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Lectures and the LMS: Alternatives and an experiment
 

Lectures and the LMS: Alternatives and an experiment

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More detail about the presentation available here
http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/10/05/lectures-and-the-lms-alternatives-and-experiments/

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  • Here’s a representation of what I think might be a solution. Even out the change. Make it continuous, emergent, agile. Episodic change is considered bad. It doesn’t fit the type of context in which higher education finds itself. Not a straight line.

Lectures and the LMS: Alternatives and an experiment Lectures and the LMS: Alternatives and an experiment Presentation Transcript

  • Twitter hashtag
    #eair
    Lectures and the LMS: Alternatives and an experiment
    Australia only
    Call: 02 82315772
    David Jones http://tr.im/DYkh
    Store: 0416906973
    Outside Australia
    Store: 61-0416906973
  • Setup
    Votapedia
    Call: 02 82315772
    Store: 0416906973
    Ustream: http://tr.im/Ezfv
    Twitter: #eair
    URL: http://tr.im/DYkh
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/3833810412/
  • Overview
    Why?
    What and How?
    20 minutes
    E-Learning Implementation Alternatives
    50 minutes
    ?? minutes
    Reflections
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/atbaker/1577665185/
  • Overview
    Why?
    What and how?
    20 minutes
    E-Learning Implementation Alternatives
    50 minutes
    ?? minutes
    Reflections
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/atbaker/1577665185/
  • Culture always pays a price
    Always winners and losers
    Every tech. has a philosophy
    It’s ecological, not additive
    Media tends to become mythic
    5 things to know about technological change
    http://tr.im/E9KW
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tom1231/261029677/
  • (Postman, 1998)
    When a technology becomesmythic, it is always dangerous
    because
    it is then accepted as it is
    and is there not easily susceptible to modification or control
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/atoach/3543601334/
  • Lecture
    Today the lecture remains the most common form of communication in universities
    (McGarr, 2009)
    LMS
    almost every university is
    planning to make use of an LMS
    (Salmon, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/riverap1/3875718119/
  • Awareness raising
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/purpleslog/2881603057/
  • http://www.civil.usyd.edu.au/current/undergraduate/learning.shtml
  • Common sense is nothing more than
    a deposit of prejudices laid down by
    the mind before you reach eighteen.
    Albert Einstein
    http://flickr.com/photos/skoop/207145876/
  • There is no silver bullet
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/gregoryjameswalsh/408773662/
  • Awareness raising
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/purpleslog/2881603057/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cleopold73/3677296594/
  • Overview
    Why?
    What and how?
    20 minutes
    E-Learning Implementation Alternatives
    50 minutes
    ?? minutes
    Reflections
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/atbaker/1577665185/
  • Awareness raising
    ustream
    Lecture experiment
    Twitter
    Votapedia
    E-learning alternatives presentation
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/purpleslog/2881603057/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/kirrus/1496231835/
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Samuel_Johnson_by_Joshua_Reynolds.jpg
    Lectures were once useful; but now,when all can read, and books are sonumerous, lectures are unnecessary.
    Samuel Johnson - 1781
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/riverap1/3875718119/
  • In defense of lectures
    (McGarr, 2009)
    Engaging
    Cheap
    Open up a subject
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/3807449831/
  • Place
    Time
    Interaction
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/3256109022/
  • Place
    Time
    http://www.ustream.tv/
    Interaction
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/3256109022/
  • http://www.ustream.tv/
    Live interactive broadcast platform
    People with a browser
    Any video source
    Social stream
  • Place
    Playback
    Time
    http://www.ustream.tv/
    Interaction
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/3256109022/
  • http://helpcenter.ustream.tv/content/there-limit-how-many-viewers-i-can-have
  • Place
    Playback
    Time
    http://www.ustream.tv/
    http://votapedia.com/
    Interaction
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/3256109022/
  • http://votapedia.com/
    Mobile phone/web-based
    Audience response system
  • How long have you owned a mobile phone?
    Never
    +61 2 81161895
    Less than 1 year
    +61 2 81161896
    1 to 2 years
    +61 2 81161897
    2 to 5 years
    +61 2 81161898
    Greater than 5 years
    +61 2 81161900
    Visit this page
    SMS red digits to
    http://tr.im/EDra
    +61 416906973
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/williamhook/2830319467/
  • Place
    Playback
    Time
    http://www.ustream.tv/
    http://votapedia.com/
    Interaction
    http://twitter.com/
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/3256109022/
  • Micro-blogging
    Back channel
    http://twitter.com/
  • Other work
    http://www.purdue.edu/hotseat
    http://www.lecturetools.com
  • LMS
    almost every university is
    planning to make use of an LMS
    (Salmon, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/riverap1/3875718119/
  • What words do you associate with the phrase “learning management system”?
    Visit this page
    SMS your answer to
    http://tr.im/EDyI
    +61 416906973
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Freud_Sofa.JPG
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cleopold73/3677296594/
  • Alternatives for the institutional implementation of e-learning: Lessons from 12 years of Webfuse
    David Joneshttp://tr.im/E9JE
  • Overview
    The argument
    Ps Framework
    Mythic e-learning
    The context
    An alternative
    Reflections and conclusions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • Overview
    The argument
    Ps Framework
    Mythic e-learning
    The context
    An alternative
    Reflections and conclusions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • Culture always pays a price
    Always winners and losers
    Every tech. has a philosophy
    It’s ecological, not additive
    Media tends to become mythic
    5 things to know about technological change
    http://tr.im/E9KW
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tom1231/261029677/
  • (Postman, 1998)
    When a technology becomesmythic, it is always dangerous
    because
    it is then accepted as it is
    and is there not easily susceptible to modification or control
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/atoach/3543601334/
  • almost every university is
    planning to make use of an LMS
    (Salmon, 2005)
    (Feldstein, 2006)
    the mindset in recent times has focused on the adoption of the one-size-fits-all LMS
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/riverap1/3875718119/
  • Awareness raising
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/purpleslog/2881603057/
  • Overview
    The argument
    Ps Framework
    Mythic e-learning
    The context
    An alternative
    Reflections and conclusions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • Nothing is so practical as a good theory
    (Lewin, 1945)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/
  • Theories are practical because they allow knowledgeto be accumulated in a systematic manner and thisaccumulated knowledge enlightens professional practice
    (Gregor & Jones, 2007)
    http://flickr.com/photos/dalem/296189944/
  • Raising awareness
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/purpleslog/2881603057/
  • The Ps Framework
    Past experience
    People
    Frameworks offer new ways of looking at phenomena and provide information on which to base sound, pragmatic decisions
    Place
    Purpose
    (Mishra & Koehler, 2006)
    Product
    Process
    Pedagogy
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • The Ps Framework
    PastExperience
    People
    Product
    Purpose
    Process
    Place
    Pedagogy
    (Jones, Vallack, et al, 2008)
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • The Mythic Technology
    Product
    Process
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Context
    PastExperience
    People
    Purpose
    Place
    Pedagogy
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • The alternative
    Product
    Process
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Overview
    The argument
    Ps Framework
    Mythic e-learning
    The context
    An alternative
    Reflections and conclusions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • The Mythic Technology
    Product
    Process
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • The Mythic Technology
    Process
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Maintenance
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Alternatives
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • The Mythic Technology
    Product
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • LMS is academic equivalent to ERP
    (Morgan, 2003)
    Reflects a …. move to standardisation
    Will impose its own logic on a company’s strategy, structureand culture…push towards..generic structures
    (Davenport, 1998)
    Best practice..implement vanilla
    (Robey, Ross et al, 2002; Pozzebon, Titah et al, 2006; Wagner, Scott et al, 2006)
    http://flickr.com/photos/remedix/260741805/
  • Identifying efficient procurement strategies
    (Saarinen & Vepsalainen, 1994)
    Internal
    Development
    SoftwareContracting
    PackageAcquisition
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3030229649/
  • (Saarinen & Vepsalainen, 1994)
    Type of Information System
    Routine
    Standard
    Speculative
    HighCost
    Internal
    Development
    Innovator
    Type of Developer
    SoftwareContracting
    Analyst
    PackageAcquisition
    Implementor
    HighRisk
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3030229649/
  • (Saarinen & Vepsalainen, 1994)
    Specificity of Design
    Specific/Contingent
    Common
    Risky/Complex
    HighCost
    SpeculativeInvestment
    Uncertainty of requirements
    StandardApplication
    RoutineSystem
    Certain/Simple
    HighRisk
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3030229649/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/tom1231/275402356/
  • Overview
    The argument
    Ps Framework
    Mythic e-learning
    The context
    An alternative
    Reflections and conclusions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • Context
    PastExperience
    People
    Purpose
    Place
    Pedagogy
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • (Saarinen & Vepsalainen, 1994)
    Specificity of Design
    Specific/Contingent
    Common
    Risky/Complex
    HighCost
    E-learningContext
    SpeculativeInvestment
    Uncertainty of requirements
    StandardApplication
    LMSProduct
    RoutineSystem
    Certain/Simple
    HighRisk
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3030229649/
  • Context
    PastExperience
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Quality and Quantity e-learning
    Fairly unsophisticated use of the tools
    Substitutes for existingmedia and retainsexisting pedagogy
    (Benson and Palaskas, 2006)
    (Salmon, 2005)
    Formal use of technology…bestdescribed as sporadic, unevenand often low-level
    (Selwyn, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/3921218578/
  • Level 1: Most used
    Level 2: Moderately used
    Level 3: Rarely used
    More than 50% of courses
    More than 20% of courses
    (much) less than 20% of courses
    CreatingClassInteractions
    EvaluatingStudents
    TransmittingContent
    • Chat
    • Discussion forum
    • Email
    • Quizzes
    • Drop box
    • Content/files
    • Announcements
    • Gradebook
    ComputerBasedInstruction
    Evaluatingcourse and instructors
    • Some quizzes
    • Adaptive release
    • Surveys
    Move to features in unexplored categories, until each category is considered for different learning needs
    (Malikowski, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/3921218578/
  • Technology-mediated learning
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1958)
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Multimedia
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/kirrus/1496231835/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Multimedia
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Multimedia
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Multimedia
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    Networks
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Multimedia
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    Networks
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Personal computers
    Multimedia
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    Networks
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Personal computers
    Multimedia
    Multimedia personal computers
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    Networks
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Personal computers
    Internet
    Multimedia
    Multimedia personal computers
    Lone-ranger
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    Networks
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Personal computers
    Internet
    Multimedia
    Multimedia personal computers
    Lone-ranger
    WWW
    Cottage industry
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    Networks
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Personal computers
    Internet
    Multimedia
    Multimedia personal computers
    Lone-ranger
    WWW
    Cottage industry
    ERPs
    Industrial
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Motion pictures
    Radio
    Stereo-graphs, photos, motionpictures, radio, television
    (Pressy, 1926)
    Industrial revolution,mechanical machines
    Audio-visual instruction
    Teaching machines
    (Skinner, 1956)
    Computers
    Networks
    CBL/CML
    CMC
    Personal computers
    Internet
    Multimedia
    Multimedia personal computers
    Lone-ranger
    WWW
    Cottage industry
    ERPs
    Industrial
    Web 2.0
    Mobile
    Post-industrial
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  • Limitations
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Fad cycle
    1. Technological spark
    4. Resolution of dissonance
    2. Growing revolution
    3. Minimial impact
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/moriza/308483890/
  • Context
    Place
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Institutions that cannot continually change to keep up with the needs of the transforming economy will become irrelevant
    (Klor de Alva, 2000)
    (Agee, Yang et al, 2009)
    The trend toward augmenting instruction with technology creates opportunities and substantial challenges for those who must respond to increasingly diverse and fluid instructional environments
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joshua/1154118/
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Assumption of Newtonian physics
    Order
    the great narrative of science shares with the great religious narratives the idea that there is order to the universe
    (Postman, 1995)
    Dominant ideology in organizationsand management science
    (Snowden, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/r-z/1573332373/
  • http://xkcd.com/613/
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/coda/190168058/
  • Cynefin Framework
    (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
    System and agents co-evolve
    Knowable
    • Cause and effect separated over time and space
    • Analytical/Reductionist
    • Scenarios planning
    • Systems thinking
    • Sense-Analyse-Respond
    Complex
    - Cause and effect are only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat
    • Pattern management
    • Perspective filters
    • Complex adaptive systems
    • Probe-Sense-Respond
    System constrains agents
    - No cause and effect relationships perceivable
    • Stability-focused intervention
    • Enactment tools
    • Crisis management
    • Act-Sense-Respond
    • Cause and effect relationships repeatable, perceivable and predictable
    • Legitimate best practice
    • Standard operating procedures
    • Process reengineering
    • Sense-Categorise-Respond
    Chaos
    Known
    No constraints
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3663469686/
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    ?
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    ?
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Context
    People
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • (Moore, 2002)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/345850764/
  • Barriers to bridging the chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    arguments
    1. Ignorance of the gap
    modes of support
    Homogeneity
    Incentives
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/345850764/
  • Barriers to bridging the chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    arguments
    1. Ignorance of the gap
    modes of support
    Homogeneity
    Incentives
    2. The technologists alliance
    Early adopters
    IT Staff
    Vendors
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/345850764/
  • Barriers to bridging the chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    arguments
    1. Ignorance of the gap
    modes of support
    Homogeneity
    Incentives
    2. The technologists alliance
    Early adopters
    IT Staff
    Vendors
    3. Alienation of the mainstream
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/345850764/
  • Barriers to bridging the chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    arguments
    1. Ignorance of the gap
    modes of support
    Homogeneity
    Incentives
    2. The technologists alliance
    Early adopters
    IT Staff
    Vendors
    3. Alienation of the mainstream
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/345850764/
  • Barriers to bridging the chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    arguments
    1. Ignorance of the gap
    modes of support
    Homogeneity
    Incentives
    2. The technologists alliance
    Early adopters
    IT Staff
    Vendors
    An application…that offers value substantiallyin excess of the costs of adoption
    3. Alienation of the mainstream
    4. Lack of a compelling reason to adopt
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicmcphee/345850764/
  • More time teaching is a negative influence on academic pay
    The trend is worsening most rapidlyin institutions whose central missionfocuses on teaching and learning
    (Fairweather, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sylvar/1138341328/
  • experience a loss of functionality and a degradation of performance as employees grapple to come to terms with the new technologies and processes that these systems force
    (Katz, 2003)
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/knezovjb/2822498715/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/kennymiller/796971032/
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    ?
    ?
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    ?
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • People aren’t rational
    Bounded rationality
    (Simon, 1991)
    Reliance on intuition, instinctsand simply heuristics
    37 cognitive biases
    (Arnott, 2006)
    (Jamieson & Hyland, 2006)
    Systematic biases influence judgment
    (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974
    Inherent limits in organisational substantive rationality
    Innovation and change within universitiescan never be mere rational processes
    (Cecez-Kecmanovic, et al, 2002)
    (Jones and O’Shea, 2004)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/3132985694/
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    ?
    ?
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    ?
    ?
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Context
    Pedagogy
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Application of webto teaching andlearning is stillevolving
    (Bates, 2004)
    Research into how people learnonline is in its infancy
    (Herrington et al, 2005)
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    ?
    ?
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    ?
    ?
    ?
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • http://www.tpack.org/
    there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching
    (Mischra & Koehler, 2006)
    Productive technology integration in teaching needs to consider all three issues not in isolation, but rather within the complex relationships in thesystem defined by the three key elements
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    ?
    ?
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    ?
    ?
    ?
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~dedech/
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    ?
    ?
    ?
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Context
    Purpose
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Purpose of universities
    (Martin and Etzkowitz, 2000)
    Immaculate
    Utilitarian
    (Shaul, 1972)
    Education either functions as
    becomes the ‘practice of freedom’, the means by which men and women deal critically with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.
    an instrument which isused to facilitate the integration of generations into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/kylemackenzie/3576131493/
  • Drivers for e-learning
    (Coates et al, 2005)
    Efficiency
    Enriched student learning
    New student expectations
    Control
    Competitive pressure
    Responding to massification
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/kylemackenzie/3576131493/
  • Senior management
    Faculty management
    IT management
    School management
    Academics
    Instructional designers
    Technical staff
    …..
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/305410323/
  • Limitations
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    ?
    ?
    ?
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Mythic e-learning
    The context
    Rapidly changing
    Stable
    Unpredictable
    Predictable
    Highly variable
    Common
    Complex
    Simple
    No cause and effect
    Ordered
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/thebusybrain/2492945625/
  • Overview
    The argument
    Ps Framework
    Mythic e-learning
    The context
    An alternative
    Reflections and conclusions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • The alternative
    Product
    Process
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • 1997-2010
    2900+ Course sites
    47000+ students
    2500+ staff
    90+% staff adoption
    Web
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/2718279207/
  • The alternative
    Principles
    Product
    Practice
    Process
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • The alternative
    Principles
    Product
    Practice
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Best of breed
    Adoption of different packages from different vendors or sources
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Skeleton + data = course site
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Different skeletons, different structure, different look
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Each page can be edited
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Each page can be edited
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • PageType
    Edit
    Content
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • PageType
    OtherServices
    Content
    Style
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Other services
    External
    Internal
    Discussion forums
    Student records system
    Chat rooms
    Online assignment submission
    Social media
    …..
    Timetable system
    …..
    750+ classes
    Web apps
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • PortalWeb Interface
    Ancillary services
    e.g. virtual union& library
    LMS(Blackboard)
    LMS(Webfuse)
    Simulations &other teaching environments
    Shared education services
    Monitoring performance & usage
    Class & CourseManagement
    Content management
    Student profile& history
    Assessment
    Calendar
    Timetable
    Assignment tracking
    Plagiarism detection
    University wide services
    Security authorisations
    Student administration
    axapta
    Course administration
    Single sign-on
    Library management
    Digital rights management
    Digital repositories
    Student profiles
    Staff database
    Finance database
    Course profiles
    Digital library &eReserve
    Student Database
    Learning content database
    Library catalogue
    Communication networks &distribution infrastructure
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • PortalWeb Interface
    Ancillary services
    e.g. virtual union& library
    LMS(Blackboard)
    LMS(Webfuse)
    Simulations &other teaching environments
    Shared education services
    Monitoring performance & usage
    Class & CourseManagement
    Content management
    Student profile& history
    Assessment
    Calendar
    Timetable
    Assignment tracking
    Plagiarism detection
    University wide services
    Security authorisations
    Student administration
    axapta
    Course administration
    Single sign-on
    Library management
    Digital rights management
    Digital repositories
    Student profiles
    Staff database
    Finance database
    Course profiles
    Digital library &eReserve
    Student Database
    Learning content database
    Library catalogue
    Review of grade
    Gradebook
    Plagiarism Tracking System
    Faculty websites
    ESOS compliance
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • E-learning
    Academics
    Current practice
    Current practice
    Current practice
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/cthe/2402577463/
  • Academics
    E-learning
    Webfuse
    Current practice
    Current practice
    Current practice
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/cthe/2402577463/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • we should change people's behaviourbecause information technology systems are difficult to change..
    (Sturgess and Nouwens, 2004)
    most commercial systems require the institution to modify its existing practices to accommodate the system
    (Dodds, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Some folk unhappy with mailing lists
    Some happy
    Both/and NOT either/or
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Staff choose which one they use
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • PEBKAC
    we should change people's behaviourbecause information technology systems are difficult to change..
    (Sturgess and Nouwens, 2004)
    C1234567x
    Q12345678
    S0123456
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tea610/3995308486/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Where’s the biggest market in discussion forums?
    A) Blackboard
    B)Moodle
    C) Sakai
    D) Web/open source
    Bigger market
    =
    More choice
    +
    +
    Better quality
    Cheaper price
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mckaysavage/3059483658/
  • 27 March, 2009
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mckaysavage/3059483658/
  • 30 October 2009
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mckaysavage/3059483658/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Web 2.0 course site
    http://webfuse.cqu.edu.au/Courses/EDED11448/
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Wordpress blog
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Wetpaint wiki
  • http://redbubble.com.au
  • http://redbubble.com.au
  • http://del.icio.us
    http://del.icio.us +http://feedburner.com
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • 45 groups
    6 discussion forums per group
    270 forums
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • (Light, Holland and Wills, 2001)
    Apache
    Perl
    MySQL
    Knowledge of chosen applications
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • People
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sreejithk2000/2385193167/
  • Learning and teaching
    Not primarily a technology problem
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/wwworks/2970929574/
  • The alternative
    Principles
    Practice
    Process
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • Alternatives
  • (Introna, 1996)
    (Jones, Danaher et al, 2005; Jones & Muldoon, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/spursfan_ace/2328879637/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/spursfan_ace/2328879637/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Maintenance
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • experience a loss of functionality and a degradation of performance as employees grapple to come to terms with the new technologies and processes that these systems force
    (Katz, 2003)
  • Cost
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Both/and NOT either/or
    Mailing lists
    Discussion forums
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • Staff choose which one they use
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lyon_photography/3886352249/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/spursfan_ace/2328879637/
  • Committee
    Developers
    IT Director
    ManagerDevelopers
    ManagerHelpdesk
    Dean
    HoS
    Helpdesk
    Academics
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/wetsun/53648963/
  • Committee
    Developers
    IT Director
    ManagerDevelopers
    Business Analyst
    ManagerHelpdesk
    Dean
    HoS
    Helpdesk
    Academics
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/wetsun/53648963/
  • Committee
    Developers
    Academics
    “Helpdesk”
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/bribri/126039806/
  • A university is defined by thequality of its academic conversations,not by the technologies that service them.
    (Laurillard, 2002)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ktylerconk/3045268759/
  • We only know what we knowwhen we need to know it
    We always know more than we can say,
    and we will always say more than wecan write down
    Knowledge can only be volunteeredit cannot be conscripted.
    http://www.cognitive-edge.com/blogs/dave/2008/10/rendering_knowledge.php
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ivanwalsh/3674098693/
  • it is not the provision of features but
    their uptake and use that really determines their educational value.
    (Coates, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/spursfan_ace/2328879637/
  • 3 levels of improving L&T
    What management and IT do.
    What the teacher is.
    What the teacher does.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/http2007/2788610963/
  • Change agent effort
    InnovationDecision
    Rate ofAdoption
    PerceivedAttributes
    SocialSystem
    CommsChannels
    (Jones, Jamieson & Clark, 2003)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/airosan/2318527358/
  • If we want to create passionate users, we have to help them get better. 
    Nobody’s passionate about things they suck at.
    Kathy Sierra
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Str2K98JnMc
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/pressthebuttononthetop/277470840/
  • http://www.thefuntheory.com
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw
  • http://www.thefuntheory.com
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw
  • Overview
    The argument
    Ps Framework
    Mythic e-learning
    The context
    An alternative
    Reflections and conclusions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/14696088@N04/1606128341/
    47000+ students
    2500+ staff
    Differentiation
    Dead next year?
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/neubie/2273635564/
  • ..the precedent of other IT systems…suggests that it would be extremelyuser friendly for people with very limited competence/confidence
  • The key to easy use of OASIS isthat it is not a off the shelf productthat is soooo generic that it has lostits way as a course delivery tool
  • Level 1: Most used
    Level 2: Moderately used
    Level 3: Rarely used
    More than 50% of courses
    More than 20% of courses
    (much) less than 20% of courses
    CreatingClassInteractions
    EvaluatingStudents
    TransmittingContent
    • Chat
    • Discussion forum
    • Email
    • Quizzes
    • Drop box
    • Content/files
    • Announcements
    • Gradebook
    ComputerBasedInstruction
    Evaluatingcourse and instructors
    • Some quizzes
    • Adaptive release
    • Surveys
    Move to features in unexplored categories, until each category is considered for different learning needs
    (Malikowski, et al, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/3921218578/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/3921218578/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/3921218578/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/3921218578/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/3921218578/
  • http://indicatorsproject.wordpress.com
    Enabling comparisons of LMS usageacross institutions, platforms and time
    (Beer, Jones & Clark, 2009)
  • As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
    Wicked problems
    (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
    Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
    Every one isessentiallyunique
    There is no ultimate test of a solution
    The problem can be described in many ways
    You can’t identifyall potential solns.
    There is no stopping rule
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
  • The Ps Framework
    PastExperience
    People
    Product
    Purpose
    Process
    Place
    Pedagogy
    http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cleopold73/3677296594/
  • There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all.
    Peter Drucker
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/483769089/
  • http://tr.im/DYkh
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/eleaf/2536358399/
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    Arnott, D. (2006). "Cognitive biases and decision support systems development: a design science approach." Information Systems Journal16: 55-78.
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    Beer, C., D. Jones, et al. (2009). The indicators project identifying effective learning, adoption, activity, grades and external factors. ASCILITE'2009. Auckland, NZ.
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    Fairweather, J. (2005). "Beyond the rhetoric: Trends in the relative value of teaching and research in faculty salaries." Journal of Higher Education76(4): 401-422.
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  • Jones, D., K. Jamieson, et al. (2003). A model for evaluating potential Web-based education innovations. 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, IEEE.
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    Selwyn, N. (2007). "The use of computer technology in university teaching and learning: a critical perspective." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning23(2): 83-94.
    Simon, H. (1991). "Bounded rationality and organizational learning." Organization Science2(1): 125-134.
    Skinner, B. F. (1958). "Teaching Machines." Science128: 969-977.
    Snowden, D. (2005). "Strategy in the context of uncertainty." Handbook of Business Strategy6(1): 47-54.
    Snowden, D. and M. Boone (2007). "A leader's framework for decision making." Harvard Business Review85(11): 68-76.
    Sturgess, P. and F. Nouwens (2004). "Evaluation of online learning management systems." Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education5(3).
    Truex, D., R. Baskerville, et al. (1999). "Growing systems in emergent organizations." Communications of the ACM42(8): 117-123.
    Truex, D., R. Baskerville, et al. (2000). "Amethodical systems development: the deferred meaning of systems development methods." Accounting Management and Information Technologies10: 53-79.
    Tversky, A. and D. Kahneman (1974). "Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases." Science185(4157): 1124-1131.
    Wagner, E., S. Scott, et al. (2006). "The creation of 'best practice' software: Myth, reality and ethics." Information and Organization16(3): 251-275.
    Weick, K. and R. Quinn (1999). "Organizational change and development." Annual Review of Psychology50: 361-386.
  • Lectures and the LMS: Alternatives and an experiment
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