The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning David Jones (CQU) Shirley Gregor (ANU) http://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/david-jones/
The Question <ul><li>How do you design  and support an information system for e-learning within an institution of higher e...
It is important The importance of information and  communication technologies  and e-learning in promoting open,  distance...
There are problems Vendor identified, best-practice institutions report around 50% faculty adoption (Sausner, 2005) Most H...
There are problems … not particularly innovative,  may limit the incentive to innovate,  limited in quality and may restri...
It is difficult ..complex systems incorporating a variety of  organisational, administrative, instructional  and technolog...
 
Proposed contribution <ul><li>ISDT that provides 1 answer to the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater adoption, customiz...
What we did
Plan Act Reflect Watch 1996-2003  3 generations of action research 2002-  Formulation of  Information Systems Design Theor...
What we'll do today <ul><li>Laid out the context   </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why...
Generation 1: 1996-1999 Build it and they will come
Why <ul><li>1996 - the web is a &quot;good thing&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single academic one ...
What - the ISDT
Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates,  s/w wrappers Flexibility...
Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates,  s/w w...
Meta-requirements <ul><li>flexibility and the ability to adapt to change </li></ul><ul><li>platform independence </li></ul...
Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hy...
Each course website starts with a default skeleton of  web pages There can be different skeletons
Content + conversion + appearance
Content + conversion +  appearance
Edit link
 
Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hy...
Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hy...
Generation 1 Instantiation
Implementation <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perl, Apache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CGI scripts </li></ul></ul...
Results <ul><li>150+ course websites,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With 100,000+ pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained by ...
Generation 2: 1999- Give them a reason to come
Why <ul><li>Product focus and process ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited use </li></ul></u...
What - the ISDT v2.0
Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Diffusion  theory, design patterns Adopter focus, pattern mining Possible to ...
Generation 2 - Instantation
Resources <ul><li>No significant addition of development resources </li></ul>
What to implement? <ul><li>Usually, driven by  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic plann...
Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Soc...
Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Soc...
&quot;Pattern&quot; Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
&quot;Pattern&quot; Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
&quot;Pattern&quot; Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
&quot;Pattern&quot; Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The unexpected The expected
Generation 2 - Results
Results <ul><li>Some improvements </li></ul><ul><li>But resources not appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Limited ability to ada...
Generation 3: 2001- Build what they want, faster
Why <ul><li>Generation 2 limited by  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor technology...
What - the ISDT v3.0
Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements .. Agile,  emergent, ateleological ..XP, emergent development Possible to con...
Generation 3 - Instantiation
Product and Process <ul><li>Development team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 lead developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-5 other d...
Generation 2 - Results
Customisation The key to easy use of OASIS is  that it is not a off the shelf product that is  sooooo (sic) generic that i...
Building trust ..the precedent of other IT systems made  available in Infocom (…) suggests that it  would be extremely use...
Ease-of-use I identify  myself as coming from the technophobic  extreme of the faculties (I have an Arts background) but e...
OASIS - ease of use/usefulness Non-users: 19% (n=22) Users: 37% (n=99)
Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3
Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 Shadowy and feral lead to possible system shutdown
Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 System accepted at organisational level
Student Portal
Staff Portal - # users
Staff Portal - # requests (* until Feb 18, 2006)
Online assignments
Implications for design science research and IS
Usefulness of ISDTs <ul><li>Applied to existing information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize unspoken assumptions <...
Question for you <ul><li>What can be classed as design science research within Information Systems? </li></ul><ul><li>McKa...
Summary <ul><li>We built a system for e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Formulated an ISDT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has some ad...
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The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning

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Jones, D., & Gregor, S. (2006). The formulation of an Information Systems Design Theory for E-Learning. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, Claremont, CA.

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  • Change the colours here
  • Remove tools/rules, minimise online time, Reduce &amp;quot;minimising new skils&amp;quot;
  • Change the colours here
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Insert page about assumption about page = content + html + conversion/value add
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Change the colours here
  • Add something about level of reinvention
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add in an animation of some of the unusual going into the repository
  • Add &amp;quot;more facts and figures in generation 3&amp;quot;
  • &amp;quot;significant growth in&amp;quot;
  • Change the colours here
  • Show the slide and make the obvious point that usefulness and ease of use are major perceptions of staff.
  • The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning

    1. 1. The formulation of an ISDT for e-learning David Jones (CQU) Shirley Gregor (ANU) http://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/david-jones/
    2. 2. The Question <ul><li>How do you design and support an information system for e-learning within an institution of higher education? </li></ul>First asked in 1996 Still an open question…..
    3. 3. It is important The importance of information and communication technologies and e-learning in promoting open, distance and flexible education in contemporary universities cannot be denied (deFreitas & Oliver, 2005) . Overall % of schools identifying online education as a critical long-term strategy grew from 49% in 2003 to 56% in 2005. (Allen & Seaman, 2005)
    4. 4. There are problems Vendor identified, best-practice institutions report around 50% faculty adoption (Sausner, 2005) Most HEIs are still struggling to engage a significant percentage of students and staff in e-learning (Salmon, 2005) a relatively stable minority of Chief Academic Officers believe that their faculty fully accept the value and legitimacy of online education (Allen & Seaman 2005)
    5. 5. There are problems … not particularly innovative, may limit the incentive to innovate, limited in quality and may restrict the ability to integrate with other systems (Alexander, 2001; Anonymous, 2004; Paulsen, 2002) … Web-based learning lacks a disciplined, systematic approach to the development process.….much of its construction is carried out without a true analysis of the requirements that are proper to Web-based learning (Hamid, 2002) .
    6. 6. It is difficult ..complex systems incorporating a variety of organisational, administrative, instructional and technological components (Avgeriou, Papasalouros, Retalis, Skordalakis, 2003) Absence of theory for e-Learning IS (Jones, Gregor and Lynch, 2003) Scholars in Information Systems can offer vision on structures and processes to effectively implement technology-mediated learning initiatives (Alavi & Leidner, 2001)
    7. 8. Proposed contribution <ul><li>ISDT that provides 1 answer to the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater adoption, customization, differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on 10 year action research cycle involving &quot;real&quot; system (1200+ staff, 22,000+ students) </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates novel use of ISDT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand/improve EXISTING information system </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. What we did
    9. 10. Plan Act Reflect Watch 1996-2003 3 generations of action research 2002- Formulation of Information Systems Design Theory Webfuse 24 research publications 5 research publications
    10. 11. What we'll do today <ul><li>Laid out the context  </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why and what (The ISDT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantiation (Webfuse) and results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of ISDT applied to existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be IS design science research? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Generation 1: 1996-1999 Build it and they will come
    12. 13. Why <ul><li>1996 - the web is a &quot;good thing&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single academic one teaching free term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aim to support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based learning and teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty website </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. What - the ISDT
    14. 15. Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease of use &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta- requirements Meta-design Testable hypotheses
    15. 16. Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses What's needed? Flexibility & ease of use
    16. 17. Meta-requirements <ul><li>flexibility and the ability to adapt to change </li></ul><ul><li>platform independence </li></ul><ul><li>use of Internet and other widely accepted standards </li></ul><ul><li>not reinventing the wheel </li></ul><ul><li>maximising the choice and flexibility provided to students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>providing the tools not the rules </li></ul><ul><li>minimising online time </li></ul><ul><li>minimising the new skills required to use the system </li></ul><ul><li>being freely available </li></ul>(Jones & Buchanan, 1996; McCormack & Jones, 1997) <ul><li>Support for variety and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No specific functional requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No support for specific learning theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic support for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design (McCormack & Jones, 1996; Hansen and Frick, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Flexibility & ease-of-use &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Product
    18. 19. Each course website starts with a default skeleton of web pages There can be different skeletons
    19. 20. Content + conversion + appearance
    20. 21. Content + conversion + appearance
    21. 22. Edit link
    22. 24. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
    23. 25. Templates as wrappers Users Discussion forum Chat room Online quizzes
    24. 26. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Process
    25. 27. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Kernel Theories Not explicitly stated DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers &quot;Waterfall&quot; Templates Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible Design Method Meta-design Testable hypotheses Expected outcomes
    26. 28. Generation 1 Instantiation
    27. 29. Implementation <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perl, Apache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CGI scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-going support Webmaster other general staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New developments: mostly 1 academic + project students </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. Results <ul><li>150+ course websites, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With 100,000+ pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained by almost 100 staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only 5 of 60 full-time academic staff making significant use of e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Usage dominated by system developer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>83% of content for 1 term 1998 from 1 course </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. Generation 2: 1999- Give them a reason to come
    30. 32. Why <ul><li>Product focus and process ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to fix the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater evolution </li></ul></ul>
    31. 33. What - the ISDT v2.0
    32. 34. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements Diffusion theory, design patterns Adopter focus, pattern mining Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience Hypermedia templates, s/w wrappers Templates Meta-design
    33. 35. Generation 2 - Instantation
    34. 36. Resources <ul><li>No significant addition of development resources </li></ul>
    35. 37. What to implement? <ul><li>Usually, driven by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We adopted diffusion theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximise chance of adoption, minimise effort </li></ul></ul>
    36. 38. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts (Jones, Jamieson & Clark,2003) Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability Optional Collective Authority Mass-media or interpersonal Cosmopolite or local Social structure Communication structure System norms Client contact: effort, timing. Rapport, empathy, credibility and homophily
    37. 39. Diffusion theory Rate of adoption Level of Reinvention Perceived attributes Innovation decision Communication Channels Social System Change Agent Efforts
    38. 40. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    39. 41. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    40. 42. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The expected The unexpected
    41. 43. &quot;Pattern&quot; Mining v2.0 Academic Staff Template Repository The unexpected The expected
    42. 44. Generation 2 - Results
    43. 45. Results <ul><li>Some improvements </li></ul><ul><li>But resources not appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Limited ability to adapt </li></ul><ul><li>… more covered in generation 3 </li></ul>
    44. 46. Generation 3: 2001- Build what they want, faster
    45. 47. Why <ul><li>Generation 2 limited by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 new Dean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1999-2001 - 33% growth in students </li></ul></ul>
    46. 48. What - the ISDT v3.0
    47. 49. Flexibility & ease of use Meta- requirements .. Agile, emergent, ateleological ..XP, emergent development Possible to construct a usable system Will be more flexible More acceptable = greater adoption Design Method Testable hypotheses Kernel Theories DE/education literature & experience … .OO design patterns … design patterns Meta-design
    48. 50. Generation 3 - Instantiation
    49. 51. Product and Process <ul><li>Development team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 lead developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-5 other developers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patterns (e.g.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model/View/Controller web development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater use of factory pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extreme Programming aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test driven development/Unit tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public User Stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-up meetings </li></ul></ul>
    50. 52. Generation 2 - Results
    51. 53. Customisation The key to easy use of OASIS is that it is not a off the shelf product that is sooooo (sic) generic that it has lost its way as a course delivery tool.
    52. 54. Building trust ..the precedent of other IT systems made available in Infocom (…) suggests that it would be extremely user friendly for people with very limited computer competence/confidence. my positive experience with other Infocom systems gives me confidence that OASIS would be no different. The systems team have a very good track record that inspires confidence
    53. 55. Ease-of-use I identify myself as coming from the technophobic extreme of the faculties (I have an Arts background) but even I find the systems the team have set out relatively easy to use
    54. 56. OASIS - ease of use/usefulness Non-users: 19% (n=22) Users: 37% (n=99)
    55. 57. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3
    56. 58. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 Shadowy and feral lead to possible system shutdown
    57. 59. Number of Staff Users Generation 1 Generation 3 Generation 2 System accepted at organisational level
    58. 60. Student Portal
    59. 61. Staff Portal - # users
    60. 62. Staff Portal - # requests (* until Feb 18, 2006)
    61. 63. Online assignments
    62. 64. Implications for design science research and IS
    63. 65. Usefulness of ISDTs <ul><li>Applied to existing information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize unspoken assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open them up to question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide method to connect to behavioral research - relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare different approaches </li></ul></ul>
    64. 66. Question for you <ul><li>What can be classed as design science research within Information Systems? </li></ul><ul><li>McKay and Marshall (2005) suggest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer science = machine domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology = human behavior domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS = 'situatedness' of the machine in the social system </li></ul></ul>
    65. 67. Summary <ul><li>We built a system for e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Formulated an ISDT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has some advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The work raises questions/implications about design science research in IS </li></ul>
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