The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning

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Presentation for Jones and Gregor (2006)

Jones, D., & Gregor, S. (2006). The formulation of an Information Systems Design Theory for E-Learning. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, Claremont, CA.

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  • Change the colours here
  • Remove tools/rules, minimise online time, Reduce "minimising new skils"
  • Change the colours here
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Add something about level of reinvention
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add "more facts and figures in generation 3"
  • "significant growth in"
  • Change the colours here
  • Show the slide and make the obvious point that usefulness and ease of use are major perceptions of staff.

Transcript

  • 1. The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning David Jones (CQU) Shirley Gregor (ANU) http://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/david-jones/
  • 2. The Question
    • How do you design and support an information system for e-learning within an institution of higher education?
    First asked in 1996 Still an open question…..
  • 3. It is important The importance of information and communication technologies and e-learning in promoting open, distance and flexible education in contemporary universities cannot be denied (deFreitas & Oliver, 2005) . Overall % of schools identifying online education as a critical long-term strategy grew from 49% in 2003 to 56% in 2005. (Allen & Seaman, 2005)
  • 4. There are problems Vendor identified, best-practice institutions report around 50% faculty adoption (Sausner, 2005) Most HEIs are still struggling to engage a significant percentage of students and staff in e-learning (Salmon, 2005) a relatively stable minority of Chief Academic Officers believe that their faculty fully accept the value and legitimacy of online education (Allen & Seaman 2005)
  • 5. There are problems … not particularly innovative, may limit the incentive to innovate, limited in quality and may restrict the ability to integrate with other systems (Alexander, 2001; Anonymous, 2004; Paulsen, 2002) … Web-based learning lacks a disciplined, systematic approach to the development process.….much of its construction is carried out without a true analysis of the requirements that are proper to Web-based learning (Hamid, 2002) .
  • 6. It is difficult ..complex systems incorporating a variety of organisational, administrative, instructional and technological components (Avgeriou, Papasalouros, Retalis, Skordalakis, 2003) Absence of theory for e-Learning IS (Jones, Gregor and Lynch, 2003) Scholars in Information Systems can offer vision on structures and processes to effectively implement technology-mediated learning initiatives (Alavi & Leidner, 2001)
  • 7.  
  • 8. Proposed contribution
    • ISDT that provides 1 answer to the question
      • Greater adoption, customization, differentiation
    • Based on 10 year action research cycle involving "real" system (1200+ staff, 22,000+ students)
    • Demonstrates novel use of ISDT
      • To understand/improve EXISTING information system
  • 9. What we did
  • 10. Plan Act Reflect Watch 1996-2003 3 generations of action research 2002- Formulation of Information Systems Design Theory Webfuse 24 research publications 5 research publications
  • 11. What we'll do today
    • Laid out the context 
    • Describe three generations
      • Why and what (The ISDT)
      • Instantiation (Webfuse) and results
    • Reflect
      • Value of ISDT applied to existing systems
      • What can be IS design science research?
  • 12. Generation 1: 1996-1999 Build it and they will come
  • 13. Why
    • 1996 - the web is a "good thing"
    • Design
      • Single academic one teaching free term
    • Aim to support
      • Web-based learning and teaching
      • Faculty website
  • 14. What - the ISDT
  • 15. Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease of use "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta- requirements Meta-design Testable hypotheses
  • 16. Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses What's needed? Flexibility & ease of use
  • 17. Meta-requirements
    • flexibility and the ability to adapt to change
    • platform independence
    • use of Internet and other widely accepted standards
    • not reinventing the wheel
    • maximising the choice and flexibility provided to students and teachers
    • providing the tools not the rules
    • minimising online time
    • minimising the new skills required to use the system
    • being freely available
    (Jones & Buchanan, 1996; McCormack & Jones, 1997)
    • Support for variety and change
      • No specific functional requirements
      • No support for specific learning theory
    • Basic support for
      • Information distribution
      • Communication
      • Assessment
      • Management
      • Design (McCormack & Jones, 1996; Hansen and Frick, 1997)
  • 18. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease-of-use "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Product
  • 19. Each course website starts with a default skeleton of web pages There can be different skeletons
  • 20. Content + conversion + appearance
  • 21. Content + conversion + appearance
  • 22. Edit link
  • 23.  
  • 24. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
  • 25. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
  • 26. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Process
  • 27. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Expected outcomes
  • 28. Generation 1 Instantiation
  • 29. Implementation
    • Technology
      • Perl, Apache
      • CGI scripts
    • People
      • On-going support Webmaster other general staff
      • New developments: mostly 1 academic + project students
  • 30. Results
    • 150+ course websites,
      • With 100,000+ pages
      • Maintained by almost 100 staff
    • Only 5 of 60 full-time academic staff making significant use of e-learning
    • Usage dominated by system developer
      • 83% of content for 1 term 1998 from 1 course
  • 31. Generation 2: 1999- Give them a reason to come
  • 32. Why
    • Product focus and process ignorance
    • Problems
      • Limited use
      • Not enough evolution
    • Need to fix the process
      • Greater adoption
      • Greater evolution
  • 33. What - the ISDT v2.0
  • 34. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Diffusion theory, design patterns Adopter focus, pattern mining Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Templates Meta-design
  • 35. Generation 2 - Instantation
  • 36. Resources
    • No significant addition of development resources
  • 37. What to implement?
    • Usually, driven by
      • Technology
      • Strategic planning
      • Pedagogy
    • We adopted diffusion theory
      • Maximise chance of adoption, minimise effort
  • 38. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts (Jones, Jamieson & Clark,2003) Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability Optional Collective Authority Mass-media or interpersonal Cosmopolite or local Social structure Communication structure System norms Client contact: effort, timing. Rapport, empathy, credibility and homophily
  • 39. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts
  • 40. "Pattern" Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
  • 41. "Pattern" Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
  • 42. "Pattern" Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
  • 43. "Pattern" Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The unexpected The expected
  • 44. Generation 2 - Results
  • 45. Results
    • Some improvements
    • But resources not appropriate
    • Limited ability to adapt
    • … more covered in generation 3
  • 46. Generation 3: 2001- Build what they want, faster
  • 47. Why
    • Generation 2 limited by
      • Inadequate resources
      • Poor technology
      • Poor process
    • Context changes
      • 2000 new Dean
      • 1999-2001 - 33% growth in students
  • 48. What - the ISDT v3.0
  • 49. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements .. Agile, emergent, ateleological ..XP, emergent development Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience … .OO design patterns … design patterns Meta-design
  • 50. Generation 3 - Instantiation
  • 51. Product and Process
    • Development team
      • 1 lead developer
      • 3-5 other developers
    • Patterns (e.g.)
      • Model/View/Controller web development
      • Greater use of factory pattern
    • Extreme Programming aspects
      • Test driven development/Unit tests
      • Public User Stories
      • Stand-up meetings
  • 52. Generation 2 - Results
  • 53. Customisation The key to easy use of OASIS is that it is not a off the shelf product that is sooooo (sic) generic that it has lost its way as a course delivery tool.
  • 54. Building trust ..the precedent of other IT systems made available in Infocom (…) suggests that it would be extremely user friendly for people with very limited computer competence/confidence. my positive experience with other Infocom systems gives me confidence that OASIS would be no different. The systems team have a very good track record that inspires confidence
  • 55. Ease-of-use I identify myself as coming from the technophobic extreme of the faculties (I have an Arts background) but even I find the systems the team have set out relatively easy to use
  • 56. OASIS - ease of use/usefulness Non-users: 19% (n=22) Users: 37% (n=99)
  • 57. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3
  • 58. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 Shadowy and feral lead to possible system shutdown
  • 59. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 System accepted at organisational level
  • 60. Student Portal
  • 61. Staff Portal - # users
  • 62. Staff Portal - # requests (* until Feb 18, 2006)
  • 63. Online assignments
  • 64. Implications for design science research and IS
  • 65. Usefulness of ISDTs
    • Applied to existing information systems
      • Emphasize unspoken assumptions
      • Open them up to question
      • Provide method to connect to behavioral research - relevance
      • Compare different approaches
  • 66. Question for you
    • What can be classed as design science research within Information Systems?
    • McKay and Marshall (2005) suggest
      • Computer science = machine domain
      • Psychology = human behavior domain
      • IS = 'situatedness' of the machine in the social system
  • 67. Summary
    • We built a system for e-learning
    • Formulated an ISDT
      • It has some advantages
    • The work raises questions/implications about design science research in IS