Some alternate foundations for leadership in L&T at CQUniversity  David Jones http://cddu.cqu.edu.au/
http://flickr.com/photos/21596348@N05/2093445334/ Disclaimer
http://flickr.com/photos/alicepopkorn/2736173495/ Journey to understanding
http://flickr.com/photos/eggplant/3669546/ I have a problem The incumbent will work with… i n the development of CQU as a ...
http://flickr.com/photos/rbowen/1149317580/in/set-72157601499872144/ Herding cats
Concepts that have proven  useful in ordering things  easily achieve such  authority over us that we  forget their earthly...
Representation has a profound impact on design work and how tasks and problems are conceived (Simon, 1996; Weber, 2003; Bo...
With the right representation solution generation becomes trivial (Simon, 1996) http://flickr.com/photos/conceptworker/396...
Number scrabble <ul><li>Two players </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns to take a card </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to create a book </l...
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2 What’s a winning strategy? How would you formulate one? Remember,  with the right representation, the so...
Magic square 15 15 15 15 15 15
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
Player 1 Player 2
http://flickr.com/photos/eggplant/3669546/ I have a problem The incumbent will work with… i n the development of CQU as a ...
Theory Practice Reality Representation http://flickr.com/photos/shinyredtype/349804601/
http://flickr.com/photos/rbowen/1149317580/in/set-72157601499872144/ <ul><li>Can alternate representations </li></ul><ul><...
Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
http://flickr.com/photos/moopness/383109241/ People are not rational
http://flickr.com/photos/autanex/808866285/ How does the mind work? http://www.cognitive-edge.com/blogs/dave/2008/05/a_key...
http://flickr.com/photos/photograham/260939952/ Kaplan’s Law of Instrument (Kaplan 1998)
http://flickr.com/photos/pbo31/162704071/ Pattern entrainment
http://flickr.com/photos/lumaxart/2137729430/ Tell people: What, Why and How But will they do it? Leadership
http://flickr.com/photos/rbowen/1149317580/in/set-72157601499872144/ Herding cats
http://flickr.com/photos/dklinge/441370258/ Expectation to be told But they do what  th ey think best Followers
http://flickr.com/photos/mrs_eyepatch/2544399256/ If it don’t make sense They’ll do something else
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Wisdom of crowds Singing in a crowd
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Sustained inattentional blindness http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos....
http://flickr.com/photos/sbishop/205613851/ Knowledge can only be volunteered, not conscripted We only know what we know, ...
What’s this got to do with L&T http://flickr.com/photos/yewenyi/300115429/
(Trigwell, 2001)
Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
Good leadership is not a one-size-fits-all proposition (Snowden & Boone, 2007) http://flickr.com/photos/jenny-pics/2387890...
http://flickr.com/photos/cntstpdrmn/2362207708/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Sustained inattentional blindness http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos....
Horses for courses http://flickr.com/photos/andree-debashish/227654323/
What types of “courses” exist? Cynefin Framework http://flickr.com/photos/hugovk/320686889/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Simple - Characteristics Best practice and process re-engineering Command and control works Functions can be automated Sen...
Simple - Problems http://flickr.com/photos/22281745@N04/2250926800/ Incorrect classification Entrained thinking Complacency
Systems thinking Complicated - characteristics Place for experts http://flickr.com/photos/28481088@N00/292898253/ Sense-An...
Expert  –  entrained thinking Complicated - problems http://flickr.com/photos/28481088@N00/292898253/ Analysis paralysis
Complex - characteristics http://flickr.com/photos/aeioux/57188708/ Patterns perceived, not predicted Expert pattern match...
Chaos No perceivable cause & effect relationships Not time to investigate http://flickr.com/photos/pchweat/516336421/ Act-...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
http://flickr.com/photos/aesopsfables/240517889/ Organising a birthday party Complex? Complicated?
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
http://flickr.com/photos/eggplant/3669546/ I have a problem The incumbent will work with… i n the development of CQU as a ...
Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sen...
Complex - characteristics http://flickr.com/photos/aeioux/57188708/ Patterns perceived, not predicted Expert pattern match...
Complicated http://flickr.com/photos/28481088@N00/292898253/
Idealistic approaches Experts analyse & interpret Leaders identify ideal state Diagnosis separate from intervention Proces...
Naturalistic Emergent meaning @ ground level Understand sufficiency Stimulate Monitor emergent patterns Research and inter...
http://flickr.com/photos/b-tal/116220689/
http://flickr.com/photos/ohhector/456611804/
Attention deferral and  contextual insensitivity  may appear to be unproblematic in the face  of the overwhelming “proof” ...
contextual immersion  http://flickr.com/photos/riccarducci/1296459990/
Solutions http://flickr.com/photos/suzanneandsimon/378705610/
Solutions http://flickr.com/photos/suzanneandsimon/378705610/ Immerse in context Narrative inquiry attractors, barriers, i...
Conversation is not...a contest where a winner gets a prize...; it is an endless, unrehearsed, intellectual adventure in w...
A university is defined by the quality of  its academic conversations, not by the  technologies that service them http://f...
Leaders are an emergent aspect of a complex system Gabriele Lakomski Cannot control, at best influence
References Snowden, D. and M. Boone (2007). A leader's framework for decision making. Harvard Business Review 85(11): 68-7...
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Some alternate foundations for leadership in learning and teaching at CQUniversity

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Over recent years an increasing interest in improving the quality of university learning and teaching has driven a number of projects such as the ALTC, LTPF and AUQA. One of the more recent areas of interest has been the question of learning and teaching leaders. In 2006 and 2007 ALTC funded 20 projects worth about $3.4M around leadership in learning and teaching. Locally, there has been a series of CQUniversity L&T seminars focusing on the question of leadership in L&T.

This presentation arises from a long-term sense of disquiet about the foundations of much of this work, an on-going attempt to identify the source of this disquiet and find alternate, hopefully better, foundations. The presentation will attempt to illustrate the disquiet and explain how insights from a number of sources (see some references below) might help provide alternate foundations. It will briefly discuss the implications these alternate foundations may have for the practice of L&T at CQUniversity.

This presentation is very much a work in progress and is aimed at generating an on-going discussion about this topic and its application at CQUniversity. Some parts of that discussion and gathering of related resources is already occuring online at
http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2008/08/20/some-alternate-foundations-for-leadership-in-lt-at-cquniversity/

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Some alternate foundations for leadership in learning and teaching at CQUniversity

  1. 1. Some alternate foundations for leadership in L&T at CQUniversity David Jones http://cddu.cqu.edu.au/
  2. 2. http://flickr.com/photos/21596348@N05/2093445334/ Disclaimer
  3. 3. http://flickr.com/photos/alicepopkorn/2736173495/ Journey to understanding
  4. 4. http://flickr.com/photos/eggplant/3669546/ I have a problem The incumbent will work with… i n the development of CQU as a leader in flexible and online education
  5. 5. http://flickr.com/photos/rbowen/1149317580/in/set-72157601499872144/ Herding cats
  6. 6. Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. http://flickr.com/photos/dunechaser/567753250/
  7. 7. Representation has a profound impact on design work and how tasks and problems are conceived (Simon, 1996; Weber, 2003; Boland, 2002) http://flickr.com/photos/conceptworker/396871589/
  8. 8. With the right representation solution generation becomes trivial (Simon, 1996) http://flickr.com/photos/conceptworker/396871589/
  9. 9. Number scrabble <ul><li>Two players </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns to take a card </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to create a book </li></ul><ul><li>Three cards that add to 15 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Player 1 Player 2
  11. 11. Player 1 Player 2
  12. 12. Player 1 Player 2
  13. 13. Player 1 Player 2
  14. 14. Player 1 Player 2
  15. 15. Player 1 Player 2 What’s a winning strategy? How would you formulate one? Remember, with the right representation, the solution can be trivial
  16. 16. Magic square 15 15 15 15 15 15
  17. 17. Player 1 Player 2
  18. 18. Player 1 Player 2
  19. 19. Player 1 Player 2
  20. 20. Player 1 Player 2
  21. 21. Player 1 Player 2
  22. 22. http://flickr.com/photos/eggplant/3669546/ I have a problem The incumbent will work with… i n the development of CQU as a leader in flexible and online education
  23. 23. Theory Practice Reality Representation http://flickr.com/photos/shinyredtype/349804601/
  24. 24. http://flickr.com/photos/rbowen/1149317580/in/set-72157601499872144/ <ul><li>Can alternate representations </li></ul><ul><li>Close the disconnect </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest better solutions? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
  26. 26. Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
  27. 27. http://flickr.com/photos/moopness/383109241/ People are not rational
  28. 28. http://flickr.com/photos/autanex/808866285/ How does the mind work? http://www.cognitive-edge.com/blogs/dave/2008/05/a_keynote_in_perth.php
  29. 29. http://flickr.com/photos/photograham/260939952/ Kaplan’s Law of Instrument (Kaplan 1998)
  30. 30. http://flickr.com/photos/pbo31/162704071/ Pattern entrainment
  31. 31. http://flickr.com/photos/lumaxart/2137729430/ Tell people: What, Why and How But will they do it? Leadership
  32. 32. http://flickr.com/photos/rbowen/1149317580/in/set-72157601499872144/ Herding cats
  33. 33. http://flickr.com/photos/dklinge/441370258/ Expectation to be told But they do what th ey think best Followers
  34. 34. http://flickr.com/photos/mrs_eyepatch/2544399256/ If it don’t make sense They’ll do something else
  35. 35. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Wisdom of crowds Singing in a crowd
  36. 36. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Sustained inattentional blindness http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inattentional_blindness
  37. 37. http://flickr.com/photos/sbishop/205613851/ Knowledge can only be volunteered, not conscripted We only know what we know, when we need to know it We always know more than we can say and we will always say more than we can write (Snowden, 2005)
  38. 38. What’s this got to do with L&T http://flickr.com/photos/yewenyi/300115429/
  39. 39. (Trigwell, 2001)
  40. 40. Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
  41. 41. Good leadership is not a one-size-fits-all proposition (Snowden & Boone, 2007) http://flickr.com/photos/jenny-pics/2387890046/
  42. 42. http://flickr.com/photos/cntstpdrmn/2362207708/
  43. 43. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVJMSdIYaQ Sustained inattentional blindness http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inattentional_blindness
  44. 44. Horses for courses http://flickr.com/photos/andree-debashish/227654323/
  45. 45. What types of “courses” exist? Cynefin Framework http://flickr.com/photos/hugovk/320686889/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin
  46. 46. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond
  47. 47. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond W hat we care most about is how people perceive and make sense of situations in order to make decisions (Kurtz and Snowden, 2003)
  48. 48. Simple - Characteristics Best practice and process re-engineering Command and control works Functions can be automated Sense-Categorise-Respond http://flickr.com/photos/22281745@N04/2250926800/
  49. 49. Simple - Problems http://flickr.com/photos/22281745@N04/2250926800/ Incorrect classification Entrained thinking Complacency
  50. 50. Systems thinking Complicated - characteristics Place for experts http://flickr.com/photos/28481088@N00/292898253/ Sense-Analyse-Respond Good practice B alanced scorecard Learning organisation
  51. 51. Expert – entrained thinking Complicated - problems http://flickr.com/photos/28481088@N00/292898253/ Analysis paralysis
  52. 52. Complex - characteristics http://flickr.com/photos/aeioux/57188708/ Patterns perceived, not predicted Expert pattern matching doesn’t work Cause & effect No single cause Probe-Sense-Respond
  53. 53. Chaos No perceivable cause & effect relationships Not time to investigate http://flickr.com/photos/pchweat/516336421/ Act-Categorise-Respond
  54. 54. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceiveable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond
  55. 55. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceiveable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond Ordered Cause and effect are perceptible Right answers can be determined based on facts
  56. 56. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceiveable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond Ordered Cause and effect are perceptible Right answers can be determined based on facts Unordered No immediate relationship between cause and effect are Move forward based on emerging patterns
  57. 57. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond Truly adept leaders will know not only how to identify the context they’re working in at any given time but also how to change their behavior and their decisions to match that context (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
  58. 58. http://flickr.com/photos/aesopsfables/240517889/ Organising a birthday party Complex? Complicated?
  59. 59. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond Where does the use of IT in L&T @ CQU fit?
  60. 60. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond What tasks does the use of IT in L&T @ CQU involve?
  61. 61. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond What does the use of IT in L&T @ CQU involve? Assigning user accounts
  62. 62. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond What does the use of IT in L&T @ CQU involve? Assigning user accounts Solving problems with LMS
  63. 63. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond What does the use of IT in L&T @ CQU involve? Assigning user accounts Solving problems with LMS Designing a course
  64. 64. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond What does the use of IT in L&T @ CQU involve? Assigning user accounts Solving problems with LMS Designing a course Designing a course
  65. 65. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond What does the use of IT in L&T @ CQU involve? Assigning user accounts Solving problems with LMS Designing a course Innovation Designing a course
  66. 66. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond Truly adept leaders will know not only how to identify the context they’re working in at any given time but also how to change their behavior and their decisions to match that context (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
  67. 67. Not all systems are the same http://flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/127184319/ How we think Implications for L&T @ CQUni
  68. 68. http://flickr.com/photos/eggplant/3669546/ I have a problem The incumbent will work with… i n the development of CQU as a leader in flexible and online education
  69. 69. Complex Complicated Simple Chaos Cause & effect only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat Pattern management Probe-Sense-Respond Cause & effect separated over time and place Analytical/Reductionist Sense-Analyze-Respond Cause & effect relations repeatable, perceivable and predictable Legitimate best practice Sense-Categorise-Response No cause & effect relationships perceivable Stability-focused intervention Act-Sense-Respond This is a complex task Assigning user accounts Solving problems with LMS Designing a course Innovation Designing a course
  70. 70. Complex - characteristics http://flickr.com/photos/aeioux/57188708/ Patterns perceived, not predicted Expert pattern matching doesn’t work Probe-Sense-Respond
  71. 71. Complicated http://flickr.com/photos/28481088@N00/292898253/
  72. 72. Idealistic approaches Experts analyse & interpret Leaders identify ideal state Diagnosis separate from intervention Process aims to get there from here http://flickr.com/photos/industry_is_virtue/2651168521/
  73. 73. Naturalistic Emergent meaning @ ground level Understand sufficiency Stimulate Monitor emergent patterns Research and intervention entwined http://flickr.com/photos/adambrock/377577951/
  74. 74. http://flickr.com/photos/b-tal/116220689/
  75. 75. http://flickr.com/photos/ohhector/456611804/
  76. 76. Attention deferral and contextual insensitivity may appear to be unproblematic in the face of the overwhelming “proof” afforded by the larger community’s rush toward the innovation. (Swanson and Ramiller, 2004) http://flickr.com/photos/kt/31511354/
  77. 77. contextual immersion http://flickr.com/photos/riccarducci/1296459990/
  78. 78. Solutions http://flickr.com/photos/suzanneandsimon/378705610/
  79. 79. Solutions http://flickr.com/photos/suzanneandsimon/378705610/ Immerse in context Narrative inquiry attractors, barriers, identities, dissent, environment ABIDE Social Network Stimulation
  80. 80. Conversation is not...a contest where a winner gets a prize...; it is an endless, unrehearsed, intellectual adventure in which in imagination we enter a variety of modes of understanding the world and ourselves.  And, we are not disconcerted by the differences, or dismayed by the inconclusiveness of it all.&quot; http://flickr.com/photos/unaciertamirada/2499086247/ Michael Oakeshott
  81. 81. A university is defined by the quality of its academic conversations, not by the technologies that service them http://flickr.com/photos/eye2eye/50892860/ Diana Laurillard
  82. 82. Leaders are an emergent aspect of a complex system Gabriele Lakomski Cannot control, at best influence
  83. 83. References Snowden, D. and M. Boone (2007). A leader's framework for decision making. Harvard Business Review 85(11): 68-76 http://www.harvardbusiness.com/hbsp/hbr/articles/article.jsp?ml_action=get-article&articleID=R0711C Lakomski, G. (2005). Managing without Leadership: Towards a Theory of Organizational Functioning, Elsevier Science. http://www.amazon.com/Managing-without-Leadership-Organizational-Functioning/dp/0080433529/ Davis, B. and D. Sumara (2006). Complexity and education: Inquiries into learning, teaching, and research. Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates http://www.amazon.com/Complexity-Education-Inquiries-Learning-Teaching/dp/0805859357/ Kurtz, C. and D. Snowden (2003). “The new dynamics of strategy: Sense-making in a complex and complicated world.” IBM Systems Journal 42(3): 462-483 http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/423/kurtz.html De Martino, Kumaran, Seymour, Dolan (2006). Frames, Biases, and Rational Decision-Making in the Human Brain, Science, 313(5787): 684-687 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/313/5787/684 Abraham Kaplan (1998) The Conduct of Inquiry, Transaction Publishers http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ks8wuZHSKs8C Dave Snowden (2005) From Atomism to Networks in Social Systems, The Learning Organisation, 12(6) http://www.cognitive-edge.com/articledetails.php?articleid=45
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