Herding cats and losing weight:how to improve learning and teaching
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Herding cats and losing weight: how to improve learning and teaching

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Slides for talk at CQUniversity (24 Sep, 2009). More information here http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/09/14/herding-cats-losing-weight-and-how-to-improve-learning-and-teaching-2/

Slides for talk at CQUniversity (24 Sep, 2009). More information here http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/09/14/herding-cats-losing-weight-and-how-to-improve-learning-and-teaching-2/

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Herding cats and losing weight:how to improve learning and teaching Herding cats and losing weight: how to improve learning and teaching Presentation Transcript

  • Herding cats and losing weight:how to improve learning and teaching
    David JonesCurriculum Design and Development Unit http://cdd.cqu.edu.auhttp://davidtjones.wordpress.com
  • AUQA and quality management
    Enterprise Systems and LMS
    Staff Development
    CEQ
    Business analysts
    Consistency
    L&T Grants
    Teaching qualifications for academics
    Techno-rationalism and top-down management
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/esparta/482348262/
  • Teaching is not rocket science. It is, in fact, far more complex and demanding work than rocket science.
    Richard F. Elmore, Gregory Anrig Professor of Educational LeadershipHarvard Graduate School of Education.
    http://bluyonder.wordpress.com/2007/09/24/teaching-isnt-rocket-science/
    Improving teaching is much more complex than that
    http://flickr.com/photos/erikcharlton/1481121536/
  • As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
    Wicked problems
    (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
    Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
    Every one isessentiallyunique
    There is no ultimate test of a solution
    The problem can be described in many ways
    You can’t identifyall potential solns.
    There is no stopping rule
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaygooby/3885498720/
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • E-learning and innovation specialist
    http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/elearning-and-innovation/
    consults effectively and broadly with key stakeholders
    provides strategic advice and leadership in learning and teaching innovation,
    primary purpose is to promote strategic e-learning development
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/kamshots/328310142/
  • In big industry new ideas are invited to rear their heads so they can be clobbered at once.
    The idea department of a big firm is a sort of lab for isolating dangerous viruses.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/p373/1655304819/
  • Leadership becomes faith-based, while employees who have the temerity to suggest that what seems to be happening is in fact happening are herded into Innovation Departments, where they can be ignored en masse.
    (Shirky, 2009)
    This shunting aside of the realists in favor of the fabulists has different effects on different industries at different times.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sis/36957802/
  • Why so negative?
    http://flickr.com/photos/aviatordave/7007033/
  • The most difficult subjectscan be explained to themost slow-witted man ifhe has not formed anyidea of them already;
    (Tolstoy, 1893)
    but the simplest thing cannot be made clear to themost intelligent man if he is firmly persuaded thathe knows already, without a shadow of doubt,what is laid before him.
    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tolstoy_portrait_tolstoy.ru.jpg
  • Could be I’m a popo
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/elblogazo/10675300/
  • Phillip Hughes
    (20 years old)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/zoonabar/3759151925/
  • Phillip Hughes
    (20 years old)
    one of his flaws is to play shots while still in the air.
    (English, 2009)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/zoonabar/3759151925/
  • the problem-solving mode narrows our gaze in much the same manner that a blinder over one eye narrows the field of vision and distorts one's
    perception of depth.
    (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lupinehorror/2659454214/
  • Doing more of what works
    (Hammond, 1998)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpockele/455671560/
  • “I will try to improve my game in all aspects.”
    Hughes has spent time in the nets trying to overcome the problems
    “His (Warne) advice was to always stay positive.”
    (Cricinfo Staff, 2009)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/2515458946/
  • It’s not how bad you start,It’s how quickly you get better.
    http://flickr.com/photos/darkpatator/1860880739/
  • the problem-solving mode narrows our gaze in much the same manner that a blinder over one eye narrows the field of vision and distorts one's
    perception of depth.
    (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lupinehorror/2659454214/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/
    Theory furnishes alternatives for
    social innovation ..opens vistas for
    action; expansion of "the realm of the possible."
    Management
    Organisationalchange
    Informationsystems
    (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
    Complex-adaptive systems
    Cognitive neuroscience
    Connectivism
    Academic staff development
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/back_garage/3771400792/
  • Moore’s chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/takomabibelot/2045125583/
  • Inform the position - accountabilities
    Identify opportunities
    Communicate & publish
    Continuous improvement
    Scholarship of L&T
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/takomabibelot/358885118/
  • Escape the banishment of the innovation department
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/diegocupolo/3327792972/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/coldcut/3363518168/
    Profile the situation, identify risks
    Understand available approaches
    Link chosen approach to situation in order to resolve risk
    (Lyyttinen, Mathiassen and Ropponen 1998)
  • Frames…”definitions of organizational reality that serve as vehicles for understanding and action”
    (Gioia, 1986)
    Typically operate in the background and have both facilitating and constraining effects
    (Orlikowski & Gash, 1994)
    Common sense (the things we take for granted)is the big obstacle for innovation – Sir Ken Robinson
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/76468122/
  • AUQA and quality management
    Enterprise Systems and LMS
    Staff Development
    CEQ
    Business analysts
    Consistency
    L&T Grants
    Teaching qualifcations for academics
    Techno-rationalism and top-down management
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/esparta/482348262/
  • we need to today to stand out and reclaim our position as a national innovator and leader in the Teaching & Learning space
    (Bowman, 2009)
    “Quality of teaching”, CQU AUQA theme 2010
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/brennanmoore/2446682892/
  • I certainly feel that whenever I put an idea up to the organisationthat it and me get either gently ignored or severely clobbered. I am slowly learning to not bother, sort of like Pavlov's dog.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/click-photo/2242941940/
  • In big industry new ideas are invited to rear their heads so they can be clobbered at once.
    The idea department of a big firm is a sort of lab for isolating dangerous viruses.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/p373/1655304819/
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • All current institutional attempts to improve L&T are
    Top-down
    External
    Episodic
    Teleological
    Discontinuous
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/stignygaard/450634459/
  • based on hidden assumptions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/12023825@N04/2898021822/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/fireflythegreat/2845637227/
    that fail to engage with the realities andnature of the task
  • the result is slavish faddism,minimal real change in L&T……..
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/2592267101/
  • Moore’s chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
  • There are alternatives that may provide better solutions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/kurtizanka/3401297648/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/hooverine/2802881741/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajawin/3529598834/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/m500/3484125623/
    We use metaphors constantly to open
    our eyes and sensitize us to phenomenal realities that otherwise might go unnoticed.
    (Cooperrider and Srivastva, 1987)
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • Three levels of teaching
    What the student is.
    What the teacher does.
    What the student does.
    (Prosser & Trigwell, 1999; Biggs, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
  • Three levels of improving teaching
    What the teacher is.
    Pre-massification
    institution
    What management does.
    Herding cats
    What the teacher does.
    Losing weight
    (Jones, 2009)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
  • The orders of change
    What the teacher is.
    institution
    What management does.
    What the teacher does.
    (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
  • The orders of change
    Tacit reinforcement ofpresent understandings
    What the teacher is.
    institution
    What management does.
    What the teacher does.
    (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
  • The orders of change
    Tacit reinforcement ofpresent understandings
    What the teacher is.
    Conscious modification of present schematain a particular direction
    institution
    What management does.
    What the teacher does.
    (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
  • The orders of change
    Tacit reinforcement ofpresent understandings
    What the teacher is.
    Conscious modification of present schematain a particular direction
    institution
    What management does.
    Training of people to be aware of their schemataand thereby more able tochange these asthey see fit
    What the teacher does.
    (Bartunek and Moch, 1987)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/85344374/
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_MaJDK3VNE&feature=fvste3
  • 1430 Scholar google hits: “herding cats” academic
    Academic Governance: The Art of Herding Cats
    Herding cats and nailing jello: Reflections on becoming a dean
    The academic chairperson: Leading faculty is like herding cats
    Herding cats: Or, how are online classeschanging the education paradigm?
    Herding cats or luxuriating in talent?Leadership and management of universities
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
  • Abstraction – the participants
    Goal
    Examples
    Graduate attributes
    Blended learning
    Moodle/LMS
    Minimum standards
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
  • Herders
    Senior management
    Middle management
    IT Staff
    Curriculum design
    HR
    Quality
    Faculty support staff
    ..
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
  • Vice-Chancellor
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Cats
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
  • Abstraction – the process
    Identify the goal
    Make sure we have the rightherdersand herding equipment
    Get the cats to the goal
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3593274951/
  • Identify the goal
  • Make sure we have the rightherders and herding equipment
  • Get the cats to the goal
  • Goal achieved
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaqian/336059245/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Maintenance
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Herding cats
    Maintenance
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Herding cats
    “Heaven”
    Maintenance
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Herding cats
    “Heaven”
    Herding cats
    Maintenance
    Episodic change
    Time
    (Weick and Quinn, 1999)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Herding cats
    “Heaven”
    Herding cats
    Maintenance
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    Analysis & Design
    Assumes the aim is to develop stable systemswith primary goals of low maintenance andlong life spans
    Replacement
    Cost
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Herding cats
    “Heaven”
    Herding cats
    Maintenance
    Stable systems drag
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Stable universities?
    Globalised economy
    More diversity
    Uncertainty about the future and other developments highlight the importance of building institutions that are responsive to change
    (CRHEFP, 1997)
    There can be no doubt that universities operate in a continuously changing environment. It is how they, as an organisation, respond to the changes that determines their legitimacy and relevance going forward.
    (CQU, 2005)
    Post-industrial information age
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/billgarrett-newagecrap/1439594832/
  • As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
    Wicked problems
    (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
    Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
    Every one isessentiallyunique
    There is no ultimate test of a solution
    The problem can be described in many ways
    You can’t identifyall potential solns.
    There is no stopping rule
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • The three-body problem
    Given
    • Current position
    • Mass, and
    • velocity
    Predict where they’ll be in a day
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/coda/190168058/
  • The three-body problem
    The solar system, and more particularly the inner solar system, is strongly chaotic
    (Laskar, 1995)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/coda/190168058/
  • Assumption of Newtonian physics
    Order
    the great narrative of science shares with the great religious narratives the idea that there is order to the universe
    (Postman, 1995)
    Dominant ideology in organizationsand management science
    (Snowden, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/r-z/1573332373/
  • Frames…”definitions of organizational reality that serve as vehicles for understanding and action”
    (Gioia, 1986)
    Typically operate in the background and have both facilitating and constraining effects
    (Orlikowski & Gash, 1994)
    Common sense (the things we take for granted)is the big obstacle for innovation – Sir Ken Robinson
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/76468122/
  • Consistency is thelast refuge of theunimaginative
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dpms/2743090877/
  • Cynefin Framework
    (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
    System and agents co-evolve
    Knowable
    • Cause and effect separated over time and space
    • Analytical/Reductionist
    • Scenarios planning
    • Systems thinking
    • Sense-Analyse-Respond
    Complex
    - Cause and effect are only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat
    • Pattern management
    • Perspective filters
    • Complex adaptive systems
    • Probe-Sense-Respond
    System constrains agents
    - No cause and effect relationships perceivable
    • Stability-focused intervention
    • Enactment tools
    • Crisis management
    • Act-Sense-Respond
    • Cause and effect relationships repeatable, perceivable and predictable
    • Legitimate best practice
    • Standard operating procedures
    • Process reengineering
    • Sense-Categorise-Respond
    Chaos
    Known
    No constraints
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3663469686/
  • Cynefin Framework
    (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
    System and agents co-evolve
    Knowable
    • Cause and effect separated over time and space
    • Analytical/Reductionist
    • Scenarios planning
    • Systems thinking
    • Sense-Analyse-Respond
    Improving learning &teaching
    Complex
    - Cause and effect are only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat
    • Pattern management
    • Perspective filters
    • Complex adaptive systems
    • Probe-Sense-Respond
    System constrains agents
    - No cause and effect relationships perceivable
    • Stability-focused intervention
    • Enactment tools
    • Crisis management
    • Act-Sense-Respond
    • Cause and effect relationships repeatable, perceivable and predictable
    • Legitimate best practice
    • Standard operating procedures
    • Process reengineering
    • Sense-Categorise-Respond
    Chaos
    Known
    No constraints
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3663469686/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Cynefin Framework
    (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
    System and agents co-evolve
    Knowable
    • Cause and effect separated over time and space
    • Analytical/Reductionist
    • Scenarios planning
    • Systems thinking
    • Sense-Analyse-Respond
    Complex
    - Cause and effect are only coherent in retrospect and do not repeat
    • Pattern management
    • Perspective filters
    • Complex adaptive systems
    • Probe-Sense-Respond
    Improving learning &teaching
    System constrains agents
    - No cause and effect relationships perceivable
    • Stability-focused intervention
    • Enactment tools
    • Crisis management
    • Act-Sense-Respond
    • Cause and effect relationships repeatable, perceivable and predictable
    • Legitimate best practice
    • Standard operating procedures
    • Process reengineering
    • Sense-Categorise-Respond
    Chaos
    Known
    No constraints
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nov03/3663469686/
  • There is, of course, a long tradition of research that highlights the many ways workers resist managerialcontrol
    (Fleming and Spicer, 2003)
    sabotage(Mars, 1982)
    careful carelessness(Prasad and Prasad, 1998)
    hidden transcripts(Scott, 1985)
    indirect resistance(Ong, 1987)
    subjective resistance(Kondo, 1990)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nagillum/504973920/
  • …more
    Working to rule
    (Findlow, 2008)
    Camouflage, conformance
    (White, 2006)
    (Snowden, 2002)
    Task corruption
    Amputation
    Simulation
    Workarounds
    (Pollock, 2005)
    Shadow systems
    Reinvention
    (Shaw, 1997)
    (Rogers, 1995)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/nagillum/504973920/
  • Hypothetical
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
  • Hypothetical
    Investigate the causes
    Research literature to identify best practice
    Undertake a redesign informed by best practice
    Evaluate the redesign, reflect and make more changes
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
  • change the assessment to satisfy theinstitutional requirements ofsatisfied studentsand reasonable pass rates
    rather than explore an alternative learning and teaching approach
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
  • change the assessment to satisfy theinstitutional requirements ofsatisfied studentsand reasonable pass rates
    rather than explore an alternative learning and teaching approach
    an effective solution in the current higher education environment that encourages the academic to prioritise other areas, such as research.
    (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/96393863/
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • (Baskerville, Travis & Truex, 1992)
    based on the idea of modernism where
    human rationality and methods of inquiry
    can achieve their ultimate purpose of discovering and identifying universal truths
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/31333486@N00/1906022136/
  • People aren’t rational
    Bounded rationality
    (Simon, 1991)
    Reliance on intuition, instinctsand simple heuristics
    37 cognitive biases
    (Arnott, 2006)
    (Jamieson & Hyland, 2006)
    Systematic biases influence judgment
    (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974
    Inherent limits in organisational substantive rationality
    Innovation and change within universitiescan never be mere rational processes
    (Cecez-Kecmanovic, et al, 2002)
    (Jones and O’Shea, 2004)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/3132985694/
  • 6 biases of managers
    Managers take charge
    Role
    Manager as intuitivescientists
    Cognitive
    Managers actappropriately
    Normative
    The illusion ofcontrol
    Self-efficacy
    The trappedmanager
    Commitment
    Expectancy
    The placebo effect
  • Limitations
    (Introna, 1996)
    System behaviour is relatively stable and predictable
    Designer is able to manipulate system behaviour
    Designer able to accurately determine goals or criteria for success
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2188958154/
  • Model 1 behaviour
    (Argyris et al, 1985)
    Fads, fashions and band wagons
    Purpose proxies
    (Birnbaum, 2000; Swanson and Ramiller, 2004)
    (Introna, 1996)
    Suboptimal stable equilibria
    (March, 1991)
    Technology gravity
    (McDonald & Gibbons, 2009)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/technodad/3722564852/
  • (Argyris et al, 1985)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3d9SjWuqa-s
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/bdjsb7/2687659827/
  • Moore’s chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • How many of you are overweight?
    How do you lose weight?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
  • 20% successful at long term weight loss and maintenance
    (Wing and Phelan, 2005)
    6 key strategies
    High levels of physical activity
    Diet low in calories and fat
    Eating breakfast
    Self-monitoring of weight
    A consistent eating pattern
    Catching “slips” before they turn into larger regains
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
  • obvious from previous studies that permanent weight lossrequires behavioural changes that lead to reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure
    (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
  • How many of you are overweight?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
  • Several social, behavioural, physiological and environmental factors are known to be associated with weight gain, obesity and weight loss
    (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
  • How many of you are overweight?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/golf_pictures/2187242989/
  • People aren’t rational
    Bounded rationality
    (Simon, 1991)
    Reliance on intuition, instinctsand simply heuristics
    37 cognitive biases
    (Arnott, 2006)
    (Jamieson & Hyland, 2006)
    Systematic biases influence judgment
    (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974
    Inherent limits in organisational substantive rationality
    Innovation and change within universitiescan never be mere rational processes
    (Cecez-Kecmanovic, et al, 2002)
    (Jones and O’Shea, 2004)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/3132985694/
  • Individual responsibility is often emphasized, but changing the environment rather than putting the main burden on the individuals
    could perhaps result in better weight maintenance
    (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/3166601945/
  • obvious from previous studies that permanent weight lossrequires behavioural changes that lead to reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure
    (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
  • What is good teaching?
    disagreement over the definition of good teaching or, in some cases, the belief that teaching quality cannot be measured
    (Trigwell, 2001)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/blmurch/720609503/
  • Conceptions of teaching
    (Kember, 1997)
    Teacher-centered/content-oriented
    Student-centered/learning-oriented
    Conceptualchange/intellectualdevelopment
    Impartinginformation
    Facilitatingunderstanding
    Transmittingstructuredknowledge
    Studentteacherinteraction/apprenticeship
    Good
    Bad
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/foundphotoslj/466713478/
  • Conceptions of teaching and learning
    Teacher-centered/content-oriented
    Student-centered/learning-oriented
    Genuine improvement in teachers has to beginwith a change in their thinking about T&L
    (Ho, et al., 2001)
    Conceptualchange/intellectualdevelopment
    Impartinginformation
    Facilitatingunderstanding
    Transmittingstructuredknowledge
    Studentteacherinteraction/apprenticeship
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/foundphotoslj/466713478/
  • obvious from previous studies that permanent weight lossrequires behavioural changes that lead to reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure
    (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
  • (Trigwell, 2001)
    Model of university teaching
    Teaching/LearningContext
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    Student
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • (Trigwell, 2001)
    Model of university teaching
    Teaching/LearningContext
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    Conceptions
    Student
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • Model of university teaching
    Efforts to improve teaching fail because
    complexity of teaching is underestimated
    Does not consider the integrated system of relationships
    (Leveson, 2004)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • Implementation of Moodle
    Teaching/LearningContext
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    Moodle
    Student
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • experience a loss of functionality and a degradation of performance as employees grapple to come to terms with the new technologies and processes that these systems force
    (Katz, 2003)
  • Big up front design (BUFD)
    (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999)
    Analysis & Design
    Replacement
    Cost
    Maintenance
    Time
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mauricedb/2706292588/
  • Staff development
    Teaching/LearningContext
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    StaffDev.
    Student
    (Ho, et al., 2001)
    Help academics developgeneric skills
    Clash with conceptions
    Query, defense, compliancetask corruption
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • Moore’s chasm
    (Geoghegan, 1994)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Technology-Adoption-Lifecycle.png
  • Teaching qualifications
    Teaching/LearningContext
    GCL&T
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    Student
    Becomes a purpose proxy
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • What about the context?
    Teaching/LearningContext
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    Student
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • Individual responsibility is often emphasized, but changing the environment rather than putting the main burden on the individuals
    could perhaps result in better weight maintenance
    (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/3166601945/
  • What about the context?
    Teaching/LearningContext
    (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    current institutional policies, including teaching and learning quality measures and lack of resources, arecompromising the way subjects are delivered.
    Student
    (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
    In some cases academics are discouraged from improving their teaching practice
    (White, 2006)
    Organisational priorities can negatively impact upon how academics approach their teaching responsibilities with the consequence that students can sense their distance from teaching
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • What about the context?
    Teaching/LearningContext
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    (Leveson, 2004)
    Student
    conceptions are regarded asbeing context-dependent
    Teaching intentions thus reflect a compromisebetween teachers’ conceptions of teaching andtheir academic and social contexts.
    (Norton et al, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • What about the context?
    Teaching/LearningContext
    (Prosser et al, 2003)
    Teachers’Thinking
    Teachers’Strategies
    Teachers’Planning
    Good teaching arises when academics perceive
    Student
    Control over their teaching
    Class size not too large
    Workloads not to high
    Department values teaching
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnorman/177883109/
  • Conceptions of teaching
    (Kember, 1997)
    Teacher-centered/content-oriented
    Student-centered/learning-oriented
    Little or no evidence of conceptual change from either
    Increasing teaching experience
    OR
    Conceptualchange/intellectualdevelopment
    Impartinginformation
    Facilitatingunderstanding
    Transmittingstructuredknowledge
    Studentteacherinteraction/apprenticeship
    Formal training
    (Norton et al, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/foundphotoslj/466713478/
  • Integrated model
    (Richardson, 2005)
    Disciplinarycharacteristics
    Conceptions ofteaching
    Approaches toteaching
    Situationalfactors
    Perceptions ofthe teachingenvironment
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/hinkelstone/2435823037/
  • Overview
    Who?
    Why?
    What?
    Reflective alignment
    Herding cats
    Losing weight
    Solutions?
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sookie/100608625/
  • As you solve the problemyou learn more about it
    Wicked problems
    (Rittel & Webber, 1973)
    Solutions are neitherright nor wrong
    Every one isessentiallyunique
    There is no ultimate test of a solution
    The problem can be described in many ways
    You can’t identifyall potential solns.
    There is no stopping rule
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/wxmom/2052715752/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/jaygooby/3885498720/
  • Reflective alignment
    Informed by scholarship
    All aspects of theCQUni L&Tenvironment arealigned to enable andencourage
    reflective engagementwith L&T with the aimof achieving 3rd orderchange
    Management
    Students
    At all levels
    Academic staff
    Professional staff
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/watko/3836492881/
  • BLENDED
    e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
    ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
    Project Based, community based, work integrated
    Authentic Learning Models
    Learning Environments
    become
    Systems, Practices, Partnerships
    ENABLING
    ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
  • Reflective alignment
    BLENDED
    e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
    ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
    Project Based, community based, work integrated
    Authentic Learning Models
    Learning Environments
    become
    Systems, Practices, Partnerships
    ENABLING
    ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
  • Master teachers are not born; they become.
    (Common, 1989)
    They become primarily by
    developing a habit of mind, a wayof looking critically at the work they do
    BLENDED
    e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
    ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
    Project Based, community based, work integrated
    developing the courage to recognise faults, and
    Authentic Learning Models
    struggling to improve.
    Learning Environments
    become
    Systems, Practices, Partnerships
    ENABLING
    ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
  • Master teachers are not born; they become.
    (Common, 1989)
    They become primarily by
    developing a habit of mind, a wayof looking critically at the work they do
    BLENDED
    e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
    ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
    Project Based, community based, work integrated
    developing the courage to recognise faults, and
    Authentic Learning Models
    struggling to improve.
    Learning Environments
    become
    Systems, Practices, Partnerships
    ENABLING
    ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
    All aspects of the CQUni L&T environment arealigned to enable and encourage
  • Individual responsibility is often emphasized, but changing the environment rather than putting the main burden on the individuals
    could perhaps result in better weight maintenance
    (Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonythemisfit/3166601945/
  • It’s a journey, not a destination
    BLENDED
    e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
    ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
    Project Based, community based, work integrated
    Authentic Learning Models
    Learning Environments
    become
    Systems, Practices, Partnerships
    ENABLING
    ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
  • Structure
    Process
    Environment
    Conceptions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
  • Could be I’m a popo
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/elblogazo/10675300/
  • Structure
    Process
    Environment
    Conceptions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
  • 20% successful at long term weight loss and maintenance
    (Wing and Phelan, 2005)
    6 key strategies
    High levels of physical activity
    Diet low in calories and fat
    Eating breakfast
    Self-monitoring of weight
    A consistent eating pattern
    Catching “slips” before they turn into larger regains
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
  • Course and teaching evaluation
    (Tutty, Sheard et al, 2008)
    their current use does little to encourageteaching approaches in the higher categories.
    Well-organised subjects, with high pass rates andlight to reasonable workloads, are likely to score wellwith students even though they may not haveencouraged or even required deep learning.
    Yet these are the current measures usedto gauge quality in learning and teaching and to allocate funding to institutions.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/us_army_rolling_along/3811567212/
  • Smile sheets
    Participant reactions should be removed fromevaluation models as a primary outcome of training
    (Holton, 1996)
    (Weimer & Lenze, 1998)
    Participants’ reactions to instructional development do not contribute to a clear picture of its real impact
    (Guskey, 2000)
    “happiness indicators” indicate how wellparticipants liked the intervention withoutaddressingthe issue of attaining change.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/us_army_rolling_along/3811567212/
  • (Postareff et al, 2008)
    dissonance could be explained by their inability to reflect on their own teaching in ways that challenged
    the teaching approaches in their department
    lack intrinsic motivation todevelop their approaches to be systematicallylearning-focused
    (Bransford et al, 2000; p224)
    “deliberate practice” emphasize the importance of helpingstudents monitor their learning so that they seek feedbackand actively evaluate their strategies and…levels of understanding
    (Booth and Anderberg, 2005)
    e.g. Reflective problematization
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/linnybinnypix/2169240864/
  • Are you researcheror educator?
    Funded research andpublication of results has become…dominantin universities
    (Knapper, 2003)
    Promotion criteria primarilyvalue research
    (Zellweger, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sylvar/1138341328/
  • More time teaching is a negativeinfluence on academic pay
    The trend is worsening most rapidlyin institutions whose central missionfocuses on teaching and learning
    (Fairweather, 2005)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/sylvar/1138341328/
  • The reputation of every university depends on the quality and commitment of staff for theadvancement of its status, more than any other variable.
    (Thomas, 2009)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/305410323/
  • the Good Universities Guide, which confirmedUSC as the only public university in Queenslandto obtain five stars for its quality of teaching.
    (Thomas, 2009)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/fdecomite/3402116037/
  • Structure
    Process
    Environment
    Conceptions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Where’s T&L responsibility?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Where’s T&L responsibility?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Where’s T&L responsibility?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Where’s T&L responsibility?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Where’s T&L responsibility?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Where’s T&L responsibility?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Primary focus is L&T?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Vice-Chancellor
    Integration?
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    SM
    Convergence
    Faculty
    Human Resources
    ITD
    Quality
    Faculty
    Library
  • Structure
    Process
    Environment
    Conceptions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/myklroventine/2372327933/
  • (Wood & Friedel, 1989)
    approach to scholarship based on
    an understanding of the communalbasisof all scholarly activity
    that scholarship by its very natureis a public rather than private activity;
    that it is open to critiqueand evaluation by others;
    and that a field of study is progressedthrough the scholarly activity of buildingnew ideas which are then open to thesame processes of public scrutiny.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajschwegler/525742850/
  • The distinctive quality of continuous changeis the idea that small continuous adjustments,created simultaneously across units, can cumulate and create substantial change.
    (Weick & Quinn, 1999)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/swanksalot/3433263368/
  • Don’t deny another’s reality
    To allow ourselves to be pulled by theconcerns out there rather than beingpushed by the concepts in here
    (Mintzberg et al, 2003)
    (Weick & Quinn, 1999)
    Replace
    Tell people what to do
    “logic of replacement”
    with
    “logic of attraction”
    Show people how to be
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/rwhitlock/3168043376/
  • (Argyris et al, 1985)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/bdjsb7/2687659827/
  • Safe-fail
    Not fail safe
    (Snowden and Boone, 2007)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/252084585/
  • A university is defined by thequality of its academic conversations,not by the technologies that service them.
    (Laurillard, 2002)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/criminalintent/2744040362/
  • Diverse
    Knowledge centered
    Self-managed
    Scholarly
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/criminalintent/2744040362/
  • The end
    What the teacher is.
    Pre-massification
    institution
    What management does.
    Herding cats
    What the teacher does.
    Losing weight
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/kleiner_riese_74/3937978535/
  • Reflective alignment
    Informed by scholarship
    All aspects of theCQUni L&Tenvironment arealigned to enable andencourage
    reflective engagementwith L&T with the aimof achieving 3rd orderchange
    Management
    Students
    At all levels
    Academic staff
    Professional staff
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/watko/3836492881/
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKs0oEIVOck
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_MaJDK3VNE&feature=fvste3
  • BLENDED
    e-learning, face to face, print, laboratory, field work, workplace
    ENGAGED/INTEGRATED
    Project Based, community based, work integrated
    Authentic Learning Models
    Learning Environments
    become
    Systems, Practices, Partnerships
    ENABLING
    ICT, HR practices, Infrastructure, Internal and External Partnerships
  • Questions?
    More discussions, questions, and resources
    http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/elearning-and-innovation/
    http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2009-09-17/
    http://flickr.com/photos/lwr/12364944/
  • Argyris, C., R. Putnam, et al. (1985). Action science: Concepts, methods and skills for research and intervention. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
    Arnott, D. (2006). "Cognitive biases and decision support systems development: a design science approach." Information Systems Journal16: 55-78.
    Bartunek, J. and M. Moch (1987). "First-order, second-order and third-order change and organization development interventions: A cognitive approach." The Journal of Applied Behavoral Science23(4): 483-500.
    Baskerville, R., J. Travis, et al. (1992). Systems without method: the impact of new technologies on information systems development projects. The Impact of Computer Supported Technologies on Information Systems Development. K. E. Kendall. Amsterdam, North-Holland: 241-251.
    Biggs, J. (2001). "The Reflective Institution: Assuring and Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning." Higher Education 41(3): 221-238.
    Bransford, J., A. Brown, et al. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press.
    Booth, S. and E. Anderberg (2005). "Academic development for knowledge capabilities: Learning, reflecting and developing." Higher Education Research & Development 24(4): 373-386.
    Bowman, S. (2009). "Blended teaching and mobile learning." Retrieved 17 September, 2009, from http://vc-cquniversity.blogspot.com/2009/09/blended-teaching-and-mobile-learning.html.
    Cecez-Kecmanovic, D., M. Janson, et al. (2002). "The rationality framework for a critical study of information systems." Journal of Information Technology 17: 215-227.
    CRHEFP (1997). Learning for Life: Review of Higher Education Financing and Policy. Canberra, Committee of Review of Higher Education Financing and Policy, Australian Government Printing Services.
    Cricinfo Staff. (2009, August 6, 2009). "Hughes stays positive despite axing." Retrieved 19 September, 2009, from http://www.cricinfo.com/engvaus2009/content/story/418101.html.
    Common, D. (1989). "Master teachers in higher education: A matter of settings." The Review of Higher Education 12(4): 375-387.
    CQU. (2005). "CQU Strategic Plan: 2006-2011 - Creating an opening to a different future." Retrieved 31 October, 2005, from http://policy.cqu.edu.au/Policy/policy.jsp;policyid=607.
    Drucker, P. (2001). Management Challenges for the 21st Century, Collins Business.
    Dutton, W., P. Cheong, et al. (2004). "An ecology of constraints on e-learning in higher education: The case of a virtual learning environment." Prometheus 22(2): 131-149.
    English, P. (2009, 9 July 2009). "Flintoffv fledgling." Retrieved 16 September, 2009, from http://www.cricinfo.com/engvaus2009/content/story/413471.html.
  • Fairweather, J. (2005). "Beyond the rhetoric: Trends in the relative value of teaching and research in faculty salaries." Journal of Higher Education76(4): 401-422.
    Fleming, P. and A. Spicer (2003). "Working at a cynical distance: Implications for power, subjectivity and resistance." Organization10(1): 157-179.
    Findlow, S. (2008). "Accountability and innovation in higher education: a disabling tension?" Studies in Higher Education 33(3): 313-329.
    Geoghegan, W. (1994). Whatever happened to instructional technology? 22nd Annual Conferences of the International Business Schools Computing Association, Baltimore, MD, IBM.
    Gioia, D. (1986). Symbols, scripts and sensemaking: Creating meaning in the organizational experience. The Thinking Organization. D. Gioia and H. Sims. San Francisco, California, Jossey-Bass: 49-74.
    Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press.
    Hammond, S. A. (1998). The thin book of appreciative inquiry. Bend, Oregon, Thin Book Publishing.
    Ho, A., D. Watkins, et al. (2001). "The conceptual change approach to improving teaching and learning: An evaluation of a Hong Kong staff development programme." Higher Education42(2): 143-169.
    Holton, E. (1996). "The flawed four-level evaluation model." Human Resource Development Quarterly7(1): 5-21.
    Introna, L. (1996). "Notes on ateleological information systems development." Information Technology & People9(4): 20-39.
    Jamieson, K. and P. Hyland (2006). Factors that influence Information Systems decisions and outcomes: A summary of key themes from four case studies. 17th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Adelaide, Australia.
    Jones, D. (2009). "Improving university teaching - learning from constructive alignment by not mandating it." Retrieved 19 September, 2009, from http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/02/26/improving-university-teaching-learning-from-constructive-alignment-by-not-mandating-it/.
    Jones, N. and J. O'Shea (2004). "Challenging hierarchies: The impact of e-learning." Higher Education48(3): 379-395.
    Kassirer, J. and M. Angell (1998). "Losing Weight - An ill-fated New Year's resolution." The New England Journal of Medicine338(1): 52-54.
    Katz, R. (2003). "Balancing Technology and Tradition: The Example of Course Management Systems." EDUCAUSE Review 38(4): 48-59.
    Kezar, A. (2001). "Understanding and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century: Recent Research and Conceptulizations." ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report28(4).
    Knapper, C. (2003). "Three decades of educational development." International Journal for Academic Development 8(1-2): 5-9.
    Laskar, J. (1995). The chaotic motion of the solar system. Chaos and complexity. J. Thanh Van Tran. Paris, France, AtlanticaSeguierFrontieres: 53-61.
    Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies. London, Routledge.
  • Leveson, L. (2004). "Encouraging better learning through better teaching: a study of approaches to teaching in accounting." Accounting Education 13(4): 529-549.
    Lyytinen, K., L. Mathiassen, et al. (1996). "A framework for software risk management." Journal of Information Technology11(4): 275-285.
    Martin, J. (2009). "Obama talks tough on teachers." Retrieved 25 August, 2009, from http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0309/19867.html.
    McDonald, J. and A. Gibbons (nd). "Technology I, II, and III: criteria for understanding and improving the practice of instructional technology " Educational Technology Research and Development.
    Mintzberg, H., B. Ahlstrand, et al. (2003). Strategy Safari: A guided tour through the wilds of strategic management. New York, The Free Press.
    Norton, L., J. Richardson, et al. (2005). "Teachers' beliefs and intentions concerning teaching in higher education." Higher Education 50(4): 537-571.
    Orlikowski, W. and D. Gash (1994). "Technological frames: Making sense of information technology in organizations." ACM Transactions on Information Systems12(2): 174-207.
    Phillips, R. (2005). "Challenging the primacy of lectures: The dissonance between theory and practice in university teaching." Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice 2(1): 1-12.
    Pollock, N. (2005). "When is a work-around? Conflict and negotiation in computer systems development." Science Technology Human Values 30(4): 496-514.
    Prosser, M. and K. Trigwell (1999). Understanding learning and teaching: the experience in higher education. Buckinghamshire, SRHE & Open University Press.
    Postman, N. (1995). The end of education. New York, Vintage Books.
    Richardson, J. (2005). "Students' approaches to learning and teachers' approaches to teaching in higher education." Educational Psychology25(6): 673-680.
    Rogers, E. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. New York, The Free Press.
    Rittel, H. W. J. and M. M. Webber (1973). "Dilemmas in a general theory of planning." Policy Sciences4(2): 155-169.
    Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S. (2007). "Determinants of long-term weight maintenance." ActaPaediatrica96(s454): 26-28.
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