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The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
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The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning

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Presentation for Jones and Gregor (2006) …

Presentation for Jones and Gregor (2006)

Jones, D., & Gregor, S. (2006). The formulation of an Information Systems Design Theory for E-Learning. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, Claremont, CA.

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • Change the colours here
  • Remove tools/rules, minimise online time, Reduce "minimising new skils"
  • Change the colours here
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Add something about level of reinvention
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add "more facts and figures in generation 3"
  • "significant growth in"
  • Change the colours here
  • Show the slide and make the obvious point that usefulness and ease of use are major perceptions of staff.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning David Jones (CQU) Shirley Gregor (ANU) http://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/david-jones/
    • 2. The Question
      • How do you design and support an information system for e-learning within an institution of higher education?
      First asked in 1996 Still an open question…..
    • 3. It is important The importance of information and communication technologies and e-learning in promoting open, distance and flexible education in contemporary universities cannot be denied (deFreitas & Oliver, 2005) . Overall % of schools identifying online education as a critical long-term strategy grew from 49% in 2003 to 56% in 2005. (Allen & Seaman, 2005)
    • 4. There are problems Vendor identified, best-practice institutions report around 50% faculty adoption (Sausner, 2005) Most HEIs are still struggling to engage a significant percentage of students and staff in e-learning (Salmon, 2005) a relatively stable minority of Chief Academic Officers believe that their faculty fully accept the value and legitimacy of online education (Allen & Seaman 2005)
    • 5. There are problems … not particularly innovative, may limit the incentive to innovate, limited in quality and may restrict the ability to integrate with other systems (Alexander, 2001; Anonymous, 2004; Paulsen, 2002) … Web-based learning lacks a disciplined, systematic approach to the development process.….much of its construction is carried out without a true analysis of the requirements that are proper to Web-based learning (Hamid, 2002) .
    • 6. It is difficult ..complex systems incorporating a variety of organisational, administrative, instructional and technological components (Avgeriou, Papasalouros, Retalis, Skordalakis, 2003) Absence of theory for e-Learning IS (Jones, Gregor and Lynch, 2003) Scholars in Information Systems can offer vision on structures and processes to effectively implement technology-mediated learning initiatives (Alavi & Leidner, 2001)
    • 7.  
    • 8. Proposed contribution
      • ISDT that provides 1 answer to the question
        • Greater adoption, customization, differentiation
      • Based on 10 year action research cycle involving "real" system (1200+ staff, 22,000+ students)
      • Demonstrates novel use of ISDT
        • To understand/improve EXISTING information system
    • 9. What we did
    • 10. Plan Act Reflect Watch 1996-2003 3 generations of action research 2002- Formulation of Information Systems Design Theory Webfuse 24 research publications 5 research publications
    • 11. What we'll do today
      • Laid out the context 
      • Describe three generations
        • Why and what (The ISDT)
        • Instantiation (Webfuse) and results
      • Reflect
        • Value of ISDT applied to existing systems
        • What can be IS design science research?
    • 12. Generation 1: 1996-1999 Build it and they will come
    • 13. Why
      • 1996 - the web is a "good thing"
      • Design
        • Single academic one teaching free term
      • Aim to support
        • Web-based learning and teaching
        • Faculty website
    • 14. What - the ISDT
    • 15. Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease of use "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta- requirements Meta-design Testable hypotheses
    • 16. Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses What's needed? Flexibility & ease of use
    • 17. Meta-requirements
      • flexibility and the ability to adapt to change
      • platform independence
      • use of Internet and other widely accepted standards
      • not reinventing the wheel
      • maximising the choice and flexibility provided to students and teachers
      • providing the tools not the rules
      • minimising online time
      • minimising the new skills required to use the system
      • being freely available
      (Jones & Buchanan, 1996; McCormack & Jones, 1997)
      • Support for variety and change
        • No specific functional requirements
        • No support for specific learning theory
      • Basic support for
        • Information distribution
        • Communication
        • Assessment
        • Management
        • Design (McCormack & Jones, 1996; Hansen and Frick, 1997)
    • 18. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease-of-use "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Product
    • 19. Each course website starts with a default skeleton of web pages There can be different skeletons
    • 20. Content + conversion + appearance
    • 21. Content + conversion + appearance
    • 22. Edit link
    • 23.  
    • 24. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
    • 25. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
    • 26. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Process
    • 27. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers "Waterfall" Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Expected outcomes
    • 28. Generation 1 Instantiation
    • 29. Implementation
      • Technology
        • Perl, Apache
        • CGI scripts
      • People
        • On-going support Webmaster other general staff
        • New developments: mostly 1 academic + project students
    • 30. Results
      • 150+ course websites,
        • With 100,000+ pages
        • Maintained by almost 100 staff
      • Only 5 of 60 full-time academic staff making significant use of e-learning
      • Usage dominated by system developer
        • 83% of content for 1 term 1998 from 1 course
    • 31. Generation 2: 1999- Give them a reason to come
    • 32. Why
      • Product focus and process ignorance
      • Problems
        • Limited use
        • Not enough evolution
      • Need to fix the process
        • Greater adoption
        • Greater evolution
    • 33. What - the ISDT v2.0
    • 34. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Diffusion theory, design patterns Adopter focus, pattern mining Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Templates Meta-design
    • 35. Generation 2 - Instantation
    • 36. Resources
      • No significant addition of development resources
    • 37. What to implement?
      • Usually, driven by
        • Technology
        • Strategic planning
        • Pedagogy
      • We adopted diffusion theory
        • Maximise chance of adoption, minimise effort
    • 38. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts (Jones, Jamieson & Clark,2003) Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability Optional Collective Authority Mass-media or interpersonal Cosmopolite or local Social structure Communication structure System norms Client contact: effort, timing. Rapport, empathy, credibility and homophily
    • 39. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts
    • 40. "Pattern" Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    • 41. "Pattern" Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    • 42. "Pattern" Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    • 43. "Pattern" Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The unexpected The expected
    • 44. Generation 2 - Results
    • 45. Results
      • Some improvements
      • But resources not appropriate
      • Limited ability to adapt
      • … more covered in generation 3
    • 46. Generation 3: 2001- Build what they want, faster
    • 47. Why
      • Generation 2 limited by
        • Inadequate resources
        • Poor technology
        • Poor process
      • Context changes
        • 2000 new Dean
        • 1999-2001 - 33% growth in students
    • 48. What - the ISDT v3.0
    • 49. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements .. Agile, emergent, ateleological ..XP, emergent development Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience … .OO design patterns … design patterns Meta-design
    • 50. Generation 3 - Instantiation
    • 51. Product and Process
      • Development team
        • 1 lead developer
        • 3-5 other developers
      • Patterns (e.g.)
        • Model/View/Controller web development
        • Greater use of factory pattern
      • Extreme Programming aspects
        • Test driven development/Unit tests
        • Public User Stories
        • Stand-up meetings
    • 52. Generation 2 - Results
    • 53. Customisation The key to easy use of OASIS is that it is not a off the shelf product that is sooooo (sic) generic that it has lost its way as a course delivery tool.
    • 54. Building trust ..the precedent of other IT systems made available in Infocom (…) suggests that it would be extremely user friendly for people with very limited computer competence/confidence. my positive experience with other Infocom systems gives me confidence that OASIS would be no different. The systems team have a very good track record that inspires confidence
    • 55. Ease-of-use I identify myself as coming from the technophobic extreme of the faculties (I have an Arts background) but even I find the systems the team have set out relatively easy to use
    • 56. OASIS - ease of use/usefulness Non-users: 19% (n=22) Users: 37% (n=99)
    • 57. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3
    • 58. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 Shadowy and feral lead to possible system shutdown
    • 59. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 System accepted at organisational level
    • 60. Student Portal
    • 61. Staff Portal - # users
    • 62. Staff Portal - # requests (* until Feb 18, 2006)
    • 63. Online assignments
    • 64. Implications for design science research and IS
    • 65. Usefulness of ISDTs
      • Applied to existing information systems
        • Emphasize unspoken assumptions
        • Open them up to question
        • Provide method to connect to behavioral research - relevance
        • Compare different approaches
    • 66. Question for you
      • What can be classed as design science research within Information Systems?
      • McKay and Marshall (2005) suggest
        • Computer science = machine domain
        • Psychology = human behavior domain
        • IS = 'situatedness' of the machine in the social system
    • 67. Summary
      • We built a system for e-learning
      • Formulated an ISDT
        • It has some advantages
      • The work raises questions/implications about design science research in IS

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