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Herding cats and losing weight:how to improve learning and teaching
 

Herding cats and losing weight: how to improve learning and teaching

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Slides for talk at CQUniversity (24 Sep, 2009). More information here http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/09/14/herding-cats-losing-weight-and-how-to-improve-learning-and-teaching-2/

Slides for talk at CQUniversity (24 Sep, 2009). More information here http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/09/14/herding-cats-losing-weight-and-how-to-improve-learning-and-teaching-2/

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    Herding cats and losing weight:how to improve learning and teaching Herding cats and losing weight: how to improve learning and teaching Presentation Transcript

    • Herding cats and losing weight:how to improve learning and teaching
      David JonesCurriculum Design and Development Unit http://cdd.cqu.edu.auhttp://davidtjones.wordpress.com
    • AUQA and quality management
      Enterprise Systems and LMS
      Staff Development
      CEQ
      Business analysts
      Consistency
      L&T Grants
      Teaching qualifications for academics
      Techno-rationalism and top-down management
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/esparta/482348262/
    • Teaching is not rocket science. It is, in fact, far more complex and demanding work than rocket science.
      Richard F. Elmore, Gregory Anrig Professor of Educational LeadershipHarvard Graduate School of Education.
      http://bluyonder.wordpress.com/2007/09/24/teaching-isnt-rocket-science/
      Improving teaching is much more complex than that
      http://flickr.com/photos/erikcharlton/1481121536/
    • As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
      Wicked problems
      (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
      Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
      Every one isessentiallyunique
      There is no ultimate test of a solution
      The problem can be described in many ways
      You can’t identifyall potential solns.
      There is no stopping rule
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaygooby/3885498720/
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • E-learning and innovation specialist
      http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/elearning-and-innovation/
      consults effectively and broadly with key stakeholders
      provides strategic advice and leadership in learning and teaching innovation,
      primary purpose is to promote strategic e-learning development
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/kamshots/328310142/
    • In big industry new ideas are invited to rear their heads so they can be clobbered at once.
      The idea department of a big firm is a sort of lab for isolating dangerous viruses.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/p373/1655304819/
    • Leadership becomes faith-based, while employees who have the temerity to suggest that what seems to be happening is in fact happening are herded into Innovation Departments, where they can be ignored en masse.
      (Shirky, 2009)
      This shunting aside of the realists in favor of the fabulists has different effects on different industries at different times.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sis/36957802/
    • Why so negative?
      http://flickr.com/photos/aviatordave/7007033/
    • The most difficult subjectscan be explained to themost slow-witted man ifhe has not formed anyidea of them already;
      (Tolstoy, 1893)
      but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to themost intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded thathe knows already, without a shadow of doubt,what is laid before him.
      http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tolstoy_portrait_tolstoy.ru.jpg
    • Could be I’m a popo
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/elblogazo/10675300/
    • Phillip Hughes
      (20 years old)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/zoonabar/3759151925/
    • Phillip Hughes
      (20 years old)
      one of his flaws is to play shots while still in the air.
      (English, 2009)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/zoonabar/3759151925/
    • the problem-solving mode narrows our gaze in much the same manner that a blinder over one eye narrows the field of vision and distorts one's
      perception of depth.
      (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/lupinehorror/2659454214/
    • Doing more of what works
      (Hammond, 1998)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpockele/455671560/
    • “I will try to improve my game in all aspects.”
      Hughes has spent time in the nets trying to overcome the problems
      “His (Warne) advice was to always stay positive.”
      (Cricinfo Staff, 2009)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/2515458946/
    • It’s not how bad you start,It’s how quickly you get better.
      http://flickr.com/photos/darkpatator/1860880739/
    • the problem-solving mode narrows our gaze in much the same manner that a blinder over one eye narrows the field of vision and distorts one's
      perception of depth.
      (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/lupinehorror/2659454214/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/
      Theory furnishes alternatives for
      social innovation ..opens vistas for
      action; expansion of "the realm of the possible."
      Management
      Organisationalchange
      Informationsystems
      (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
      Complex-adaptive systems
      Cognitive neuroscience
      Connectivism
      Academic staff development
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/back_garage/3771400792/
    • Moore’s chasm
      (Geoghegan, 1994)
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/takomabibelot/2045125583/
    • Inform the position - accountabilities
      Identify opportunities
      Communicate & publish
      Continuous improvement
      Scholarship of L&T
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/takomabibelot/358885118/
    • Escape the banishment of the innovation department
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/diegocupolo/3327792972/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/coldcut/3363518168/
      Profile the situation, identify risks
      Understand available approaches
      Link chosen approach to situation in order to resolve risk
      (Lyyttinen, Mathiassen and Ropponen 1998)
    • Frames…”definitions of organizational reality that serve as vehicles for understanding and action”
      (Gioia, 1986)
      Typically operate in the background and have both facilitating and constraining effects
      (Orlikowski & Gash, 1994)
      Common sense (the things we take for granted)is the big obstacle for innovation – Sir Ken Robinson
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/76468122/
    • AUQA and quality management
      Enterprise Systems and LMS
      Staff Development
      CEQ
      Business analysts
      Consistency
      L&T Grants
      Teaching qualifcations for academics
      Techno-rationalism and top-down management
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/esparta/482348262/
    • we need to today to stand out and reclaim our position as a national innovator and leader in the Teaching & Learning space
      (Bowman, 2009)
      “Quality of teaching”, CQU AUQA theme 2010
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/brennanmoore/2446682892/
    • I certainly feel that whenever I put an idea up to the organisationthat it and me get either gently ignored or severely clobbered. I am slowly learning to not bother, sort of like Pavlov's dog.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/click-photo/2242941940/
    • In big industry new ideas are invited to rear their heads so they can be clobbered at once.
      The idea department of a big firm is a sort of lab for isolating dangerous viruses.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/p373/1655304819/
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • All current institutional attempts to improve L&T are
      Top-down
      External
      Episodic
      Teleological
      Discontinuous
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/stignygaard/450634459/
    • based on hidden assumptions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/12023825@N04/2898021822/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/fireflythegreat/2845637227/
      that fail to engage with the realities andnature of the task
    • the result is slavish faddism,minimal real change in L&T……..
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/2592267101/
    • Moore’s chasm
      (Geoghegan, 1994)
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    • There are alternatives that may provide better solutions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/kurtizanka/3401297648/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/hooverine/2802881741/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajawin/3529598834/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/m500/3484125623/
      We use metaphors constantly to open
      our eyes and sensitize us to phenomenal realities that otherwise might go unnoticed.
      (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • Three levels of teaching
      What the student is.
      What the teacher does.
      What the student does.
      (Prosser & Trigwell, 1999; Biggs, 2001)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
    • Three levels of improving teaching
      What the teacher is.
      Pre-massification
      institution
      What management does.
      Herding cats
      What the teacher does.
      Losing weight
      (Jones, 2009)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
    • The orders of change
      What the teacher is.
      institution
      What management does.
      What the teacher does.
      (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
    • The orders of change
      Tacit reinforcement ofpresent understandings
      What the teacher is.
      institution
      What management does.
      What the teacher does.
      (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
    • The orders of change
      Tacit reinforcement ofpresent understandings
      What the teacher is.
      Conscious modification of present schematain a particular direction
      institution
      What management does.
      What the teacher does.
      (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
    • The orders of change
      Tacit reinforcement ofpresent understandings
      What the teacher is.
      Conscious modification of present schematain a particular direction
      institution
      What management does.
      Training of people to be aware of their schemataand thereby more able tochange these asthey see fit
      What the teacher does.
      (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_MaJDK3VNE&feature=fvste3
    • 1430 Scholar google hits: “herding cats” academic
      Academic Governance: The Art of Herding Cats
      Herding cats and nailing jello: Reflections on becoming a dean
      The academic chairperson: Leading faculty is like herding cats
      Herding cats: Or, how are online classeschanging the education paradigm?
      Herding cats or luxuriating in talent?Leadership and management of universities
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
    • Abstraction – the participants
      Goal
      Examples
      Graduate attributes
      Blended learning
      Moodle/LMS
      Minimum standards
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
    • Herders
      Senior management
      Middle management
      IT Staff
      Curriculum design
      HR
      Quality
      Faculty support staff
      ..
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
    • Vice-Chancellor
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Cats
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
    • Abstraction – the process
      Identify the goal
      Make sure we have the rightherdersand herding equipment
      Get the cats to the goal
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
    • Identify the goal
    • Make sure we have the rightherders and herding equipment
    • Get the cats to the goal
    • Goal achieved
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaqian/336059245/
    • Limitations
      (Introna, 1996)
      System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
      Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
      Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
    • Limitations
      (Introna, 1996)
      System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
      Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
      Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
    • Big up front design (BUFD)
      (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
      Analysis & Design
      Replacement
      Cost
      Maintenance
      Time
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
    • Big up front design (BUFD)
      (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
      Analysis & Design
      Replacement
      Cost
      Herding cats
      Maintenance
      Time
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
    • Big up front design (BUFD)
      (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
      Analysis & Design
      Replacement
      Cost
      Herding cats
      “Heaven”
      Maintenance
      Time
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
    • Big up front design (BUFD)
      (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
      Analysis & Design
      Replacement
      Cost
      Herding cats
      “Heaven”
      Herding cats
      Maintenance
      Episodic change
      Time
      (Weick and Quinn, 1999)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
    • Big up front design (BUFD)
      (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
      Analysis & Design
      Replacement
      Cost
      Herding cats
      “Heaven”
      Herding cats
      Maintenance
      Time
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
    • Big up front design (BUFD)
      Analysis & Design
      Assumes the aim is to develop stable systemswith primary goals of low maintenance andlong life spans
      Replacement
      Cost
      (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
      Herding cats
      “Heaven”
      Herding cats
      Maintenance
      Stable systems drag
      Time
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
    • Stable universities?
      Globalised economy
      More diversity
      Uncertainty about the future and other developments highlight the importance of building institutions that are responsive to change
      (CRHEFP, 1997)
      There can be no doubt that universities operate in a continuously changing environment. It is how they, as an organisation, respond to the changes that determines their legitimacy and relevance going forward.
      (CQU, 2005)
      Post-industrial information age
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/billgarrett-newagecrap/1439594832/
    • As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
      Wicked problems
      (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
      Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
      Every one isessentiallyunique
      There is no ultimate test of a solution
      The problem can be described in many ways
      You can’t identifyall potential solns.
      There is no stopping rule
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
    • Limitations
      (Introna, 1996)
      System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
      Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
      Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
    • The three-body problem
      Given
      • Current position
      • Mass, and
      • velocity
      Predict where they’ll be in a day
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/coda/190168058/
    • The three-body problem
      The solar system, and more particularly the inner solar system, is strongly chaotic
      (Laskar, 1995)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/coda/190168058/
    • Assumption of Newtonian physics
      Order
      the great narrative of science shares with the great religious narratives the idea that there is order to the universe
      (Postman, 1995)
      Dominant ideology in organizationsand management science
      (Snowden, 2005)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/r-z/1573332373/
    • Frames…”definitions of organizational reality that serve as vehicles for understanding and action”
      (Gioia, 1986)
      Typically operate in the background and have both facilitating and constraining effects
      (Orlikowski & Gash, 1994)
      Common sense (the things we take for granted)is the big obstacle for innovation – Sir Ken Robinson
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/76468122/
    • Consistency is thelast refuge of theunimaginative
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dpms/2743090877/
    • Cynefin Framework
      (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
      System and agents co-evolve
      Knowable
      • Cause and effect separated over time and space
      • Analytical/Reductionist
      • Scenarios planning
      • Systems thinking
      • Sense-Analyse-Respond
      Complex
      - Cause and effect are only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat
      • Pattern management
      • Perspective filters
      • Complex adaptive systems
      • Probe-Sense-Respond
      System constrains agents
      - No cause and effect relationships perceivable
      • Stability-focused intervention
      • Enactment tools
      • Crisis management
      • Act-Sense-Respond
      • Cause and effect relationships repeatable, perceivable and predictable
      • Legitimate best practice
      • Standard operating procedures
      • Process reengineering
      • Sense-Categorise-Respond
      Chaos
      Known
      No constraints
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3663469686/
    • Cynefin Framework
      (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
      System and agents co-evolve
      Knowable
      • Cause and effect separated over time and space
      • Analytical/Reductionist
      • Scenarios planning
      • Systems thinking
      • Sense-Analyse-Respond
      Improving learning &teaching
      Complex
      - Cause and effect are only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat
      • Pattern management
      • Perspective filters
      • Complex adaptive systems
      • Probe-Sense-Respond
      System constrains agents
      - No cause and effect relationships perceivable
      • Stability-focused intervention
      • Enactment tools
      • Crisis management
      • Act-Sense-Respond
      • Cause and effect relationships repeatable, perceivable and predictable
      • Legitimate best practice
      • Standard operating procedures
      • Process reengineering
      • Sense-Categorise-Respond
      Chaos
      Known
      No constraints
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3663469686/
    • Limitations
      (Introna, 1996)
      System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
      Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
      Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
    • Cynefin Framework
      (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
      System and agents co-evolve
      Knowable
      • Cause and effect separated over time and space
      • Analytical/Reductionist
      • Scenarios planning
      • Systems thinking
      • Sense-Analyse-Respond
      Complex
      - Cause and effect are only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat
      • Pattern management
      • Perspective filters
      • Complex adaptive systems
      • Probe-Sense-Respond
      Improving learning &teaching
      System constrains agents
      - No cause and effect relationships perceivable
      • Stability-focused intervention
      • Enactment tools
      • Crisis management
      • Act-Sense-Respond
      • Cause and effect relationships repeatable, perceivable and predictable
      • Legitimate best practice
      • Standard operating procedures
      • Process reengineering
      • Sense-Categorise-Respond
      Chaos
      Known
      No constraints
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3663469686/
    • There is, of course, a long tradition of research that highlights the many ways workers resist managerialcontrol
      (Fleming and Spicer, 2003)
      sabotage(Mars, 1982)
      careful carelessness(Prasad and Prasad, 1998)
      hidden transcripts(Scott, 1985)
      indirect resistance(Ong, 1987)
      subjective resistance(Kondo, 1990)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/nagillum/504973920/
    • …more
      Working to rule
      (Findlow, 2008)
      Camouflage, conformance
      (White, 2006)
      (Snowden, 2002)
      Task corruption
      Amputation
      Simulation
      Workarounds
      (Pollock, 2005)
      Shadow systems
      Reinvention
      (Shaw, 1997)
      (Rogers, 1995)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/nagillum/504973920/
    • Hypothetical
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
    • Hypothetical
      Investigate the causes
      Research literature to identify best practice
      Undertake a redesign informed by best practice
      Evaluate the redesign, reflect and make more changes
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
    • change the assessment to satisfy theinstitutional requirements ofsatisfied studentsand reasonable pass rates
      rather than explore an alternative learning and teaching approach
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
    • change the assessment to satisfy theinstitutional requirements ofsatisfied studentsand reasonable pass rates
      rather than explore an alternative learning and teaching approach
      an effective solution in the current higher education environment that encourages the academic to prioritise other areas, such as research.
      (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
    • Limitations
      (Introna, 1996)
      System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
      Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
      Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
    • (Baskerville, Travis & Truex, 1992)
      based on the idea of modernism where
      human rationality and methods of inquiry
      can achieve their ultimate purpose of discovering and identifying universal truths
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/31333486@N00/1906022136/
    • People aren’t rational
      Bounded rationality
      (Simon, 1991)
      Reliance on intuition, instinctsand simple heuristics
      37 cognitive biases
      (Arnott, 2006)
      (Jamieson & Hyland, 2006)
      Systematic biases influence judgment
      (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974
      Inherent limits in organisational substantive rationality
      Innovation and change within universitiescan never be mere rational processes
      (Cecez-Kecmanovic, et al, 2002)
      (Jones and O’Shea, 2004)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/3132985694/
    • 6 biases of managers
      Managers take charge
      Role
      Manager as intuitivescientists
      Cognitive
      Managers actappropriately
      Normative
      The illusion ofcontrol
      Self-efficacy
      The trappedmanager
      Commitment
      Expectancy
      The placebo effect
    • Limitations
      (Introna, 1996)
      System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
      Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
      Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
    • Model 1 behaviour
      (Argyris et al, 1985)
      Fads, fashions and band wagons
      Purpose proxies
      (Birnbaum, 2000; Swanson and Ramiller, 2004)
      (Introna, 1996)
      Suboptimal stable equilibria
      (March, 1991)
      Technology gravity
      (McDonald & Gibbons, 2009)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/technodad/3722564852/
    • (Argyris et al, 1985)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3d9SjWuqa-s
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/bdjsb7/2687659827/
    • Moore’s chasm
      (Geoghegan, 1994)
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • How many of you are overweight?
      How do you lose weight?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
    • 20% successful at long term weight loss and maintenance
      (Wing and Phelan, 2005)
      6 key strategies
      High levels of physical activity
      Diet low in calories and fat
      Eating breakfast
      Self-monitoring of weight
      A consistent eating pattern
      Catching “slips” before they turn into larger regains
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
    • obvious from previous studies that permanent weight lossrequires behavioural changes that lead to reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure
      (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
    • How many of you are overweight?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
    • Several social, behavioural, physiological and environmental factors are known to be associated with weight gain, obesity and weight loss
      (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
    • How many of you are overweight?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
    • People aren’t rational
      Bounded rationality
      (Simon, 1991)
      Reliance on intuition, instinctsand simply heuristics
      37 cognitive biases
      (Arnott, 2006)
      (Jamieson & Hyland, 2006)
      Systematic biases influence judgment
      (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974
      Inherent limits in organisational substantive rationality
      Innovation and change within universitiescan never be mere rational processes
      (Cecez-Kecmanovic, et al, 2002)
      (Jones and O’Shea, 2004)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/3132985694/
    • Individual responsibility is often emphasized, but changing the environment rather than putting the main burden on the individuals
      could perhaps result in better weight maintenance
      (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/3166601945/
    • obvious from previous studies that permanent weight lossrequires behavioural changes that lead to reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure
      (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
    • What is good teaching?
      disagreement over the definition of good teaching or, in some cases, the belief that teaching quality cannot be measured
      (Trigwell, 2001)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/blmurch/720609503/
    • Conceptions of teaching
      (Kember, 1997)
      Teacher-centered/content-oriented
      Student-centered/learning-oriented
      Conceptualchange/intellectualdevelopment
      Impartinginformation
      Facilitatingunderstanding
      Transmittingstructuredknowledge
      Studentteacherinteraction/apprenticeship
      Good
      Bad
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/foundphotoslj/466713478/
    • Conceptions of teaching and learning
      Teacher-centered/content-oriented
      Student-centered/learning-oriented
      Genuine improvement in teachers has to beginwith a change in their thinking about T&L
      (Ho, et al., 2001)
      Conceptualchange/intellectualdevelopment
      Impartinginformation
      Facilitatingunderstanding
      Transmittingstructuredknowledge
      Studentteacherinteraction/apprenticeship
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/foundphotoslj/466713478/
    • obvious from previous studies that permanent weight lossrequires behavioural changes that lead to reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure
      (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
    • (Trigwell, 2001)
      Model of university teaching
      Teaching/LearningContext
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      Student
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • (Trigwell, 2001)
      Model of university teaching
      Teaching/LearningContext
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      Conceptions
      Student
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • Model of university teaching
      Efforts to improve teaching fail because
      complexity of teaching is underestimated
      Does not consider the integrated system of relationships
      (Leveson, 2004)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • Implementation of Moodle
      Teaching/LearningContext
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      Moodle
      Student
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • experience a loss of functionality and a degradation of performance as employees grapple to come to terms with the new technologies and processes that these systems force
      (Katz, 2003)
    • Big up front design (BUFD)
      (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
      Analysis & Design
      Replacement
      Cost
      Maintenance
      Time
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
    • Staff development
      Teaching/LearningContext
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      StaffDev.
      Student
      (Ho, et al., 2001)
      Help academics developgeneric skills
      Clash with conceptions
      Query, defense, compliancetask corruption
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • Moore’s chasm
      (Geoghegan, 1994)
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
    • Teaching qualifications
      Teaching/LearningContext
      GCL&T
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      Student
      Becomes a purpose proxy
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • What about the context?
      Teaching/LearningContext
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      Student
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • Individual responsibility is often emphasized, but changing the environment rather than putting the main burden on the individuals
      could perhaps result in better weight maintenance
      (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/3166601945/
    • What about the context?
      Teaching/LearningContext
      (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      current institutional policies, including teaching and learning quality measures and lack of resources, arecompromising the way subjects are delivered.
      Student
      (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
      In some cases academics are discouraged from improving their teaching practice
      (White, 2006)
      Organisational priorities can negatively impact upon how academics approach their teaching responsibilities with the consequence that students can sense their distance from teaching
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • What about the context?
      Teaching/LearningContext
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      (Leveson, 2004)
      Student
      conceptions are regarded asbeing context-dependent
      Teaching intentions thus reflect a compromisebetween teachers’ conceptions of teaching andtheir academic and social contexts.
      (Norton et al, 2005)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • What about the context?
      Teaching/LearningContext
      (Prosser et al, 2003)
      Teachers’Thinking
      Teachers’Strategies
      Teachers’Planning
      Good teaching arises when academics perceive
      Student
      Control over their teaching
      Class size not too large
      Workloads not to high
      Department values teaching
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
    • Conceptions of teaching
      (Kember, 1997)
      Teacher-centered/content-oriented
      Student-centered/learning-oriented
      Little or no evidence of conceptual change from either
      Increasing teaching experience
      OR
      Conceptualchange/intellectualdevelopment
      Impartinginformation
      Facilitatingunderstanding
      Transmittingstructuredknowledge
      Studentteacherinteraction/apprenticeship
      Formal training
      (Norton et al, 2005)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/foundphotoslj/466713478/
    • Integrated model
      (Richardson, 2005)
      Disciplinarycharacteristics
      Conceptions ofteaching
      Approaches toteaching
      Situationalfactors
      Perceptions ofthe teachingenvironment
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/hinkelstone/2435823037/
    • Overview
      Who?
      Why?
      What?
      Reflective alignment
      Herding cats
      Losing weight
      Solutions?
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
    • As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
      Wicked problems
      (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
      Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
      Every one isessentiallyunique
      There is no ultimate test of a solution
      The problem can be described in many ways
      You can’t identifyall potential solns.
      There is no stopping rule
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaygooby/3885498720/
    • Reflective alignment
      Informed by scholarship
      All aspects of theCQUni L&Tenvironment arealigned to enable andencourage
      reflective engagementwith L&T with the aimof achieving 3rd orderchange
      Management
      Students
      At all levels
      Academic staff
      Professional staff
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/watko/3836492881/
    • BLENDED
      e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
      ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
      Project Based, community based, work integrated
      Authentic Learning Models
      Learning Environments
      become
      Systems, Practices, Partnerships
      ENABLING
      ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
    • Reflective alignment
      BLENDED
      e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
      ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
      Project Based, community based, work integrated
      Authentic Learning Models
      Learning Environments
      become
      Systems, Practices, Partnerships
      ENABLING
      ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
    • Master teachers are not born; they become.
      (Common, 1989)
      They become primarily by
      developing a habit of mind, a wayof looking critically at the work they do
      BLENDED
      e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
      ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
      Project Based, community based, work integrated
      developing the courage to recognise faults, and
      Authentic Learning Models
      struggling to improve.
      Learning Environments
      become
      Systems, Practices, Partnerships
      ENABLING
      ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
    • Master teachers are not born; they become.
      (Common, 1989)
      They become primarily by
      developing a habit of mind, a wayof looking critically at the work they do
      BLENDED
      e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
      ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
      Project Based, community based, work integrated
      developing the courage to recognise faults, and
      Authentic Learning Models
      struggling to improve.
      Learning Environments
      become
      Systems, Practices, Partnerships
      ENABLING
      ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
      All aspects of the CQUni L&T environment arealigned to enable and encourage
    • Individual responsibility is often emphasized, but changing the environment rather than putting the main burden on the individuals
      could perhaps result in better weight maintenance
      (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/3166601945/
    • It’s a journey, not a destination
      BLENDED
      e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
      ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
      Project Based, community based, work integrated
      Authentic Learning Models
      Learning Environments
      become
      Systems, Practices, Partnerships
      ENABLING
      ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
    • Structure
      Process
      Environment
      Conceptions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
    • Could be I’m a popo
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/elblogazo/10675300/
    • Structure
      Process
      Environment
      Conceptions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
    • 20% successful at long term weight loss and maintenance
      (Wing and Phelan, 2005)
      6 key strategies
      High levels of physical activity
      Diet low in calories and fat
      Eating breakfast
      Self-monitoring of weight
      A consistent eating pattern
      Catching “slips” before they turn into larger regains
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
    • Course and teaching evaluation
      (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
      their current use does little to encourageteaching approaches in the higher categories.
      Well-organised subjects, with high pass rates andlight to reasonable workloads, are likely to score wellwith students even though they may not haveencouraged or even required deep learning.
      Yet these are the current measures usedto gauge quality in learning and teaching and to allocate funding to institutions.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/us_army_rolling_along/3811567212/
    • Smile sheets
      Participant reactions should be removed fromevaluation models as a primary outcome of training
      (Holton, 1996)
      (Weimer & Lenze, 1998)
      Participants’ reactions to instructional development do not contribute to a clear picture of its real impact
      (Guskey, 2000)
      “happiness indicators” indicate how wellparticipants liked the intervention withoutaddressingthe issue of attaining change.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/us_army_rolling_along/3811567212/
    • (Postareff et al, 2008)
      dissonance could be explained by their inability to reflect on their own teaching in ways that challenged
      the teaching approaches in their department
      lack intrinsic motivation todevelop their approaches to be systematicallylearning-focused
      (Bransford et al, 2000; p224)
      “deliberate practice” emphasize the importance of helpingstudents monitor their learning so that they seek feedbackand actively evaluate their strategies and…levels of understanding
      (Booth and Anderberg, 2005)
      e.g. Reflective problematization
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/linnybinnypix/2169240864/
    • Are you researcheror educator?
      Funded research andpublication of results has become…dominantin universities
      (Knapper, 2003)
      Promotion criteria primarilyvalue research
      (Zellweger, 2005)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sylvar/1138341328/
    • More time teaching is a negativeinfluence on academic pay
      The trend is worsening most rapidlyin institutions whose central missionfocuses on teaching and learning
      (Fairweather, 2005)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/sylvar/1138341328/
    • The reputation of every university depends on the quality and commitment of staff for theadvancement of its status, more than any other variable.
      (Thomas, 2009)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/305410323/
    • the Good Universities Guide, which confirmedUSC as the only public university in Queenslandto obtain five stars for its quality of teaching.
      (Thomas, 2009)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/fdecomite/3402116037/
    • Structure
      Process
      Environment
      Conceptions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Where’s T&L responsibility?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Where’s T&L responsibility?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Where’s T&L responsibility?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Where’s T&L responsibility?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Where’s T&L responsibility?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Where’s T&L responsibility?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Primary focus is L&T?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Vice-Chancellor
      Integration?
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      SM
      Convergence
      Faculty
      Human Resources
      ITD
      Quality
      Faculty
      Library
    • Structure
      Process
      Environment
      Conceptions
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
    • (Wood & Friedel, 1989)
      approach to scholarship based on
      an understanding of the communalbasisof all scholarly activity
      that scholarship by its very natureis a public rather than private activity;
      that it is open to critiqueand evaluation by others;
      and that a field of study is progressedthrough the scholarly activity of buildingnew ideas which are then open to thesame processes of public scrutiny.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajschwegler/525742850/
    • The distinctive quality of continuous changeis the idea that small continuous adjustments,created simultaneously across units, can cumulate and create substantial change.
      (Weick & Quinn, 1999)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/swanksalot/3433263368/
    • Don’t deny another’s reality
      To allow ourselves to be pulled by theconcerns out there rather than beingpushed by the concepts in here
      (Mintzberg et al, 2003)
      (Weick & Quinn, 1999)
      Replace
      Tell people what to do
      “logic of replacement”
      with
      “logic of attraction”
      Show people how to be
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/rwhitlock/3168043376/
    • (Argyris et al, 1985)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/bdjsb7/2687659827/
    • Safe-fail
      Not fail safe
      (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/252084585/
    • A university is defined by thequality of its academic conversations,not by the technologies that service them.
      (Laurillard, 2002)
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/criminalintent/2744040362/
    • Diverse
      Knowledge centered
      Self-managed
      Scholarly
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/criminalintent/2744040362/
    • The end
      What the teacher is.
      Pre-massification
      institution
      What management does.
      Herding cats
      What the teacher does.
      Losing weight
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/kleiner_riese_74/3937978535/
    • Reflective alignment
      Informed by scholarship
      All aspects of theCQUni L&Tenvironment arealigned to enable andencourage
      reflective engagementwith L&T with the aimof achieving 3rd orderchange
      Management
      Students
      At all levels
      Academic staff
      Professional staff
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/watko/3836492881/
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_MaJDK3VNE&feature=fvste3
    • BLENDED
      e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
      ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
      Project Based, community based, work integrated
      Authentic Learning Models
      Learning Environments
      become
      Systems, Practices, Partnerships
      ENABLING
      ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
    • Questions?
      More discussions, questions, and resources
      http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/elearning-and-innovation/
      http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2009-09-17/
      http://flickr.com/photos/lwr/12364944/
    • Argyris, C., R. Putnam, et al. (1985). Action science: Concepts, methods and skills for research and intervention. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
      Arnott, D. (2006). "Cognitive biases and decision support systems development: a design science approach." Information Systems Journal16: 55-78.
      Bartunek, J. and M. Moch (1987). "First-order, second-order and third-order change and organization development interventions: A cognitive approach." The Journal of Applied Behavoral Science23(4): 483-500.
      Baskerville, R., J. Travis, et al. (1992). Systems without method: the impact of new technologies on information systems development projects. The Impact of Computer Supported Technologies on Information Systems Development. K. E. Kendall. Amsterdam, North-Holland: 241-251.
      Biggs, J. (2001). "The Reflective Institution: Assuring and Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning." Higher Education 41(3): 221-238.
      Bransford, J., A. Brown, et al. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press.
      Booth, S. and E. Anderberg (2005). "Academic development for knowledge capabilities: Learning, reflecting and developing." Higher Education Research & Development 24(4): 373-386.
      Bowman, S. (2009). "Blended teaching and mobile learning." Retrieved 17 September, 2009, from http://vc-cquniversity.blogspot.com/2009/09/blended-teaching-and-mobile-learning.html.
      Cecez-Kecmanovic, D., M. Janson, et al. (2002). "The rationality framework for a critical study of information systems." Journal of Information Technology 17: 215-227.
      CRHEFP (1997). Learning for Life: Review of Higher Education Financing and Policy. Canberra, Committee of Review of Higher Education Financing and Policy, Australian Government Printing Services.
      Cricinfo Staff. (2009, August 6, 2009). "Hughes stays positive despite axing." Retrieved 19 September, 2009, from http://www.cricinfo.com/engvaus2009/content/story/418101.html.
      Common, D. (1989). "Master teachers in higher education: A matter of settings." The Review of Higher Education 12(4): 375-387.
      CQU. (2005). "CQU Strategic Plan: 2006-2011 - Creating an opening to a different future." Retrieved 31 October, 2005, from http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy.jsp;policyid=607.
      Drucker, P. (2001). Management Challenges for the 21st Century, Collins Business.
      Dutton, W., P. Cheong, et al. (2004). "An ecology of constraints on e-learning in higher education: The case of a virtual learning environment." Prometheus 22(2): 131-149.
      English, P. (2009, 9 July 2009). "Flintoffv fledgling." Retrieved 16 September, 2009, from http://www.cricinfo.com/engvaus2009/content/story/413471.html.
    • Fairweather, J. (2005). "Beyond the rhetoric: Trends in the relative value of teaching and research in faculty salaries." Journal of Higher Education76(4): 401-422.
      Fleming, P. and A. Spicer (2003). "Working at a cynical distance: Implications for power, subjectivity and resistance." Organization10(1): 157-179.
      Findlow, S. (2008). "Accountability and innovation in higher education: a disabling tension?" Studies in Higher Education 33(3): 313-329.
      Geoghegan, W. (1994). Whatever happened to instructional technology? 22nd Annual Conferences of the International Business Schools Computing Association, Baltimore, MD, IBM.
      Gioia, D. (1986). Symbols, scripts and sensemaking: Creating meaning in the organizational experience. The Thinking Organization. D. Gioia and H. Sims. San Francisco, California, Jossey-Bass: 49-74.
      Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press.
      Hammond, S. A. (1998). The thin book of appreciative inquiry. Bend, Oregon, Thin Book Publishing.
      Ho, A., D. Watkins, et al. (2001). "The conceptual change approach to improving teaching and learning: An evaluation of a Hong Kong staff development programme." Higher Education42(2): 143-169.
      Holton, E. (1996). "The flawed four-level evaluation model." Human Resource Development Quarterly7(1): 5-21.
      Introna, L. (1996). "Notes on ateleological information systems development." Information Technology & People9(4): 20-39.
      Jamieson, K. and P. Hyland (2006). Factors that influence Information Systems decisions and outcomes: A summary of key themes from four case studies. 17th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Adelaide, Australia.
      Jones, D. (2009). "Improving university teaching - learning from constructive alignment by not mandating it." Retrieved 19 September, 2009, from http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/02/26/improving-university-teaching-learning-from-constructive-alignment-by-not-mandating-it/.
      Jones, N. and J. O'Shea (2004). "Challenging hierarchies: The impact of e-learning." Higher Education48(3): 379-395.
      Kassirer, J. and M. Angell (1998). "Losing Weight - An ill-fated New Year's resolution." The New England Journal of Medicine338(1): 52-54.
      Katz, R. (2003). "Balancing Technology and Tradition: The Example of Course Management Systems." EDUCAUSE Review 38(4): 48-59.
      Kezar, A. (2001). "Understanding and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century: Recent Research and Conceptulizations." ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report28(4).
      Knapper, C. (2003). "Three decades of educational development." International Journal for Academic Development 8(1-2): 5-9.
      Laskar, J. (1995). The chaotic motion of the solar system. Chaos and complexity. J. Thanh Van Tran. Paris, France, AtlanticaSeguierFrontieres: 53-61.
      Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies. London, Routledge.
    • Leveson, L. (2004). "Encouraging better learning through better teaching: a study of approaches to teaching in accounting." Accounting Education 13(4): 529-549.
      Lyytinen, K., L. Mathiassen, et al. (1996). "A framework for software risk management." Journal of Information Technology11(4): 275-285.
      Martin, J. (2009). "Obama talks tough on teachers." Retrieved 25 August, 2009, from http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0309/19867.html.
      McDonald, J. and A. Gibbons (nd). "Technology I, II, and III: criteria for understanding and improving the practice of instructional technology " Educational Technology Research and Development.
      Mintzberg, H., B. Ahlstrand, et al. (2003). Strategy Safari: A guided tour through the wilds of strategic management. New York, The Free Press.
      Norton, L., J. Richardson, et al. (2005). "Teachers' beliefs and intentions concerning teaching in higher education." Higher Education 50(4): 537-571.
      Orlikowski, W. and D. Gash (1994). "Technological frames: Making sense of information technology in organizations." ACM Transactions on Information Systems12(2): 174-207.
      Phillips, R. (2005). "Challenging the primacy of lectures: The dissonance between theory and practice in university teaching." Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice 2(1): 1-12.
      Pollock, N. (2005). "When is a work-around? Conflict and negotiation in computer systems development." Science Technology Human Values 30(4): 496-514.
      Prosser, M. and K. Trigwell (1999). Understanding learning and teaching: the experience in higher education. Buckinghamshire, SRHE & Open University Press.
      Postman, N. (1995). The end of education. New York, Vintage Books.
      Richardson, J. (2005). "Students' approaches to learning and teachers' approaches to teaching in higher education." Educational Psychology25(6): 673-680.
      Rogers, E. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. New York, The Free Press.
      Rittel, H. W. J. and M. M. Webber (1973). "Dilemmas in a general theory of planning." Policy Sciences4(2): 155-169.
      Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S. (2007). "Determinants of long-term weight maintenance." ActaPaediatrica96(s454): 26-28.
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