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One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
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One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution

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An attempt to identify a number of the limitations and shortcomings associated with the Australian Federal Government's Digital Education Revolution project …

An attempt to identify a number of the limitations and shortcomings associated with the Australian Federal Government's Digital Education Revolution project (http://www.digitaleducationrevolution.gov.au)

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • Stu, thanks for the comment and the link to your blog post. As for your question, I think the comments on your post have it covered. Short-term political gain. I guess the next question is, how can this be turned around.
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  • Great presentation. Thanks for sharing. But the question now is, 'what was the point of upheaving schools and teachers with all these laptops and then totall cease funding them after four years??' - I wrote an article about this here: http://paralleldivergence.com/2011/07/18/digital-education-real-illusion/
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  • The DER is attempting to solve a wicked problem. There are never really any correct solutions to such problems.
  • How you view a computer influences how you see it used in education
  • How you view a computer influences how you see it used in education
  • How you view a computer influences how you see it used in education
  • Transcript

    • 1. One analysis of the Digital Education Revolution
      http://bit.ly/derAnalysis
      David Joneshttp://davidtjones.wordpress.com
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wfryer/2516648940/
    • 2. As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
      Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
      (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
      There is no ultimate test of a solution
      The problem can be described in many ways
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
    • 3. Description
      Analysis
      Suggestions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wscullin/3770015203/
    • 4. Description
      Analysis
      Suggestions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wscullin/3770015203/
    • 5. $2.4b over 8 years
      (ANAO, 2010)
      aims to contribute sustainable and meaningful change to teaching and learning in Australian schools that will prepare students for further education, training and to live and work in a digital world.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tomheld/2997580946/
    • 6. Online curriculum resources & digital architecture
      $28.6m
      ICT Innovation Fund
      $16m
      National Secondary Computer Fund
      $1.4b + $807m
    • 7. Removal of 1st order barriers
      (Ertmer, 1999)
      Won’t achievepurpose
      School + technology != change
      Policy by visitors to the digital world
      Limited understanding of change
      Using failed approaches
      ……
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/brad_holt/3604854521/
    • 8. Description
      Analysis
      Suggestions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wscullin/3770015203/
    • 9. The Ps Framework
      http://bit.ly/PsFramework
      Past experience
      People
      Place
      Purpose
      Product
      Process
      Pedagogy
      http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
    • 10. http://www.flickr.com/photos/londonmatt/3163571645/
      Purpose
      aims to contribute sustainable and meaningful change to teaching and learning in Australian schools that will prepare students for further education, training and to live and work in a digital world.
      http://www.digitaleducationrevolution.gov.au/
    • 11. Australian students must be prepared for living andworking in a highly technologicaland informationrich world that is rapidly changing.
      (DEEWR, 2010)
      A common theme in many countries’ national policiesis that innovative, knowledge-based economies drivenbytalent and creativity are the way to build sustainablesocieties in the future.
      (Moyle, 2010, p. 6)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/karenapricot/1218446563/
    • 12. http://bit.ly/pzPd8C
      Melbourne declaration etc.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/29901446@N07/2800023900/
    • 13. http://bit.ly/pzPd8C
      Melbourne declaration etc.
      Digital educationrevolution
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/29901446@N07/2800023900/
    • 14. http://bit.ly/pzPd8C
      Melbourne declaration etc.
      National Curriculum
      Digital educationrevolution
      Core curriculums that hark backto 20th-century educational beliefs…..
      The curriculum pays lip service to technology butfails to consider how it is changing the way teachersteach and children learn.
      (Harpur, 2011)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/29901446@N07/2800023900/
    • 15. http://bit.ly/pzPd8C
      Melbourne declaration etc.
      National Curriculum
      Digital educationrevolution
      NAPLAN
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/29901446@N07/2800023900/
    • 16. http://bit.ly/pzPd8C
      Melbourne declaration etc.
      National Curriculum
      National rewardsfor great teachers
      Digital educationrevolution
      NAPLAN
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/29901446@N07/2800023900/
    • 17. http://bit.ly/pzPd8C
      Melbourne declaration etc.
      Current political winds are blowing..toward policies of standardisingschool and emphasising the kindsof accountability practices that canparalyze risk-taking
      National Curriculum
      National rewardsfor great teachers
      Digital educationrevolution
      (Collins & Halverson, 2009, p. 113)
      NAPLAN
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/29901446@N07/2800023900/
    • 18. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/tx/7679076.html
    • 19. Online curriculum resources & digital architecture
      $28.6m
      ICT Innovation Fund
      $16m
      National Secondary Computer Fund
      $1.4b + $807m
    • 20. Rewards for great teachers$425m
      $28.6m
      $16m
      Computers
    • 21. The wrong drivers
      • Accountability
      • 22. Individual over group solutions
      • 23. Technology
      • 24. Fragmented strategies
      http://bit.ly/pxuDjB
    • 25. The wrong drivers
      • Accountability
      • 26. Individual over group solutions
      • 27. Technology
      • 28. Fragmented strategies
      http://bit.ly/pxuDjB
      NAPLAN
    • 29. The wrong drivers
      • Accountability
      • 30. Individual over group solutions
      • 31. Technology
      • 32. Fragmented strategies
      http://bit.ly/pxuDjB
      NAPLAN
      Rewards for great teachers
    • 33. The wrong drivers
      • Accountability
      • 34. Individual over group solutions
      • 35. Technology
      • 36. Fragmented strategies
      http://bit.ly/pxuDjB
      NAPLAN
      Rewards for great teachers
      DER
    • 37. The wrong drivers
      • Accountability
      • 38. Individual over group solutions
      • 39. Technology
      • 40. Fragmented strategies
      http://bit.ly/pxuDjB
      NAPLAN
      Rewards for great teachers
      DER
      Dissonant strategies
      Federal
      State
    • 41. The wrong drivers
      • Accountability
      • 42. Individual over group solutions
      • 43. Technology
      • 44. Fragmented strategies
      http://bit.ly/pxuDjB
      NAPLAN
      Rewards for great teachers
      DER
      Dissonant strategies
      Federal
      State
      Public
      Catholic
      Independent
    • 45. http://bit.ly/pxuDjB
      fail to achieve whole system reform
      Even worse, chances are that such strategies willcause backward movement relative to other countriesthat are using the right drivers
    • 46. http://bit.ly/nipT8I
      Past experience
      Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
      (Santayana, 2010)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/24707395@N02/2990235404/
    • 47. Our school system will be completely
      changed within the next ten years.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/24707395@N02/2990235404/
    • 48. Our school system will be completely
      changed within the next ten years.
      1913
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/24707395@N02/2990235404/
    • 49. Books will soon be obsolete in the schools
      It is possible to teach every branch of human knowledgewith the motion picture.
      Our school system will be completely
      changed within the next ten years.
      (Saettler, 1968, p. 98)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/3439637848/
    • 50. the computer is going to bea catalyst of very deep andradical change in theeducational system
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/24707395@N02/2990235404/
    • 51. the computer is going to bea catalyst of very deep andradical change in theeducational system
      1984
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/24707395@N02/2990235404/
    • 52. the computer is going to bea catalyst of very deep andradical change in theeducational system
      (Papert, 1984)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/rmesquita/2544780949/
    • 53. Students today can’t preparebark to calculate their problems.They depend on their slates whichare more expensive. What will they do when the slate is droppedand it breaks? They will beunable to write!
      Teacher’s Conference, 1703
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/knobil/66832699/
    • 54. Students today depend on paper toomuch. They don’t know how to writeon a slate without getting chalk dustall over themselves. They can’t cleana slate properly. What will they dowhen they run out of paper?
      Principal’s Association 1815
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/knobil/66832699/
    • 55. http://www.flickr.com/photos/shadfan66/4131388204/
      ..waiting in vain for the promised revolutionin teaching and learning because we have
      (Bush & Mott, 2009)
      consistently, almost single-mindedly,
      used technology to automate the past instead of employing our best thinking and efforts to create a new future
    • 56. http://www.flickr.com/photos/shadfan66/4131388204/
      Through a single sign-on portal they will be supported with relevant information, expert advice and practical and strategic tools
      ICT Innovation Fund
    • 57.
    • 58.
    • 59.
    • 60. http://gapingvoid.com/2006/10/13/walled-gardens-explained/
    • 61. http://www.flickr.com/photos/dquach/462387564/
    • 62. http://www.flickr.com/photos/londonmatt/3163571645/
      Purpose
      aims to contribute sustainable and meaningful change to teaching and learning in Australian schools that will prepare students for further education, training and to live and work in a digital world.
      http://www.digitaleducationrevolution.gov.au/
    • 63. Who has to learn?
      School Students
      Politicians
      School teachers
      General public
      Teacher educators
      School leaders
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/rileyroxx/169905405/
    • 64. Who has to learn?
      School Students
      Politicians
      School teachers
      General public
      Teacher educators
      School leaders
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/rileyroxx/169905405/
    • 65. Online curriculum resources & digital architecture
      $28.6m
      Teaching Teachers for the Future
      ICT Innovation Fund
      $16m
      National Secondary Computer Fund
      $1.4b + $807m
    • 66. Some of the anticipated activities will include the development of a website with ICTE resources and discussions, the establishment of an ICTE reference group that includes participation from across the University and regular workshops for staff.
      http://bit.ly/nipT8I
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/judybaxter/136158323/
    • 67. Some of the anticipated activities will include the development of a website with ICTE resources and discussions, the establishment of an ICTE reference group that includes participation from across the University and regular workshops for staff.
      Used by small numbers…usually not those most in need
      (The National GAP, 2009)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/judybaxter/136158323/
      http://bit.ly/nipT8I
    • 68. Who has to learn?
      School Students
      Politicians
      School teachers
      General public
      Teacher educators
      School leaders
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/rileyroxx/169905405/
    • 69. Online curriculum resources & digital architecture
      $28.6m
      Online teacher toolkit
      Anywhere, anytime professional learning
      ICT Innovation Fund
      $16m
      Leading ICT in learning
      National Secondary Computer Fund
      $1.4b + $807m
    • 70. http://gapingvoid.com/2006/10/13/walled-gardens-explained/
    • 71. http://www.flickr.com/photos/philmanker/3601560371/
    • 72. Quality teaching requires developing a nuanced understanding of the complex relationships between technology, content, and pedagogy, and using this understanding to develop appropriate, context-specific strategies and representations.
      (Mishra & Koehler, 2006)
    • 73. Place
      (Trigwell, 2001)
    • 74. NAPLAN
      (Trigwell, 2001)
    • 75. NAPLAN
      Nationalcurriculum
      (Trigwell, 2001)
    • 76. NAPLAN
      Nationalcurriculum
      Great rewards..
      (Trigwell, 2001)
    • 77. Disengaged parents
      NAPLAN
      Nationalcurriculum
      Great rewards..
      (Trigwell, 2001)
    • 78. Disengaged parents
      NAPLAN
      Respectfor teachers
      Nationalcurriculum
      Great rewards..
      (Trigwell, 2001)
    • 79. Disengaged parents
      NAPLAN
      Respectfor teachers
      Nationalcurriculum
      The School System
      Great rewards..
      (Trigwell, 2001)
    • 80. a highly evolved, complex institutional system can be locked in place and very difficult to change
      (Collins & Halverson, 2009)
      The basic grammar of schooling, like the shape of classrooms, has remained remarkably stable over the decades
      (Tyack and Tobin, 1994, p. 454)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/jasonnahrung/2495920825/
    • 81. (Collins & Halverson, 2009)
    • 82. http://www.flickr.com/photos/londonmatt/3163571645/
      Purpose
      Current Schools != Digital world
      aims to contribute sustainable and meaningful change to teaching and learning in Australian schools that will prepare students for further education, training and to live and work in a digital world.
      http://www.digitaleducationrevolution.gov.au/
    • 83. (Ward and Daniel, 2006, p. 3)
    • 84. http://read.bi/ouwiqJ
    • 85. People
      Visitor-Resident
      http://bit.ly/rlnxGO
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/shawnzlea/1460248872/
    • 86. Moore’s chasm
      (Geoghegan, 1994)
      http://bit.ly/oJDBKb
      http://flickr.com/photos/chrisjfry/323461344/
    • 87. Moore’s chasm
      (Geoghegan, 1994)
      http://bit.ly/oJDBKb
      http://flickr.com/photos/chrisjfry/323461344/
    • 88. Product
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/betchaboy/4305378767/
    • 89. http://www.flickr.com/photos/scobleizer/2264764769/
    • 90. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ivyfield/4497654605/
    • 91. http://www.flickr.com/photos/shadfan66/4131388204/
    • 92. By their very nature, newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling to use moretechnology in their teaching
      (Koehler & Mishra, 2009)
      Is the first metamedium, and as such it has degrees offreedom for representation and expression neverbefore encountered and as yet barely investigated
      Alan Kay
      http://bit.ly/qYvtfi
    • 93. (Stager, 2009)
      Computer to present information and test.
      Teacher replacement
      Alfred Bork
      http://bit.ly/qYvtfi
    • 94. (Stager, 2009)
      One computer classroom
      Computer to help teacher present
      Alfred Bork
      Tom Synder
      http://bit.ly/qYvtfi
    • 95. (Stager, 2009)
      Seymour Papert
      the protean nature of the computerallowed learners to shape its useand construct knowledge in waysand domains otherwise impossible
      Alfred Bork
      Tom Synder
      http://bit.ly/qYvtfi
    • 96. http://paralleldivergence.com/2011/07/18/digital-education-real-illusion/
    • 97. One of the barriers to including technologies in teaching and learning can be the lack of appropriate furniture on which to place computers in classrooms, in teachers’ preparation areas and in computer laboratories, and this impedes the uptake of technologies enabled pedagogies
      (Moyle, 2010)
    • 98. Process
    • 99. Limitations
      (Introna, 1996)
      Systems’ behaviour must be relatively stable and predictable
      Designer’s must be able to manipulatethe system’s behaviour directly.
      The designer’s must be able to determine accuratelythe goals or criteria of success.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
    • 100. Australian students must be prepared for living andworking in a highly technological and informationrich world that is rapidly changing.
      (DEEWR, 2010)
      Management by Objectives works if youknow the objectives, 90% of the time you don’t
      Peter Drucker
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/karenapricot/1218446563/
    • 101. Process
    • 102. Description
      Analysis
      Suggestions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wscullin/3770015203/
    • 103. Continue
      Take up residency
      http://reformsymposium.com/
      Big picture
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/richardstubbs/5934222024/
    • 104. Government
      Removal of first order barriers
      (Ertmer, 1999; Prestridge, 2010)
      Infrastructure &facilities
      Technical support
      Improve
      True 1:1
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/drbeachvacation/3156587879/
    • 105. Politicians
      School leaders
      Become digital residents
      Teachers
      Teacher educators
      Emergent resident creation
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/ell-r-brown/4458510670/
    • 106. Change politics
      Change
      Understand the “digital” world
      Diversity
      Change the grammar of school!
      http://bit.ly/p6LaLs
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/krossbow/3279873902/
    • 107.
    • 108. ANAO. (2010). Digital Education Revolution Program – National Secondary Schools Computer Fund. Education (p. 148). Canberra, ACT, Australia.
      Boehm, B., & Turner, R. (2003). Using risk to balance agile and plan-driven methods. Computer, 36(6), 57-66.
      Brews, P., & Hunt, M. (1999). Learning to plan and planning to learn: Resolving the planning school/learning school debate. Strategic Management, 20(10), 889-913.
      Bush, M. (2009). The Transformation of Learning with Technology: Learner-Centricity, Content and Tool Malleability, and Network Effects. Educational Technology, 49(2), 3-20. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=EJ829873&_nfls=false
      Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (2009). Rethinking education in the age of technology: The digital revolution and schooling in America. New York: Teachers College Press.
      DEEWR. (2010). ICT strategic planning guide for Australian schools (p. 16). Canberra, ACT, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.deewr.gov.au/Schooling/DigitalEducationRevolution/DigitalStrategyforTeachers/Documents/ICTStratPlanGuide.pdf
      Ertmer, P. a. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), 47-61. doi:10.1007/BF02299597
      Geoghegan, W. (1994). Whatever happened to instructional technology? In S. Bapna, A. Emdad, & J. Zaveri (Eds.), (pp. 438-447). Baltimore, MD: IBM. Retrieved from http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10144/
      Harpur, J. (2011, August 1). New technology yet we tread the same old path. Sydney Morning Hearld. Sydney, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/new-technology-yet-we-tread-the-same-old-path-20110731-1i6aw.html
      Hutchins, E. (1991). Organizing work by adaptation. Organization Science, 2(1), 14-39.
      Introna, L. (1996). Notes on ateleological information systems development. Information Technology & People, 9(4), 20-39.
      Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1). Retrieved from http://www.citejournal.org/vol9/iss1/general/article1.cfm
      Kurtz, C., & Snowden, D. (2007). Bramble Bushes in a Thicket: Narrative and the intangiables of learning networks. In M. Gibbert & T. Durand (Eds.), . Blackwell.
      March, J. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87.
      Mintzberg, H. (1989). Mintzberg on Management, Inside our Strange World of Organisations. New York: Free Press.
      Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
      Moyle, K. (2010). Building Innovation: Learning with technologies. Educational Research. Camberwell, VIC, Australia. Retrieved from http://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=aer
      Papert, S. (1984). New theories for new learnings. School Psychology Review, 13(4), 422-428.
    • 109. Prestridge, S. (2010). The alignment of digital pedagogy to current teacher beliefs. In D. Gronn & G. Romeo (Eds.), ACEC2010: Digital Diversity. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Computers in Education. Retrieved from http://acec2010.info/proposal/252/beliefs-behind-teacher-influences-their-ict-practices
      Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155-169.
      Saettler, P. (1968). History of Instructional Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
      Santayana, G. (2010). The life of reason: The phases of human progress (Vol. 1). Charleston, SC: Forgotten Books.
      Seely-Brown, J., & Hagel, J. (2005). From push to pull: The next frontier of innovation. The McKinsey Quarterly. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/article_page.aspx?ar=1642
      Stager, G. (2008, June). What’s a Computer For? Part 1. District Administration Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.districtadministration.com/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=1604
      The National GAP. (2009). Key issues to consider in the renewal of learning and teaching experiences to foster graduate attributes. Sydney: The National Graduate Attributes Project.
      Trigwell, K. (2001). Judging university teaching. The International Journal for Academic Development, 6(1), 65-73.
      Truex, D., Baskerville, R., & Travis, J. (2000). Amethodical systems development: the deferred meaning of systems development methods. Accounting Management and Information Technologies, 10, 53-79.
      Tyack, D., & Tobin, W. (1994). The “grammar” of schooling: why has it been so hard to change? American Educational Research Journal, 31(3), 453-479. Retrieved from http://aer.sagepub.com/content/31/3/453.short
      Ward, J., & Daniel, E. (2006). Benefits management: delivering value from IS and IT investments (John Wiley.). Chichester, UK.
      Weick, K., & Quinn, R. (1999). Organizational change and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 361-386.

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