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The missing Ps: Lessons for the adoption and implementation of Learning Management Systems David Jones http://cq-pan.cqu.e...
Why? <ul><li>Relevance to CQU's current situation </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/pscafe/26132968/
Why? <ul><li>Progress the PhD - chapter 2 </li></ul>http://www.phdcomics.com/comics/archive.php?comicid=315
Why? Problems with existing practice http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
Premise LMS adoption and implementation  requires thought and decision making http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/
But the complexity http://flickr.com/photos/niallkennedy/54591543/
Leads to faulty understanding http://flickr.com/photos/93852598@N00/296640957/
..the highly complex, confusing and almost over-whelming nature of the many issues that information technology raise.. (Du...
Creates train wrecks http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
and dead ends http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
Provide the thinker  http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/
P roduct P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience http://flickr.com/photos/consumatron/301137468/
http://flickr.com/photos/spackletoe/90811910/ Identify potential shortcomings Consider all factors Make appropriate decisi...
http://flickr.com/photos/landscape_photography/258527295/ And reach paradise
Price Product Promotion Place Target Market
Place People Price Promotion Product Pacesetter Marketing
Likely to go on forever, 283 slides http://flickr.com/photos/intimaj/113117573/
<ul><li>Which is the best LMS for this institution? </li></ul>The wrong question
A better question <ul><li>Having examined PAST EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Learning is still very new </li></ul></u...
A better question <ul><li>the institution's PLACE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HEIs exist within a turblent environment </li></ul...
A better question <ul><li>and its PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All value comes from its employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
A better question <ul><li>With the institution's PURPOSE in mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals are ambiguous, rarely shared ...
A better question <ul><li>Identify an appropriate PROCESS (at all levels) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptable </li></ul></ul><...
A better question <ul><li>To allow the right PRODUCT to be &quot;emergent&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never stable </li></...
P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P roduct
<ul><li>Blackboard versus Webfuse </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/automania/126698126/ Which LMS should we use?
Portal Web Interface Ancillary services e.g. virtual union & library LMS (Blackboard) LMS (Webfuse) Simulations & other te...
Portal Web Interface Ancillary services e.g. virtual union & library LMS (Blackboard) LMS (Webfuse) Simulations & other te...
Portal Web Interface Ancillary services e.g. virtual union & library LMS (Blackboard) LMS (Webfuse) Simulations & other te...
P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Produc...
What is an LMS <ul><li>A system that provides tools for course administration and pedagogical functions including </li></u...
P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Produc...
Client server http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
Peer to peer http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
I go get web http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/ Come to me web
 
 
 
CQU adopts WhitePlank cars as delivery mechanism
must use university resource http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
 
 
On-going trend that University supplied technology is soon provided externally http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
 
 
 
 
Funding IT #2 Issue http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/ http://www.educause.edu/apps/er/erm06/erm0633.asp Top-Te...
Web/browser based http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
There are alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
 
PLE http://www.reload.ac.uk/plex/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/cyberone/249778491/
Enterprise based system http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
One ring to rule them all http://flickr.com/photos/remedix/260741805/
There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/ Best-of-breed technologies are displacing olde...
http://flickr.com/photos/elifishtacos/90944650/
..first visions of a fifth generation - based on autonomous agents and intelligent,  database-assisted learning - that we ...
Low level abstraction http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/ Technology - scripting languages and MDA Pedag...
P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Produc...
Course centric http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
Course offering centric http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
Separate from the outside world http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
A benefit of open content
PLEs - student centric There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
Student centered  (Dalsgaard, 2006) <ul><li>Using a management system for administrative issues </li></ul><ul><li>Offering...
E-Learning Adoption Cycles (Zemsky & Massy, 2004) Early adopters New course configurations Early adopters Imported learnin...
P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Produc...
Emphasis on purchase price http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
Maintenance  typically consumes about  40 to 80 percent  of software costs and  60% of that maintenance  cost is due  to  ...
Buy  OR  Build http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
Buy  AND  Build http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
Abstraction of Information systems Software Hardware Otherware - deterministic - non-deterministic
Abstraction of Information systems Software Hardware Otherware - deterministic - non-deterministic Law of Requisite Variet...
Abstraction of Information systems Software Hardware Otherware - deterministic - non-deterministic If the information syst...
It's all about technology http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
Executives need to stop looking at IT  projects as technology installations and start looking at them as periods of  organ...
All IT is the same http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
Different types of IT result in different kinds of organisational change when they are implemented, so executives must tai...
An LMS is pedagogically neutral. http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
Rather than being of itself liberating or empowering technology serves whichever goals motivate the people guiding its des...
Technological tools and instruments are never value-neutral but rather teeming with values and potentialities, which may c...
the values embedded in many commonly used VLEs leave a residue that is clearly transmissive rather than constructed and he...
P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P urpose P roduct
<ul><li>Time to make a decision </li></ul>Which car? http://flickr.com/photos/devnull/272059665/
<ul><li>A humvee? </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/jaccodeboer/11795915/
<ul><li>Ferrari F430 </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/storem/107355337/
<ul><li>Tractor </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/lawrence_evil/148415677/
<ul><li>Time to make a decision </li></ul>Which car? http://flickr.com/photos/devnull/272059665/
P urpose <ul><li>What's the purpose of e-learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with shared purpose </li></ul>
<ul><li>What is the purpose of selecting an LMS? </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/nardell/231188354/
<ul><li>Improve quality and variety of T&L </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce administrative burden on teachers (Britain & Liber, 20...
<ul><li>Implement the 7 principles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage student/faculty contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dev...
<ul><li>Put bums on seats? </li></ul>
WebCT @ CQU <ul><li>The stated purpose of this group was to establish a means to enable teaching staff to develop and mana...
Central Queensland University will be a teaching and research university of  distinction  in borderless professional and a...
P urpose <ul><li>What's the purpose of e-learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with shared purpose </li></ul>
Variety <ul><li>The committee recognized that different campus cultures and the lack of a single, unified vision for onlin...
Variety <ul><li>&quot;on the basis of disciplinary subculture alone, those in academia will go on having an even harder ti...
Variety <ul><li>The high degree of customization make traditional management principles such as standardizaation, routiniz...
<ul><li>..societies everywhere expect from higher education institutions the provision of an education that can permit the...
<ul><li>Four kinds of competing authority systems (Clark, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic authority </li></ul><ul><li>Ent...
<ul><li>Within an interdependent system that is loosely coupled and contains multiple power and authority structures, stri...
<ul><li>Goal ambiguity is a defining characteristics of higher education institutions (Hearn, 1996) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Given </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistency between goals and actions </li></ul><ul><li>The constantly changing nature o...
<ul><li>There is a need for highly trained individuals with enough autonomy to respond within this complex environment (Be...
<ul><li>Ambiguity of goals means that typical planning processes might be problematic (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul>
P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P ast experience P roduct
P ast  Experience <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>System characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>System use </li></ul>
<ul><li>Most reviews have tended to concentrate on the features, technical details and pricing of different systems.  (Bri...
<ul><li>attention has been most often focussed on their technical, financial and administrative  aspects.  (Coates et al, ...
Decisions about university teaching and learning should not be restricted to checklist evaluations of technical and organi...
P ast  Experience <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>System characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>System use </li></ul>
No CMS supports student critical thinking, generation of knowledge and collaborative teamwork  (Bonk & Dennen, 1999).
support more or less the same pedagogy (Robson, 1999).
These systems may further limit the incentive to innovate (Anyonymous, 2004)
provide little support for usage monitoring and reporting at an institutional level across multiple courses (Morgan, 2003).
LMS are based on an overly simplistic understanding of the relationship between teachers, knowledge and student learning. ...
LMSs, are structured with little capability for customisation (Morgan, 2003).
P ast  Experience <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>System characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>System use </li></ul>
Best practice implementations report no more than 55% staff adoption rates (Sausner, 2005)
Faculty acceptance of online education (Allen and Seaman, 2005) 42.1% 28.8% Private, for-profit 20.6% 20.2% Private, non-p...
Universities have not employed technology to the same degree or effect as the business community  (Piccoli et al., 2000).
P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P lace P roduct
P lace <ul><li>Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Inside </li></ul>
Knowledge Economy <ul><li>Education, people and their ideas are the key strategic resource </li></ul><ul><li>Society will ...
Other factors <ul><li>Globalised economy </li></ul><ul><li>Post-industrial information age </li></ul><ul><li>Demands for g...
Uncertainty about the future and other developments highlight the importance of building institutions that are responsive ...
The ever-accelerating tempo of digital technology poses great challenges to institutions….When the power for a given price...
There can be no doubt that universities operate in a continuously changing environment. It is how they, as an organisation...
There can be no doubt that universities operate in a continuously changing environment. It is how they, as an organisation...
<ul><li>Educational leaders experience three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment (Kezar, 2000; Klenke, 19...
<ul><li>Educational leaders experience three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment (Kezar, 2000; Klenke, 19...
<ul><li>Educational leaders experience three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment (Kezar, 2000; Klenke, 19...
P lace <ul><li>Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Inside </li></ul>
<ul><li>Universities, however, are one of a very few institutions that have maintained their existence since the 1500s (Ke...
<ul><li>Unique features of HEI (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Unique cultur...
<ul><li>Unique features of HEI (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional and administrative values </li></ul><ul><li>Sh...
Educational organisations are &quot;loosely coupled systems&quot; which are amenable to &quot;localised adaptation&quot; w...
What type of &quot;business&quot; is a University?
Professional firms differ from other business enterprises in two distinct ways: first, they provide highly customized serv...
The high degree of customization make traditional management principles such as standardizaation, routinization and superv...
professional services are highly personalized, involving the skills of individuals. Such firms must therefore compete not ...
In this sense people are a university's most important resource. With people, knowledge moves out of the university or ent...
<ul><li>Needs and context at CQU </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Dropping enr...
P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P eople P roduct
P eople <ul><li>Rationality and bias </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants, natives, the net generation and literacy </li></ul><ul>...
The goal of the decision tool is to give the user a rational decision making process to assist in selecting a course manag...
Innovation and change development in universities can never be a mere rational process (Jones & O ' Shea, 2004).
The Cognitive Bias Game <ul><li>Count the number of the following which you've seen demonstrated recently </li></ul><ul><l...
Bandwagon effect - tendency to do things because many others are doing it.
Bias blind spot - tendency  not to compensate for one’s  own cognitive biases
Choice-supportive bias - the tendency to remember one’s choices as better than they actually were
Confirmation bias - the tendency to search/interpret information to confirm your pre-conceptions
Congruence testing - the tendency to use tests that only confirm your hypotheses rather than disprove it, or prove another
Deformation professionnelle - the tendency to look at things through the conventions of your own profession with no though...
Disconfirmation bias - tendency to critically examine information that contradicts your prior beliefs but accept uncritica...
Endowment effect - the tendency for people to value something more as soon as they own it
Focusing effect - prediction bias when you place too much importance on one aspect
Hyperbolic discounting - tendency to have a stronger preference for immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs
Illusion of control - tendency to believe you can influence outcomes over which you have no control
Impact bias - tendency to overestimate the intensity of impact on future states
Information bias - tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action
Loss aversion - tendency to strongly prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains
Outcome bias - tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of on the quality of the decision at the time ...
Planning fallacy - tendency to under estimate task completion times
Post-purchase rationalisation - tendency to persuade oneself through rational argument that a purchase was a good one.
Pseudocertainty effect - tendency to make risk averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking c...
Status quo bias - the tendency for people to like things to stay relatively the same
Zero-risk bias - preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk
The Social Bias Game <ul><li>Count the number of the following which you've seen demonstrated recently </li></ul><ul><li>T...
False consensus effect - tendency to overestimate the degree to which others agree with you
P eople <ul><li>Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants, natives, the net generation and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Cultu...
Generations New students Millennial Academics Gen X Decision makers, Senior Academics Boomer Role Generation
Age is directly associated with attitudes associated with computers (Morris, 1998; Ahadiat, 2005)
Few administrative staff understand adquately the nature and implications of digital technology.  There are even fewer cap...
Few faculty members utilize or are even aware of the rapidly expanding scientific basis for learning from neuroscience and...
..the current generation of university leaders, most of whom received their own educations and career experiences in the p...
Instructors are principal actors in any learning environment (Webster and Hackley 1997)
the instructor's self-efficacy contributes to learning effectiveness (Cavanaugh et al. 2000; Mathieue et al 1993)
Although IT may be the stimulus or change agent, the essential matters are complex and will be the purview of academics’’ ...
Perhaps the group requiring the most attention from administrators is faculty, as they often feel uncomfortable with and e...
The future of technological successes at higher education institutions depends not only on the availability of technology ...
When implementing e-learning within existing Universities staff engagement is the most complex and important success facto...
There is generally a significant gap between the pedagogic conception of instructional designers and those of the average ...
The conception of learning held by teachers has a major influence on the planning of courses, the development of teaching ...
the various participants in the modern educational enterprise will only adopt  e-learning if it is within their interests ...
<ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand institutional cultures and effectively d...
<ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain existing needed technologies while protecti...
<ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Be technology literate and use technology to commun...
<ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the value of collaboration, teamwork an...
<ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Assume technology to be a natural part of the environment </li></ul>
<ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive use of technology in education as inadequate </li></ul>
<ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>84% use Internet for school research </li></ul><ul><li>70% use IM </...
<ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider themselves more Internet-savvy than their teachers </li></u...
<ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>State that administrative restrictions, older equipment and/or filte...
Our students have changed radically. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teac...
Immigrants and Natives (Prensky, 2001) Can you hear this?
Knowing, Particpating, Living X X X Living X Participating Knowing Ignorance YouTube Flickr Blogs Web Level
Evolution of literacy TIME Everyone Everyone Programmers Priests, wealthy, educated Specialised technicians Scribes Progra...
Evolution of literacy TIME http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-10878_11-5053961.html Rise of the versatilists Everyone Everyo...
P eople <ul><li>Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants, natives, the net generation and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Cultu...
<ul><li>Each disciplinary culture has distinctive beliefs (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematicians: logic and consis...
Faculty, administrators, professional staff and students all hold different values
There has not been adequate recognition of the importance of inherent differences in  organisational cultures, academic cu...
A critical strategy for effective e-learning is to recognize the different cultures of learning between and within organiz...
It is not just a question of establishing 'success factors' per se but also whether they are contextualised appropriately ...
Cultural differences increase the difficulty of attempting to transplant models of practice between contexts (Calder 2000).
Studies of learning technology within HE settings have tended to display rather unsophisticated perspectives on the nature...
P roduct P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P rocess
P rocess <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological bias </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul>
Unlike other financial or human resources management systems recently introduced into universities, online LMS have the po...
Daniel (1996) urges universities to adopt learning technology strategies to address changing conceptions of the university...
The Dearing Report (1997) emphasized the existing communications and information technology resources could only be used m...
A lack of institutional learning technology strategies is a barrier to their more widespread adoption in T&L practice (Jen...
Important factors in e-learning implementation include: senior management support, top-down budget allocation, central tec...
The development of L&T in an expanding HE system should take a more strategic and longer term approach including a &quot;v...
To date, much of the focus has been into the development of technologies or top-down policy aspirations, and not on the hu...
The turbulent and dynamic internal and external environment calls for networked educational management to be highly adapti...
Administrators of these institutions seem to think “everyone else is doing it, so there must be something to it” – in othe...
Even when individual educators embrace new technology institutional arrangements and policies in education such as institu...
<ul><li>6 main categories of theories of change: (Kezar, 2001): </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Teleologi...
<ul><li>Extensive reivew suggests organisational change can best be explained through: </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></...
Political: persuasion, informal negotiation, mediation and coality building
Social-cognition: altering mental models, learning, constructed interaction.
Cultural: symbolism, history and traditions, institutional culture
Teleological models &quot;limited support from the research in terms of how change actually occurs in higher education and...
P rocess <ul><li>Strategy and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological bias </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul>
How do you design? <ul><li>You've won a holiday to China/Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have 30 days </li></ul></ul><ul>...
 
 
Design extremes Rules/regulators Master plan Control Decentralised Centralised Management Time Complexity/conflict Problem...
Three questions about the nature of e-learning within a univeristy (within CQU).
Is the system around e-learning within a HEI relatively stable and predictable?
Can a small group of people &quot;manipulate&quot; the system's behaviour directly?  Can they exert some form of &quot;con...
Can that group determine &quot;accurately&quot; the goals for the entire system?
For teleological design to be possible these three requirements must logically be met. (Introna, 1996)
Push to Pull  (Seely Brown and Hagel, 2005) http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/article_abstract.aspx?ar=1642 Positive-sum re...
<ul><li>The Systems Development Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Design ...
Lifecycle model  (Truex et al, 1999)
Lifecycle model  (Truex et al, 1999) Only works in a stable context
Emergent context Wasted money Generally fail
Emergent context Stable systems drag
Emergent context Occurs more often More wasted money
The alternative <ul><li>Always analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic requirements negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous re...
Comparison
Comparison @ CQU Blackboard WebCT Topclass Webfuse
<ul><li>Research-based principles for change (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Promote organisational self-discovery </li></...
<ul><li>Research-based principles for change (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Be open to a disorderly process </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Research-based principles for change (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware different parts of the organisation ...
IT Strategic Planning T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Big planning http://www.educause.edu/er/erm05/erm0...
Evolution of IT planning http://www.educause.edu/er/erm05/erm0522.asp?bhcp=1  Focus on sensing, not planning  Modular in...
IS Development T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Software development life-cycle http://doi.acm.org/10.114...
Programming T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Plan first http://www.testdriven.com http://www.paulgraham.c...
Meta-data T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Taxonomy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy http://en.wik...
Standards T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Top-down standards * IMS, SCORM http://microformats.org Micro-...
<ul><li>Two main ways to introduce e-learning into traditional teaching (Salmon, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale centr...
Use of technology to substitute current practice only results in incremental change, not transformation.
Technological artefacts often appear to generate new, unforeseen behaviours, which may strongly deviate from the initial i...
P rocess <ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological bias </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul>
http://flickr.com/photos/teepee1/93775668/
http://flickr.com/photos/sumit/93840305/
http://flickr.com/photos/schizoo23/94565916/
Which learning theory is your teaching based upon?
Knowing, Particpating, Living Living Participating Knowing Behaviourist Level
Knowing, Particpating, Living Living Participating Knowing Cognitivist Level
Knowing, Particpating, Living Living Participating Knowing Constructivist Level
Knowing, Particpating, Living http://elearning.surf.nl/e-learning/english/3793 Living Participating Knowing Connectivist L...
Too much of staff development for e-learning initiatives focuses on the level of teachers’ strategies – how to use a parti...
First, any approach to  &quot; one technology and pedagogy fits all &quot;  is pretty much doomed to flap and then crash. ...
References <ul><li>Anonyous. (2004). Mixed skies ahead: What happened to e-learning and why.  Change , 36(2): 55-58 </li><...
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The missing Ps: Lessons for the adoption and implementation of Learning Management Systems

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An early talk describing a framework that indicates the shortcomings and mistakes Universities are making around the selection and implementation of Learning Management Systems.

A video of the presentation and the Powerpoint slides are available

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Transcript of "The missing Ps: Lessons for the adoption and implementation of Learning Management Systems"

  1. 1. The missing Ps: Lessons for the adoption and implementation of Learning Management Systems David Jones http://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/david-jones/ [email_address] http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  2. 2. Why? <ul><li>Relevance to CQU's current situation </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/pscafe/26132968/
  3. 3. Why? <ul><li>Progress the PhD - chapter 2 </li></ul>http://www.phdcomics.com/comics/archive.php?comicid=315
  4. 4. Why? Problems with existing practice http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
  5. 5. Premise LMS adoption and implementation requires thought and decision making http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/
  6. 6. But the complexity http://flickr.com/photos/niallkennedy/54591543/
  7. 7. Leads to faulty understanding http://flickr.com/photos/93852598@N00/296640957/
  8. 8. ..the highly complex, confusing and almost over-whelming nature of the many issues that information technology raise.. (Duderstadt et al, 2002) http://flickr.com/photos/niallkennedy/54591543/
  9. 9. Creates train wrecks http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
  10. 10. and dead ends http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
  11. 11. Provide the thinker http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/
  12. 12. P roduct P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience http://flickr.com/photos/consumatron/301137468/
  13. 13. http://flickr.com/photos/spackletoe/90811910/ Identify potential shortcomings Consider all factors Make appropriate decisions Identify research opportunities
  14. 14. http://flickr.com/photos/landscape_photography/258527295/ And reach paradise
  15. 15. Price Product Promotion Place Target Market
  16. 16. Place People Price Promotion Product Pacesetter Marketing
  17. 17. Likely to go on forever, 283 slides http://flickr.com/photos/intimaj/113117573/
  18. 18. <ul><li>Which is the best LMS for this institution? </li></ul>The wrong question
  19. 19. A better question <ul><li>Having examined PAST EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Learning is still very new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current tools based on limited knowledge, are not adaptable, don't support diversity…etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff adoption is low, mostly innovators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is done not particularly effective nor efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of LMS reviews focus on features, technical details and price, ignoring a range of other important factors </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. A better question <ul><li>the institution's PLACE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HEIs exist within a turblent environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to change within HEIs is uncertain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEI characteristics make teleological change inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional management principles (standardization, supervision, routinization) are difficult to apply - maybe inappropriate </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. A better question <ul><li>and its PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All value comes from its employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As knowledge workers they will reject change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Come from vastly different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One size does NOT fit all </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. A better question <ul><li>With the institution's PURPOSE in mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals are ambiguous, rarely shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose in LMS evaluations rarely stated or considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring purpose does not become &quot;make best use of System X&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T&L is the CORE business for HEIs </li></ul></ul>Central Queensland University will be a teaching and research university of distinction in borderless professional and adult learning Through multiple pathways we will provide gateways for people with different learning styles to achieve their life aspirations.
  23. 23. A better question <ul><li>Identify an appropriate PROCESS (at all levels) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on learning, at all levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matches needs of PLACE, PURPOSE and PEOPLE as it continues to change </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. A better question <ul><li>To allow the right PRODUCT to be &quot;emergent&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every aspect of it questioned and changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never replaced </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P roduct
  26. 26. <ul><li>Blackboard versus Webfuse </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/automania/126698126/ Which LMS should we use?
  27. 27. Portal Web Interface Ancillary services e.g. virtual union & library LMS (Blackboard) LMS (Webfuse) Simulations & other teaching environments Shared education services University wide services Digital repositories Communication networks & distribution infrastructure Monitoring performance & usage Assessment Student profile & history Calendar Timetable Class & Course Management Content management Assignment tracking Plagiarism detection Security authorisations Single sign-on Library management Digital rights management Student administration axapta Course administration Student profiles Student Database Learning content database Staff database Finance database Course profiles Library catalogue Digital library & eReserve Blackboard versus Webfuse - CQU Org Review
  28. 28. Portal Web Interface Ancillary services e.g. virtual union & library LMS (Blackboard) LMS (Webfuse) Simulations & other teaching environments Shared education services University wide services Digital repositories Communication networks & distribution infrastructure Monitoring performance & usage Assessment Student profile & history Calendar Timetable Class & Course Management Content management Assignment tracking Plagiarism detection Security authorisations Single sign-on Library management Digital rights management Student administration axapta Course administration Student profiles Student Database Learning content database Staff database Finance database Course profiles Library catalogue Digital library & eReserve The constrained reality
  29. 29. Portal Web Interface Ancillary services e.g. virtual union & library LMS (Blackboard) LMS (Webfuse) Simulations & other teaching environments Shared education services University wide services Digital repositories Monitoring performance & usage Assessment Student profile & history Calendar Timetable Class & Course Management Content management Assignment tracking Plagiarism detection Security authorisations Single sign-on Library management Digital rights management Student administration axapta Course administration Student profiles Student Database Learning content database Staff database Finance database Course profiles Library catalogue Digital library & eReserve Review of grade Gradebook Plagiarism Tracking System ESOS compliance Faculty websites Reality
  30. 30. P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Product understanding </li></ul>
  31. 31. What is an LMS <ul><li>A system that provides tools for course administration and pedagogical functions including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynch and synch communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content devleopment and delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative and summative assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class and user management (Coates et al, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Product understanding </li></ul>
  33. 33. Client server http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  34. 34. Peer to peer http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  35. 35. I go get web http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  36. 36. http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/ Come to me web
  37. 40. CQU adopts WhitePlank cars as delivery mechanism
  38. 41. must use university resource http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  39. 44. On-going trend that University supplied technology is soon provided externally http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  40. 49. Funding IT #2 Issue http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/ http://www.educause.edu/apps/er/erm06/erm0633.asp Top-Ten IT Issues, 2006
  41. 50. Web/browser based http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  42. 51. There are alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  43. 53. PLE http://www.reload.ac.uk/plex/
  44. 54. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cyberone/249778491/
  45. 55. Enterprise based system http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  46. 56. One ring to rule them all http://flickr.com/photos/remedix/260741805/
  47. 57. There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/ Best-of-breed technologies are displacing older enterprise applications. Integration technologies like Web services and SOA make it easier to integrate disparate applications. (CIO Insight, 2006)
  48. 58. http://flickr.com/photos/elifishtacos/90944650/
  49. 59. ..first visions of a fifth generation - based on autonomous agents and intelligent, database-assisted learning - that we refer to as the education Semantic Web. (Anderson and Elloumi, 2004) http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  50. 60. Low level abstraction http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  51. 61. There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/ Technology - scripting languages and MDA Pedagogy - learning designs
  52. 62. P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Product understanding </li></ul>
  53. 63. Course centric http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  54. 64. Course offering centric http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  55. 65. There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  56. 66. Separate from the outside world http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  57. 67. There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  58. 68. A benefit of open content
  59. 69. PLEs - student centric There are more modern alternatives http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  60. 70. Student centered (Dalsgaard, 2006) <ul><li>Using a management system for administrative issues </li></ul><ul><li>Offering students personal tools for construction, presentation… </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating networks between students within the same course </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating networks between students and other people working within the field </li></ul>
  61. 71. E-Learning Adoption Cycles (Zemsky & Massy, 2004) Early adopters New course configurations Early adopters Imported learning objects Into early majority (% students not staff) Course Management Systems Through early majority Enhancements to trad. courses Stage Cycle
  62. 72. P roduct <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Product models </li></ul><ul><li>Produce models </li></ul><ul><li>Product understanding </li></ul>
  63. 73. Emphasis on purchase price http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  64. 74. Maintenance typically consumes about 40 to 80 percent of software costs and 60% of that maintenance cost is due to enhancement (Glass, 2001). http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  65. 75. Buy OR Build http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  66. 76. Buy AND Build http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  67. 77. Abstraction of Information systems Software Hardware Otherware - deterministic - non-deterministic
  68. 78. Abstraction of Information systems Software Hardware Otherware - deterministic - non-deterministic Law of Requisite Variety A model system or controller can only model or control something to the extent that it has sufficient internal variety to represent it. http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/REQVAR.html
  69. 79. Abstraction of Information systems Software Hardware Otherware - deterministic - non-deterministic If the information systems can't keep up with the &quot;otheware&quot; workarounds (shadow systems) occur
  70. 80. It's all about technology http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  71. 81. Executives need to stop looking at IT projects as technology installations and start looking at them as periods of organisational change that they have a responsibility to manage. (McAfee 2006) http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  72. 82. All IT is the same http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  73. 83. Different types of IT result in different kinds of organisational change when they are implemented, so executives must tailor their roles to the technologies they're using. (McAfee, 2006) http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  74. 84. An LMS is pedagogically neutral. http://flickr.com/photos/patrick_q/108525914/
  75. 85. Rather than being of itself liberating or empowering technology serves whichever goals motivate the people guiding its design and use. (Lian, 2000) http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  76. 86. Technological tools and instruments are never value-neutral but rather teeming with values and potentialities, which may cause unexpected responses. (Westera, 2004) http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  77. 87. the values embedded in many commonly used VLEs leave a residue that is clearly transmissive rather than constructed and hence adds to the banality and confusion, even disappointment, in the learning and teaching experiences (Sullivan & Czigler, 2002; De Freitas & Oliver, 2005). http://flickr.com/photos/puja/125464480/
  78. 88. P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P urpose P roduct
  79. 89. <ul><li>Time to make a decision </li></ul>Which car? http://flickr.com/photos/devnull/272059665/
  80. 90. <ul><li>A humvee? </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/jaccodeboer/11795915/
  81. 91. <ul><li>Ferrari F430 </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/storem/107355337/
  82. 92. <ul><li>Tractor </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/lawrence_evil/148415677/
  83. 93. <ul><li>Time to make a decision </li></ul>Which car? http://flickr.com/photos/devnull/272059665/
  84. 94. P urpose <ul><li>What's the purpose of e-learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with shared purpose </li></ul>
  85. 95. <ul><li>What is the purpose of selecting an LMS? </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/nardell/231188354/
  86. 96. <ul><li>Improve quality and variety of T&L </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce administrative burden on teachers (Britain & Liber, 2004) </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/nardell/231188354/
  87. 97. <ul><li>Implement the 7 principles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage student/faculty contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop reciprocity and cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage active learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives prompt feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes time on task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates high expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repspects diverse talents and ways of learning </li></ul></ul>
  88. 98. <ul><li>Put bums on seats? </li></ul>
  89. 99. WebCT @ CQU <ul><li>The stated purpose of this group was to establish a means to enable teaching staff to develop and manage online courses with little professional support (Sturgess & Nouwens, 2004) </li></ul>
  90. 100. Central Queensland University will be a teaching and research university of distinction in borderless professional and adult learning Through multiple pathways we will provide gateways for people with different learning styles to achieve their life aspirations.
  91. 101. P urpose <ul><li>What's the purpose of e-learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with shared purpose </li></ul>
  92. 102. Variety <ul><li>The committee recognized that different campus cultures and the lack of a single, unified vision for online teaching and learning – probably impossible at an institution of this size – work against a single tool being “best” across the board. (UF CMSAG, 2003) </li></ul>
  93. 103. Variety <ul><li>&quot;on the basis of disciplinary subculture alone, those in academia will go on having an even harder time understanding and identifying with one another&quot; (Clark, 1983) </li></ul>
  94. 104. Variety <ul><li>The high degree of customization make traditional management principles such as standardizaation, routinization and supervision difficult to apply. (Maister, 1993) </li></ul>
  95. 105. <ul><li>..societies everywhere expect from higher education institutions the provision of an education that can permit them to flourish in the changing global economic landscape. Those institutions that can continually change, keeping up with the needs of the transforming economy they serve, will surive. Those that cannot or will not change will become irrelevant, </li></ul><ul><li>-- Jorge Klor de Alva (2000, p 40) </li></ul>
  96. 106. <ul><li>Four kinds of competing authority systems (Clark, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic authority </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise-based authority </li></ul><ul><li>System-based authority </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma </li></ul>
  97. 107. <ul><li>Within an interdependent system that is loosely coupled and contains multiple power and authority structures, strict lines of decision making are uncommon. </li></ul>
  98. 108. <ul><li>Goal ambiguity is a defining characteristics of higher education institutions (Hearn, 1996) </li></ul>
  99. 109. <ul><li>Given </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistency between goals and actions </li></ul><ul><li>The constantly changing nature of goals </li></ul><ul><li>The need for goals to be placed within specific disciplinary contexts </li></ul>
  100. 110. <ul><li>There is a need for highly trained individuals with enough autonomy to respond within this complex environment (Bess 1999). </li></ul>
  101. 111. <ul><li>Ambiguity of goals means that typical planning processes might be problematic (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul>
  102. 112. P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P ast experience P roduct
  103. 113. P ast Experience <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>System characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>System use </li></ul>
  104. 114. <ul><li>Most reviews have tended to concentrate on the features, technical details and pricing of different systems. (Britain and Liber, 2004) </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/cassidynorvell/3199016/
  105. 115. <ul><li>attention has been most often focussed on their technical, financial and administrative aspects. (Coates et al, 2005) </li></ul>http://flickr.com/photos/cassidynorvell/3199016/
  106. 116. Decisions about university teaching and learning should not be restricted to checklist evaluations of technical and organisational factors. (Coates et al, 2005)
  107. 117. P ast Experience <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>System characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>System use </li></ul>
  108. 118. No CMS supports student critical thinking, generation of knowledge and collaborative teamwork (Bonk & Dennen, 1999).
  109. 119. support more or less the same pedagogy (Robson, 1999).
  110. 120. These systems may further limit the incentive to innovate (Anyonymous, 2004)
  111. 121. provide little support for usage monitoring and reporting at an institutional level across multiple courses (Morgan, 2003).
  112. 122. LMS are based on an overly simplistic understanding of the relationship between teachers, knowledge and student learning. (Coates et al, 2005)
  113. 123. LMSs, are structured with little capability for customisation (Morgan, 2003).
  114. 124. P ast Experience <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>System characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>System use </li></ul>
  115. 125. Best practice implementations report no more than 55% staff adoption rates (Sausner, 2005)
  116. 126. Faculty acceptance of online education (Allen and Seaman, 2005) 42.1% 28.8% Private, for-profit 20.6% 20.2% Private, non-profit 36.4% 34.2% Public 2005 2003 Institution
  117. 127. Universities have not employed technology to the same degree or effect as the business community (Piccoli et al., 2000).
  118. 128. P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P lace P roduct
  119. 129. P lace <ul><li>Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Inside </li></ul>
  120. 130. Knowledge Economy <ul><li>Education, people and their ideas are the key strategic resource </li></ul><ul><li>Society will become more dependent on social institutions that create knowledge and education people (Duderstadt et al, 2002) </li></ul>
  121. 131. Other factors <ul><li>Globalised economy </li></ul><ul><li>Post-industrial information age </li></ul><ul><li>Demands for greater access to tertiary education </li></ul><ul><li>Government reluctance to fund that demand </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing costs of higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of 'earner-learner' market </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for increased diversity </li></ul>
  122. 132. Uncertainty about the future and other developments highlight the importance of building institutions that are responsive to change. (CRHEFP, 1997)
  123. 133. The ever-accelerating tempo of digital technology poses great challenges to institutions….When the power for a given price doubles every 18 months of less, rapid obsolescence disrupts conventional infrastructure planning processes (Dederstadt et al, 2002)
  124. 134. There can be no doubt that universities operate in a continuously changing environment. It is how they, as an organisation, respond to the changes that determines their legitimacy and relevance going forward. -- ??Source??
  125. 135. There can be no doubt that universities operate in a continuously changing environment. It is how they, as an organisation, respond to the changes that determines their legitimacy and relevance going forward. -- CQU Strategic Plan: 2006-2011
  126. 136. <ul><li>Educational leaders experience three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment (Kezar, 2000; Klenke, 1996): </li></ul><ul><li>unknown or unpredictable trends in external influencers </li></ul>
  127. 137. <ul><li>Educational leaders experience three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment (Kezar, 2000; Klenke, 1996): </li></ul><ul><li>unpredictable impacts of the trends on the organisation </li></ul>
  128. 138. <ul><li>Educational leaders experience three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment (Kezar, 2000; Klenke, 1996): </li></ul><ul><li>unknown or ambiguous action/reaction options </li></ul>
  129. 139. P lace <ul><li>Outside </li></ul><ul><li>Inside </li></ul>
  130. 140. <ul><li>Universities, however, are one of a very few institutions that have maintained their existence since the 1500s (Kerr, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>The pre-dominant model of the University is still the traditional combination of teaching and academic research suggested by Wilhelm von Humboldt in the 19 th century (Tsichritzis, 1999). </li></ul>
  131. 141. <ul><li>Unique features of HEI (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Unique culture of the academy </li></ul><ul><li>Values-driven </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple power and authority structures </li></ul><ul><li>Organized and anarchical decision-making </li></ul>
  132. 142. <ul><li>Unique features of HEI (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional and administrative values </li></ul><ul><li>Shared governance </li></ul><ul><li>Employee commitment and tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Goal ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Loosely coupled system </li></ul>
  133. 143. Educational organisations are &quot;loosely coupled systems&quot; which are amenable to &quot;localised adaptation&quot; without affecting the whole organisation. (Weick, 1976)
  134. 144. What type of &quot;business&quot; is a University?
  135. 145. Professional firms differ from other business enterprises in two distinct ways: first, they provide highly customized services and thus cannot apply many of the management principles developed for product-based industries.
  136. 146. The high degree of customization make traditional management principles such as standardizaation, routinization and supervision difficult to apply. (Maister, 1993)
  137. 147. professional services are highly personalized, involving the skills of individuals. Such firms must therefore compete not only for clients but also for talented professionals. (Maister 1993)
  138. 148. In this sense people are a university's most important resource. With people, knowledge moves out of the university or enters it, decreases or increases, deteriorates or improves in quality. (Reponen, 1999)
  139. 149. <ul><li>Needs and context at CQU </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Dropping enrolments </li></ul><ul><li>Issues around quality </li></ul><ul><li>Over-expenditure on admin systems at expense of L&T systems </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived importance of L&T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University wide & Within each faculty </li></ul></ul>
  140. 150. P rocess P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P eople P roduct
  141. 151. P eople <ul><li>Rationality and bias </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants, natives, the net generation and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
  142. 152. The goal of the decision tool is to give the user a rational decision making process to assist in selecting a course management system. http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=4&page=HOWTO
  143. 153. Innovation and change development in universities can never be a mere rational process (Jones & O ' Shea, 2004).
  144. 154. The Cognitive Bias Game <ul><li>Count the number of the following which you've seen demonstrated recently </li></ul><ul><li>There are more http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases </li></ul>
  145. 155. Bandwagon effect - tendency to do things because many others are doing it.
  146. 156. Bias blind spot - tendency not to compensate for one’s own cognitive biases
  147. 157. Choice-supportive bias - the tendency to remember one’s choices as better than they actually were
  148. 158. Confirmation bias - the tendency to search/interpret information to confirm your pre-conceptions
  149. 159. Congruence testing - the tendency to use tests that only confirm your hypotheses rather than disprove it, or prove another
  150. 160. Deformation professionnelle - the tendency to look at things through the conventions of your own profession with no thought to the broader view
  151. 161. Disconfirmation bias - tendency to critically examine information that contradicts your prior beliefs but accept uncritically information congruent with your beliefs
  152. 162. Endowment effect - the tendency for people to value something more as soon as they own it
  153. 163. Focusing effect - prediction bias when you place too much importance on one aspect
  154. 164. Hyperbolic discounting - tendency to have a stronger preference for immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs
  155. 165. Illusion of control - tendency to believe you can influence outcomes over which you have no control
  156. 166. Impact bias - tendency to overestimate the intensity of impact on future states
  157. 167. Information bias - tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action
  158. 168. Loss aversion - tendency to strongly prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains
  159. 169. Outcome bias - tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of on the quality of the decision at the time it was made
  160. 170. Planning fallacy - tendency to under estimate task completion times
  161. 171. Post-purchase rationalisation - tendency to persuade oneself through rational argument that a purchase was a good one.
  162. 172. Pseudocertainty effect - tendency to make risk averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes
  163. 173. Status quo bias - the tendency for people to like things to stay relatively the same
  164. 174. Zero-risk bias - preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk
  165. 175. The Social Bias Game <ul><li>Count the number of the following which you've seen demonstrated recently </li></ul><ul><li>There are more http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases </li></ul>
  166. 176. False consensus effect - tendency to overestimate the degree to which others agree with you
  167. 177. P eople <ul><li>Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants, natives, the net generation and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
  168. 178. Generations New students Millennial Academics Gen X Decision makers, Senior Academics Boomer Role Generation
  169. 179. Age is directly associated with attitudes associated with computers (Morris, 1998; Ahadiat, 2005)
  170. 180. Few administrative staff understand adquately the nature and implications of digital technology. There are even fewer capable of leading a process of change. (Dederstadt et al, 2002)
  171. 181. Few faculty members utilize or are even aware of the rapidly expanding scientific basis for learning from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. (Duderstadt et al, 2002)
  172. 182. ..the current generation of university leaders, most of whom received their own educations and career experiences in the pre-computer era, feel uncomfortable in dealing with these issues.. (Duderstadt et al, 2002)
  173. 183. Instructors are principal actors in any learning environment (Webster and Hackley 1997)
  174. 184. the instructor's self-efficacy contributes to learning effectiveness (Cavanaugh et al. 2000; Mathieue et al 1993)
  175. 185. Although IT may be the stimulus or change agent, the essential matters are complex and will be the purview of academics’’ (Oblinger, Barone, & Hawkins, 2001, p. 15)
  176. 186. Perhaps the group requiring the most attention from administrators is faculty, as they often feel uncomfortable with and even irritated by the changing university landscape. (Howell et al 2004)
  177. 187. The future of technological successes at higher education institutions depends not only on the availability of technology but also on the extent to which faculty are supported as they develop innovative ways to integrate technology into the learning and research experience (Crawford et al, 2003)
  178. 188. When implementing e-learning within existing Universities staff engagement is the most complex and important success factor. (Collis, 1998)
  179. 189. There is generally a significant gap between the pedagogic conception of instructional designers and those of the average faculty member, to say nothing of the average student (even at the graduate level). (Garrett, 2004)
  180. 190. The conception of learning held by teachers has a major influence on the planning of courses, the development of teaching strategies and ultimately on the what and how students learn. (Alexander, 2001)
  181. 191. the various participants in the modern educational enterprise will only adopt e-learning if it is within their interests to do so (Oslington, 2005)
  182. 192. <ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand institutional cultures and effectively deal with cultural dissonance and technology backlash </li></ul><ul><li>(Duin et al, 2001) </li></ul>
  183. 193. <ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain existing needed technologies while protecting and promoting disruptive technologies </li></ul><ul><li>(Duin et al, 2001) </li></ul>
  184. 194. <ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Be technology literate and use technology to communicate and increase accessibility and share information at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>(Duin et al, 2001) </li></ul>
  185. 195. <ul><li>A university leader in the digital age must: </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the value of collaboration, teamwork and relationships by developing internal and external partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>(Duin et al, 2001) </li></ul>
  186. 196. <ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Assume technology to be a natural part of the environment </li></ul>
  187. 197. <ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive use of technology in education as inadequate </li></ul>
  188. 198. <ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>84% use Internet for school research </li></ul><ul><li>70% use IM </li></ul><ul><li>81% use email to stay in touch with friends and relatives </li></ul><ul><li>56% prefer the Internet over the telephone </li></ul>
  189. 199. <ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider themselves more Internet-savvy than their teachers </li></ul><ul><li>They see better ways to use technology than do their teachers </li></ul>
  190. 200. <ul><li>Millenials (Oblinger, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>State that administrative restrictions, older equipment and/or filtering software inhibit their in-school use of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Their greatest use of technology is outside of school </li></ul>
  191. 201. Our students have changed radically. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach. (Prensky, 2001)
  192. 202. Immigrants and Natives (Prensky, 2001) Can you hear this?
  193. 203. Knowing, Particpating, Living X X X Living X Participating Knowing Ignorance YouTube Flickr Blogs Web Level
  194. 204. Evolution of literacy TIME Everyone Everyone Programmers Priests, wealthy, educated Specialised technicians Scribes Programming Writing
  195. 205. Evolution of literacy TIME http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-10878_11-5053961.html Rise of the versatilists Everyone Everyone Some professionals Priests, wealthy, educated Programmers Scribes Programming Writing
  196. 206. P eople <ul><li>Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants, natives, the net generation and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
  197. 207. <ul><li>Each disciplinary culture has distinctive beliefs (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematicians: logic and consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Art historians: perspective and interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers: beer </li></ul>
  198. 208. Faculty, administrators, professional staff and students all hold different values
  199. 209. There has not been adequate recognition of the importance of inherent differences in organisational cultures, academic cultures, education and training philosophies, and teaching and learning values and traditions within different cultural groups . (Calder, 2000)
  200. 210. A critical strategy for effective e-learning is to recognize the different cultures of learning between and within organizations (Lea, 2003)
  201. 211. It is not just a question of establishing 'success factors' per se but also whether they are contextualised appropriately within a 'correct' characterisation of the organisational culture (Lisewski, 2004)
  202. 212. Cultural differences increase the difficulty of attempting to transplant models of practice between contexts (Calder 2000).
  203. 213. Studies of learning technology within HE settings have tended to display rather unsophisticated perspectives on the nature of the organisational culture and how to achieve effective cultural change. (Lisewski, 2004)
  204. 214. P roduct P urpose P lace P eople P ast experience P rocess
  205. 215. P rocess <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological bias </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul>
  206. 216. Unlike other financial or human resources management systems recently introduced into universities, online LMS have the potential to affect the core business of teaching and learning in unanticipated ways. (Coates et al, 2005)
  207. 217. Daniel (1996) urges universities to adopt learning technology strategies to address changing conceptions of the university campus and the need to enhance curriculum accessibility, reduce costs, nd increase the flexibility of T&L provision.
  208. 218. The Dearing Report (1997) emphasized the existing communications and information technology resources could only be used more effectively if 'institutional managers developed and implemented a coherent and comprehensive CIT strategy'
  209. 219. A lack of institutional learning technology strategies is a barrier to their more widespread adoption in T&L practice (Jenkins et al, 2001; Smith, 2002; Stiles, 2002)
  210. 220. Important factors in e-learning implementation include: senior management support, top-down budget allocation, central technical and pedagogic support and effective links across these and with faculties, staff development opportunities and reward and recognition for teaching or involvement in e-learning (Hanson, 2003)
  211. 221. The development of L&T in an expanding HE system should take a more strategic and longer term approach including a &quot;vigorous program of R&D in teaching methods and educational technology (Macfarlane Report, 1992)
  212. 222. To date, much of the focus has been into the development of technologies or top-down policy aspirations, and not on the human dimensions, scaling-up and embedding of innovation and the associated management of change (Tham & Werner, 2005).
  213. 223. The turbulent and dynamic internal and external environment calls for networked educational management to be highly adaptive. It connects to the concept of learning organisations in which management needs to be highly adaptive. (Uys, 2002)
  214. 224. Administrators of these institutions seem to think “everyone else is doing it, so there must be something to it” – in other words, they see this transition as a necessity in this age of hyper-competition. (Sarker and Nicholson, 2005)
  215. 225. Even when individual educators embrace new technology institutional arrangements and policies in education such as institutional incentive structures, copyright and intellectual property rights constrain more innovative uses of e-learning. (Dutton and Loader, 2002)
  216. 226. <ul><li>6 main categories of theories of change: (Kezar, 2001): </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectical </li></ul><ul><li>Social cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>
  217. 227. <ul><li>Extensive reivew suggests organisational change can best be explained through: </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Social-cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>
  218. 228. Political: persuasion, informal negotiation, mediation and coality building
  219. 229. Social-cognition: altering mental models, learning, constructed interaction.
  220. 230. Cultural: symbolism, history and traditions, institutional culture
  221. 231. Teleological models &quot;limited support from the research in terms of how change actually occurs in higher education and of efficacy for facilitating change&quot;
  222. 232. P rocess <ul><li>Strategy and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological bias </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul>
  223. 233. How do you design? <ul><li>You've won a holiday to China/Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have 30 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the money you need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your choice how to use both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul>
  224. 236. Design extremes Rules/regulators Master plan Control Decentralised Centralised Management Time Complexity/conflict Problems Local adaptation Problem solving Process Whole Part Scope Participant Explicit designer Designers Means/process Ends/results Design focus Homeostasis Effect/Efficiency Intermediate goals Harmony Goal/purpose Ultimate purpose Ateleological Teleological Attributes
  225. 237. Three questions about the nature of e-learning within a univeristy (within CQU).
  226. 238. Is the system around e-learning within a HEI relatively stable and predictable?
  227. 239. Can a small group of people &quot;manipulate&quot; the system's behaviour directly? Can they exert some form of &quot;control&quot;?
  228. 240. Can that group determine &quot;accurately&quot; the goals for the entire system?
  229. 241. For teleological design to be possible these three requirements must logically be met. (Introna, 1996)
  230. 242. Push to Pull (Seely Brown and Hagel, 2005) http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/article_abstract.aspx?ar=1642 Positive-sum rewards Zero-sum rewards Rapid, incremental innovation Few major re-engineering efforts Focus on innovation Focus on efficiency Open participation Restricted participation People centric Resource centric Loosely coupled Tightly coupled Modular Procedural Decentralised control Centralised control Emergent design Top-down design Demand uncertain Demand anticipated Pull Push
  231. 243. <ul><li>The Systems Development Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Operation </li></ul>
  232. 244. Lifecycle model (Truex et al, 1999)
  233. 245. Lifecycle model (Truex et al, 1999) Only works in a stable context
  234. 246. Emergent context Wasted money Generally fail
  235. 247. Emergent context Stable systems drag
  236. 248. Emergent context Occurs more often More wasted money
  237. 249. The alternative <ul><li>Always analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic requirements negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous redevelopment </li></ul>
  238. 250. Comparison
  239. 251. Comparison @ CQU Blackboard WebCT Topclass Webfuse
  240. 252. <ul><li>Research-based principles for change (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Promote organisational self-discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on adaptability </li></ul><ul><li>Construct opportunities for interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Strive to create homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Combine teleological with social-cognition, cultural and political strategies </li></ul>
  241. 253. <ul><li>Research-based principles for change (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Be open to a disorderly process </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate shared governance and collective decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the change process to individual and institutional identity </li></ul><ul><li>Create a culture of risk and help people in changing belief systems </li></ul>
  242. 254. <ul><li>Research-based principles for change (Kezar, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware different parts of the organisation will need different change models </li></ul><ul><li>As will different change initiatives </li></ul>
  243. 255. IT Strategic Planning T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Big planning http://www.educause.edu/er/erm05/erm0522.asp?bhcp=1 Strategic planning Iterative planning Adaptive organisation
  244. 256. Evolution of IT planning http://www.educause.edu/er/erm05/erm0522.asp?bhcp=1  Focus on sensing, not planning  Modular infrastructure  Rapid execution  Close bus. and IT cooperation Just-in-time 2000s Adaptive organisation  Set direction  Build infrastr.  Small components delivered quickly  Joint bus and IT planning Short-term 1990s Iterative planning  Set vision  Less specificity  Project-based execution  Alignment of IT/bus. planning Medium-term 1980s Strategic planning  Detailed plans  Large docs  Not much action  Separate bus. and IT planning Long-term 1970s Big planning Characteristics Focus When Planning style
  245. 257. IS Development T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Software development life-cycle http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/310930.310984 http://agilemanifesto.org http://www.agilealliance.org Agile development methodologies
  246. 258. Programming T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Plan first http://www.testdriven.com http://www.paulgraham.com/hp.html http://www.itconversations.com/shows/detail164.html Test-driven development
  247. 259. Meta-data T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Taxonomy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomy Folksonomy
  248. 260. Standards T e l e o l o g i c a l A t e l e o l o g i c a l Top-down standards * IMS, SCORM http://microformats.org Micro-formats
  249. 261. <ul><li>Two main ways to introduce e-learning into traditional teaching (Salmon, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale centralization and provision of professional services. </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental, involving personal and departmental learning and development. </li></ul>
  250. 262. Use of technology to substitute current practice only results in incremental change, not transformation.
  251. 263. Technological artefacts often appear to generate new, unforeseen behaviours, which may strongly deviate from the initial intentions…..It is unavoidable that any replacement will cause secondary changes in patterns and behaviours that will be hardly predictable. (Westera, 2004)
  252. 264. P rocess <ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Teleological bias </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul>
  253. 265. http://flickr.com/photos/teepee1/93775668/
  254. 266. http://flickr.com/photos/sumit/93840305/
  255. 267. http://flickr.com/photos/schizoo23/94565916/
  256. 268. Which learning theory is your teaching based upon?
  257. 269. Knowing, Particpating, Living Living Participating Knowing Behaviourist Level
  258. 270. Knowing, Particpating, Living Living Participating Knowing Cognitivist Level
  259. 271. Knowing, Particpating, Living Living Participating Knowing Constructivist Level
  260. 272. Knowing, Particpating, Living http://elearning.surf.nl/e-learning/english/3793 Living Participating Knowing Connectivist Level
  261. 273. Too much of staff development for e-learning initiatives focuses on the level of teachers’ strategies – how to use a particular tool – rather than on their conception of learning. (Alexander, 2001)
  262. 274. First, any approach to &quot; one technology and pedagogy fits all &quot; is pretty much doomed to flap and then crash. (Salmon, 2005)
  263. 275. References <ul><li>Anonyous. (2004). Mixed skies ahead: What happened to e-learning and why. Change , 36(2): 55-58 </li></ul><ul><li>Bonk, C., & Dennen, V. (1999). Teaching on the Web: With a little help from my pedagogical friends. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 11(1), 3-28. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamish Coates, Richard James, Gabrielle Baldwin. (2005). A Critical Examination of the Effects of Learning Management Systems on University Teaching and Learning. Tertiary Education and Management , 11: 19-35. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Dalsgaard. (2006). Social software: E-learning beyond learning management systems. Eurpoean Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning , http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Glass. (2001). Frequently Forgotten Fundamental Facts about Software Engineering. IEEE Software , 18(3) pp 112-111. </li></ul><ul><li>Wray Herbert. (2006). Marketing and Mind Control: How the emotional parts of our brains can be manipulated. Newsweek . http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15391587/site/newsweek/page/1/ </li></ul><ul><li>Jorge Klor de Alva. (2000). Remarking the Academy, EDUCAUSE Review, March/April 2000, pp32-40. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosabeth Moss Kanter. (2006). Innovation: The Classic Traps, Harvard Business Review </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew McAfee. (2006). Mastering the Three Worlds of Information Technology. Harvard Business Review , http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/hbrsa/en/issue/0611/article/R0611J.jhtml </li></ul><ul><li>Diane Oblinger. (2003). Boomers, Gen-Xers and Millennials: Understanding the new students. EDUCAUSE Review , July/August 2003. </li></ul>

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