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The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning
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The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning

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Presentation for Jones and Gregor (2006) …

Presentation for Jones and Gregor (2006)

Jones, D., & Gregor, S. (2006). The formulation of an Information Systems Design Theory for E-Learning. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, Claremont, CA.

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • Change the colours here
  • Remove tools/rules, minimise online time, Reduce "minimising new skils"
  • Change the colours here
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Add something about level of reinvention
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add "more facts and figures in generation 3"
  • "significant growth in"
  • Change the colours here
  • Show the slide and make the obvious point that usefulness and ease of use are major perceptions of staff.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning David Jones (CQU) Shirley Gregor (ANU) http://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/david-jones/
    • 2. The Question <ul><li>How do you design and support an information system for e-learning within an institution of higher education? </li></ul>First asked in 1996 Still an open question…..
    • 3. It is important The importance of information and communication technologies and e-learning in promoting open, distance and flexible education in contemporary universities cannot be denied (deFreitas & Oliver, 2005) . Overall % of schools identifying online education as a critical long-term strategy grew from 49% in 2003 to 56% in 2005. (Allen & Seaman, 2005)
    • 4. There are problems Vendor identified, best-practice institutions report around 50% faculty adoption (Sausner, 2005) Most HEIs are still struggling to engage a significant percentage of students and staff in e-learning (Salmon, 2005) a relatively stable minority of Chief Academic Officers believe that their faculty fully accept the value and legitimacy of online education (Allen & Seaman 2005)
    • 5. There are problems … not particularly innovative, may limit the incentive to innovate, limited in quality and may restrict the ability to integrate with other systems (Alexander, 2001; Anonymous, 2004; Paulsen, 2002) … Web-based learning lacks a disciplined, systematic approach to the development process.….much of its construction is carried out without a true analysis of the requirements that are proper to Web-based learning (Hamid, 2002) .
    • 6. It is difficult ..complex systems incorporating a variety of organisational, administrative, instructional and technological components (Avgeriou, Papasalouros, Retalis, Skordalakis, 2003) Absence of theory for e-Learning IS (Jones, Gregor and Lynch, 2003) Scholars in Information Systems can offer vision on structures and processes to effectively implement technology-mediated learning initiatives (Alavi & Leidner, 2001)
    • 7.  
    • 8. Proposed contribution <ul><li>ISDT that provides 1 answer to the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater adoption, customization, differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on 10 year action research cycle involving &quot;real&quot; system (1200+ staff, 22,000+ students) </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates novel use of ISDT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand/improve EXISTING information system </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. What we did
    • 10. Plan Act Reflect Watch 1996-2003 3 generations of action research 2002- Formulation of Information Systems Design Theory Webfuse 24 research publications 5 research publications
    • 11. What we'll do today <ul><li>Laid out the context  </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why and what (The ISDT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantiation (Webfuse) and results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of ISDT applied to existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be IS design science research? </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. Generation 1: 1996-1999 Build it and they will come
    • 13. Why <ul><li>1996 - the web is a &quot;good thing&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single academic one teaching free term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aim to support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based learning and teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty website </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. What - the ISDT
    • 15. Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease of use &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta- requirements Meta-design Testable hypotheses
    • 16. Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses What's needed? Flexibility & ease of use
    • 17. Meta-requirements <ul><li>flexibility and the ability to adapt to change </li></ul><ul><li>platform independence </li></ul><ul><li>use of Internet and other widely accepted standards </li></ul><ul><li>not reinventing the wheel </li></ul><ul><li>maximising the choice and flexibility provided to students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>providing the tools not the rules </li></ul><ul><li>minimising online time </li></ul><ul><li>minimising the new skills required to use the system </li></ul><ul><li>being freely available </li></ul>(Jones & Buchanan, 1996; McCormack & Jones, 1997) <ul><li>Support for variety and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No specific functional requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No support for specific learning theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic support for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design (McCormack & Jones, 1996; Hansen and Frick, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease-of-use &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Product
    • 19. Each course website starts with a default skeleton of web pages There can be different skeletons
    • 20. Content + conversion + appearance
    • 21. Content + conversion + appearance
    • 22. Edit link
    • 23.  
    • 24. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
    • 25. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
    • 26. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Process
    • 27. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Expected outcomes
    • 28. Generation 1 Instantiation
    • 29. Implementation <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perl, Apache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CGI scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-going support Webmaster other general staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New developments: mostly 1 academic + project students </li></ul></ul>
    • 30. Results <ul><li>150+ course websites, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With 100,000+ pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained by almost 100 staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 5 of 60 full-time academic staff making significant use of e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Usage dominated by system developer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>83% of content for 1 term 1998 from 1 course </li></ul></ul>
    • 31. Generation 2: 1999- Give them a reason to come
    • 32. Why <ul><li>Product focus and process ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to fix the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater evolution </li></ul></ul>
    • 33. What - the ISDT v2.0
    • 34. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Diffusion theory, design patterns Adopter focus, pattern mining Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Templates Meta-design
    • 35. Generation 2 - Instantation
    • 36. Resources <ul><li>No significant addition of development resources </li></ul>
    • 37. What to implement? <ul><li>Usually, driven by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We adopted diffusion theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximise chance of adoption, minimise effort </li></ul></ul>
    • 38. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts (Jones, Jamieson & Clark,2003) Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability Optional Collective Authority Mass-media or interpersonal Cosmopolite or local Social structure Communication structure System norms Client contact: effort, timing. Rapport, empathy, credibility and homophily
    • 39. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts
    • 40. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    • 41. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    • 42. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    • 43. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The unexpected The expected
    • 44. Generation 2 - Results
    • 45. Results <ul><li>Some improvements </li></ul><ul><li>But resources not appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Limited ability to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>… more covered in generation 3 </li></ul>
    • 46. Generation 3: 2001- Build what they want, faster
    • 47. Why <ul><li>Generation 2 limited by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 new Dean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1999-2001 - 33% growth in students </li></ul></ul>
    • 48. What - the ISDT v3.0
    • 49. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements .. Agile, emergent, ateleological ..XP, emergent development Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience … .OO design patterns … design patterns Meta-design
    • 50. Generation 3 - Instantiation
    • 51. Product and Process <ul><li>Development team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 lead developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-5 other developers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patterns (e.g.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model/View/Controller web development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater use of factory pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extreme Programming aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test driven development/Unit tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public User Stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-up meetings </li></ul></ul>
    • 52. Generation 2 - Results
    • 53. Customisation The key to easy use of OASIS is that it is not a off the shelf product that is sooooo (sic) generic that it has lost its way as a course delivery tool.
    • 54. Building trust ..the precedent of other IT systems made available in Infocom (…) suggests that it would be extremely user friendly for people with very limited computer competence/confidence. my positive experience with other Infocom systems gives me confidence that OASIS would be no different. The systems team have a very good track record that inspires confidence
    • 55. Ease-of-use I identify myself as coming from the technophobic extreme of the faculties (I have an Arts background) but even I find the systems the team have set out relatively easy to use
    • 56. OASIS - ease of use/usefulness Non-users: 19% (n=22) Users: 37% (n=99)
    • 57. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3
    • 58. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 Shadowy and feral lead to possible system shutdown
    • 59. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 System accepted at organisational level
    • 60. Student Portal
    • 61. Staff Portal - # users
    • 62. Staff Portal - # requests (* until Feb 18, 2006)
    • 63. Online assignments
    • 64. Implications for design science research and IS
    • 65. Usefulness of ISDTs <ul><li>Applied to existing information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize unspoken assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open them up to question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide method to connect to behavioral research - relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare different approaches </li></ul></ul>
    • 66. Question for you <ul><li>What can be classed as design science research within Information Systems? </li></ul><ul><li>McKay and Marshall (2005) suggest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer science = machine domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology = human behavior domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS = 'situatedness' of the machine in the social system </li></ul></ul>
    • 67. Summary <ul><li>We built a system for e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Formulated an ISDT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has some advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The work raises questions/implications about design science research in IS </li></ul>

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