul>Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact. Localised incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with low levels of uncertainty but wide organisational impact. Broad incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty but low organisational impact. Localised radical change or innovation Strategic Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty and wide organisational impact. Broad radical change or innovation Descriptions Characteristics
  51. 51. Purpose
  52. 52. http://flickr.com/photos/sixsteps/244244045/ No fixed purpose. Collaboratively, negotiated around needs and issues of local context and participants (Jones & Muldoon, 2007)
  53. 53. Categories of Organisational Activity (Kelly, 2002) Key success factors for radical change <ul><li>many ideas need to be explored </li></ul><ul><li>encourage open communication and idea sharing </li></ul><ul><li>project aims are based on broad strategic goals </li></ul><ul><li>micro scheduling and planning is inappropirate </li></ul><ul><li>flexibility required to adapt to change </li></ul><ul><li>accountability must emphasise progress and learning </li></ul>Projects with low levels of uncertainty and low organisational impact. Localised incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with low levels of uncertainty but wide organisational impact. Broad incremental change or continuous improvement Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty but low organisational impact. Localised radical change or innovation Strategic Projects with high to very high levels of uncertainty and wide organisational impact. Broad radical change or innovation Descriptions Characteristics
  54. 55. CQUniversity interacts in a customised way to your individual requirements. Not all universities can say that and few can say it with confidence. We can. http://content.cqu.edu.au/FCWViewer/view.do?page=6588
  55. 56. Not, how CQU provides the learning tools How CQU connects with the learner's tools The logic of education systems should be reversed so that the system conforms to the learner, rather than the learner to the system. (Green et al, 2005) http://flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/116676896/
  56. 57. Organisational Social Technical Legal Place
  57. 58. http://flickr.com/photos/bryanesque/1472305343/ Information and Information Technology Used to be scarce
  58. 59. Not now http://flickr.com/photos/stijnnieuwendijk/145678780/
  59. 60. Default disc space for email accounts
  60. 61. http://flickr.com/photos/askpang/327577395/ Student/teachers != consumer/producer Role of Universities Globalisation Commodification Learner-centered
  61. 62. best practice is composed of, and framed by, the varied perceptions and aspirations of the multiple stakeholders who constitute an organisation such as a university (Luck, Jones et al. 2004) differing viewpoints influence the priorities of those who hold them for the development and use of support mechanisms for teaching and learning,
  62. 63. http://flickr.com/photos/chrisjfry/323461344/ Diversity
  63. 64. <ul><li>Best practice implies: </li></ul><ul><li>There is a best way to do something </li></ul><ul><li>We can identify and codify what that thing is </li></ul><ul><li>We can get employees to follow best practice </li></ul><ul><li>And that it is desirable that they should do so </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/fleep/485339631/ (Snowden, 2003)
  64. 65. (Snowden, 2003) Humans do not make rational logical decisions based on information input, instead they pattern match with either their own experience, or collective experience expressed as stories. It isn't even a best fit pattern match but a first fit pattern match.
  65. 66. http://flickr.com/photos/sea-turtle/295566974/ Not all systems are ordered in the sense of repeating and empirically verifiable relationships between cause and effect. (Snowden, 2003)
  66. 67. (Snowden, 2007) http://flickr.com/photos/mathemagenic/120780104/
  67. 68. Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy
  68. 69. Decisions need to be transparent better informed Ps Framework + Literature + Discussion helps http://flickr.com/photos/dianny/88887418/
  69. 70. http://flickr.com/photos/marcusramberg/185508448/
  70. 71. <ul><li>Jamieson, K & Hyland, P. (2006). Facotrs that influence Information Systems decisions and outcomes: A summary of key themes from four case studies . Paper presented at the 17th Australasian Conference on Information systems, Adelaide, Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Bannister, F., & Remenyi, D. (1999). Value perception in IT investment decisions. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation , 2(2). </li></ul><ul><li>OECD. (2005). Education at a glance: OECD indicators 2005 . Paris: OECD. </li></ul><ul><li>Alavi, M., & Leidner, D.E. (2001). Research commentary: technology-mediated learning - a call for greater depth and breadth of research. Information Systems Research , 12(1), 1-10. </li></ul><ul><li>Swanson, E. B., Ramiller, N.C. (2004). Innovating mindfully with information technology. MIS Quarterly , 28(4), 553-583 </li></ul><ul><li>Bates, A.W. (2000) Technology, open learning and distance education . New York: Routledge </li></ul><ul><li>Kenny, J. (2002) Managing innovation in educational institutions. Australian Journal of Educational Technology , 18(3), 359-376 </li></ul><ul><li>Green, H. et al (2005) Personalisation and digital technologies, http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications_reports_articles/opening_education_reports/Opening_Education_Report201 </li></ul><ul><li>Atwell, G. (2007). Personal learning environments - the future of eLearning? http://www.elearningpapers.eu/index.php?page=doc&vol=2&doc_id=8554&doclng=6 </li></ul><ul><li>Snowden, D., & Boone, M. (2007). A leader's framework for decision making. Harvard Business Review , 85(11), 68-76 </li></ul>
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