An Information Systems Design Theory for E-Learning http://flickr.com/photos/mushon/197192003/ David Jones http://davidtjo...
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
http://flickr.com/photos/oberazzi/318947873/ How  do you  design , implement and support an  information system  that effe...
http://flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/ (Gregor, 2006) Ps Framework ISDT for e-learning Gregor & Jones, 20...
http://flickr.com/photos/oberazzi/318947873/ There has been little or no theoretically grounded  and rigorous research int...
http://flickr.com/photos/nnova/2236873782/ 2 generations action research 1996-2004 Reflect Plan Act Watch Webfuse 7 public...
Recognition by senior management http://flickr.com/photos/dougtone/3009783534/ Great staff adoption Inside Outside Greater...
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ E-learning orthodoxy By adopting a single domineering concept  of method  ...
http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Orthodoxy showing signs of management fads, fashions and bandwagons (Birnbaum, ...
http://flickr.com/photos/emagic/56206868/
http://flickr.com/photos/nelsonlai/1258727102/ It is realistic to recognize that  implementing e-learning is a  hugely com...
http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Management fashion  is &quot;relatively  transitory  collective beliefs , disse...
Awareness Test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYl_yQZq1HY
http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ E-learning orthodoxy By adopting a single domineering concept  of method  ...
http://flickr.com/photos/toneray/2509037534/ (Mischra and Koehler, 2006) Having a framework goes beyond merely  identifyin...
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ The Ps Framework A decision/ sense  making to aid understanding of institutional...
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Use the Ps Framework To highlight the moon-walking bear To understand
http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/ Most HEIs are struggling to engage  a significant percentage of students  and...
http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/ … not particularly innovative,  may limit the incentive to innovate,  limited...
http://flickr.com/photos/drift-words/11846265/ Surprise has been expressed at how quickly  university learning and teachin...
almost universal adoption of just  two different commercial LMSs by  the Australian higher education sector (Coates, James...
http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Orthodoxy showing signs of management fads, fashions and bandwagons (Birnbaum, ...
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
As of 2005 almost every  higher education institution  is planning to make use of an LMS (Salmon, 2005) http://flickr.com/...
http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ LMS are based on an overly simplistic  understanding of the relationship bet...
http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ No LMS supports student critical thinking,  generation of knowledge and coll...
http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ T ools are never value-neutral but are replete with values and potentialitie...
Some LMS values Based on USA higher education Course Instructors Course offering-based Closed from outside world Web-based...
http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ most commercial systems  require the institution to  modify its existing pra...
we should change people's behaviour because  information technology systems are difficult to change .. (Sturgess and Nouwe...
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ Remember this quote? By adopting a single domineering concept  of method  ...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ It’s about software development methods By adopting a single domineering c...
http://flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/ Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems ...
http://flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/ Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems ...
Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems and use them (Jones and Lynch, 1999) Build it and...
http://flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/ Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems ...
http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological design process (Introna, 1996) Attributes Teleological Ultimate ...
http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to  set and a...
http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to  set and a...
http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to  set and a...
http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to  set and a...
Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to  set and achieve objectives,  it is to be purpose drive...
Time Cost Analysis  & Design Maintenance Replacement Big up front design (BUFD) (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999) http:...
Foundations based on the idea of modernism where  human rationality and methods of inquiry  can achieve their ultimate pur...
Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans  (Truex...
Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans  (Truex...
Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans  (Truex...
Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans  (Truex...
http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ Alternatives?
http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ (Introna, 1996) Attributes Teleological Ateleological Ultimate purpose Goal/...
http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ (Seely Brown & Hagel, 2005) Push Pull Demand anticipated Demand uncertain To...
http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ (Kurtz & Snowden, 2007) Idealistic Naturalistic Achieve ideal state Understa...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/
http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
Mismatch http://flickr.com/photos/danielkongos/2790446307/
http://flickr.com/photos/danielkongos/2790446307/ E-learning Orthodoxy Product E-learning Reality Process People are not r...
http://flickr.com/photos/danielkongos/2790446307/ The emphasis on rationality, linearity and  clarity of purpose embodied ...
The Technology Alliance http://flickr.com/photos/cote/36400135/ (Geoghegan, 1994)
http://flickr.com/photos/autanex/808866285/ How does the mind work? http://www.cognitive-edge.com/blogs/dave/2008/05/a_key...
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Use the Ps Framework To highlight the moon-walking bear To understand
http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
http://flickr.com/photos/victornuno/467298464/ Research aims to generate knowledge Expressed as theory
http://flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/ (Gregor, 2006) Type Question Examples <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul>W...
Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Soc...
Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Soc...
Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Soc...
Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Soc...
http://flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/ (Gregor, 2006) What is theory? Type Question Examples <ul><li>Anal...
Kernel Theories Meta- Requirements Meta- Design Design Method Testable design product and process hypotheses (Walls, Widme...
 
Empirical plane Theory plane Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Theory scope Principles of form/constru...
Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Soc...
Design-science research guidelines (Hevner et al, 2004) Design as artifact Problem relevance Research contributions Design...
Principles for theory building (Gregor, 2008) Artifact centrality Artifact purposefulness Artifacts are systems Design res...
Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Soc...
http://flickr.com/photos/nnova/2236873782/ 2 generations action research 1996-2008 Reflect Plan Act Watch Webfuse 7 public...
Design research and action research are “historically, practically, ontologically,  epistemologically and methodologically...
http://flickr.com/photos/zhushman/3040818512/ Design research  !=  Design theory
Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Soc...
http://flickr.com/photos/zhushman/3040818512/ Design research  !=  Design theory
Socio-political and design research Emphasis on utility (Cole, Purao, Rossi & Sein, 2005) Increase relevance (Hevner, Marc...
http://flickr.com/photos/stephenliveshere/483840217/ Is it core?
It is absolutely clear that design science  research cannot be (value-free) (Iivari, 2007) Means-end oriented Interpretive...
http://flickr.com/photos/wonderlane/2090966628/ It is absolutely clear that design science  research cannot be (value-free...
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
(Jones and Gregor, 2004) Action Research Cycles http://flickr.com/photos/garon/2238688001/ Period Title Description 1996 t...
http://flickr.com/photos/garon/2238688001/ (Jones and Gregor, 2004) Action Research Cycles Period Title Description 1996 t...
By early 1999 60 full-time  staff users Total staff???
Only 5 made  significant use
1998/99 49% of  content requests  for 2 courses  (1 staff member)
T1, 1998 83% of content  was for 1 course
425 teaching staff employed by Infocom (2001-2004)
353 (83%) used system
And 445 from outside Infocom
http://flickr.com/photos/maktownkid/2199965525/
I identify myself as coming from the  technophobic extreme of the faculties  (I have an Arts background) but even I  find ...
(Jones, Cranston, Behrens and Jamieson, 2004) The key to easy use of OASIS is that it is  not a off the shelf product that...
the best thing about teaching and learning in this faculty  in 2003 would be the development of technologically  progressi...
http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles  </li></ul><ul><...
http://flickr.com/photos/oberazzi/318947873/ How  do you  design , implement and support an  information system  that effe...
Hypermedia templates, software wrappers, COTS, OO & design patterns http://flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/380814854/ Distance ...
Recognition by senior management http://flickr.com/photos/dougtone/3009783534/ Great staff adoption Inside Outside Greater...
E-learning Ps Framework Pre-evaluating innovations (Jones, Jamieson & Clark, 2003) (Jones, 2008; Jones et al, 2008;  Jones...
http://flickr.com/photos/sineout/2491569707/ Action research Impartiality of researcher Lack of discipline Consulting? Con...
http://flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/202872717/
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An information systems design theory for e-learning

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A presentation on my PhD given at ANU on the 20 Feb, 2008. Provides an overview of the PhD.

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An information systems design theory for e-learning

  1. 1. An Information Systems Design Theory for E-Learning http://flickr.com/photos/mushon/197192003/ David Jones http://davidtjones.wordpress.com
  2. 2. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions
  3. 3. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions Ch 2 Ch 1 Ch 3 Ch 4&5 Ch 6
  4. 4. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions
  5. 5. http://flickr.com/photos/oberazzi/318947873/ How do you design , implement and support an information system that effectively and efficiently supports e-learning within an institution of higher education ?
  6. 6. http://flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/ (Gregor, 2006) Ps Framework ISDT for e-learning Gregor & Jones, 2007 ??? Theory type Says 1. Analysis What is 2. Explanation What is, how, when, where 3. Prediction What is and what will be 4. Explanation & prediction What is, how, why, when, where and what will be 5. Design and action How to do something
  7. 7. http://flickr.com/photos/oberazzi/318947873/ There has been little or no theoretically grounded and rigorous research into the structures and processes required to encourage the adoption of e-learning and to facilitate disseminate knowledge at the organisational level (Alavi & Leidner, 2001) More models, that demonstrate the transferability and scalability of e-learning, are required (Salmon, 2005)
  8. 8. http://flickr.com/photos/nnova/2236873782/ 2 generations action research 1996-2004 Reflect Plan Act Watch Webfuse 7 publications 27 publications ISDT PsFramework
  9. 9. Recognition by senior management http://flickr.com/photos/dougtone/3009783534/ Great staff adoption Inside Outside Greater flexibility and resilence Innovation Customisation to context Increased trust
  10. 10. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions A summary
  11. 11. http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ E-learning orthodoxy By adopting a single domineering concept of method all our thinking…becomes imprisoned by this one concept…..It limits not only our understanding , but our empirical observations …. can cause us to ignore activities that do not fit within a methodical frame (Truex, Baskerville & Travis, 2000)
  12. 12. http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
  13. 13. http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
  14. 14. http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
  15. 15. http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
  16. 16. http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Orthodoxy showing signs of management fads, fashions and bandwagons (Birnbaum, 2000; Pratt, 2005) Home built systems Blackboard or WebCT Open source LMS 1995-2000 1999/2000 – 200? 2005-?? (Australia, UK, USA, NZ, Canada)
  17. 17. http://flickr.com/photos/emagic/56206868/
  18. 18. http://flickr.com/photos/nelsonlai/1258727102/ It is realistic to recognize that implementing e-learning is a hugely complex undertaking with multiple contexts and stakeholders—and risks. (Pittard, 2004)
  19. 19. http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Management fashion is &quot;relatively transitory collective beliefs , disseminated by the discourse of knowledge entrepreneurs, that a management technique is at the forefront of rational management progress” (Abrahamson and Fairchild, 2003) Amplified by hyperbole…, the fashionable vision may exert a strong , if transitory, normative pul l among managers. (Swanson and Ramiller, 2004)
  20. 20. Awareness Test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYl_yQZq1HY
  21. 21. http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ E-learning orthodoxy By adopting a single domineering concept of method all our thinking…becomes imprisoned by this one concept…..It limits not only our understanding , but our empirical observations …. can cause us to ignore activities that do not fit within a methodical frame (Truex, Baskerville & Travis, 2000)
  22. 22. http://flickr.com/photos/toneray/2509037534/ (Mischra and Koehler, 2006) Having a framework goes beyond merely identifying problems with current approaches; it offers new ways of looking at and perceiving phenomena and offers information on which to base sound, pragmatic decision making. Theory for understanding (Gregor, 2006)
  23. 23. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ The Ps Framework A decision/ sense making to aid understanding of institutional implementation of e-learning (Jones, 2008; Jones, Vallack & Fitzgerald-Hood, 2008)
  24. 24. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Past experience People Place Product Process Purpose Pedagogy
  25. 25. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
  26. 26. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Use the Ps Framework To highlight the moon-walking bear To understand
  27. 27. http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
  28. 28. http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
  29. 29. http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
  30. 30. http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
  31. 31. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
  32. 32. http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/ Most HEIs are struggling to engage a significant percentage of students and staff in e-learning (Salmon, 2005) There remain concerns about the quality of the learning and teaching and about the return on the investment in e-learning (Bates, 2009)
  33. 33. http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/ … not particularly innovative, may limit the incentive to innovate, limited in quality and may restrict the ability to integrate with other systems (Alexander, 2001; Anonymous, 2004; Paulsen, 2002
  34. 34. http://flickr.com/photos/drift-words/11846265/ Surprise has been expressed at how quickly university learning and teaching…has been modified to incorporate the use of learning management systems (West, Waddoups, Graham, 2006)
  35. 35. almost universal adoption of just two different commercial LMSs by the Australian higher education sector (Coates, James & Baldwin, 2005) http://flickr.com/photos/digital_freak/183688774/
  36. 36. http://flickr.com/photos/boskizzi/3241710/ Orthodoxy showing signs of management fads, fashions and bandwagons (Birnbaum, 2000; Pratt, 2005) Home built systems Blackboard or WebCT Open source LMS 1995-2000 1999/2000 – 200? 2005-??
  37. 37. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
  38. 38. As of 2005 almost every higher education institution is planning to make use of an LMS (Salmon, 2005) http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/
  39. 39. http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ LMS are based on an overly simplistic understanding of the relationship between teachers, knowledge and student learning. (Coates, James, Baldwin, 2005)
  40. 40. http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ No LMS supports student critical thinking, generation of knowledge and collaborative teamwork (Bonk & Dennen, 1999)
  41. 41. http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ T ools are never value-neutral but are replete with values and potentialities which may cause unexpected responses (Westera, 2004) LMS design embeds particular world views (Dron, 2006)
  42. 42. Some LMS values Based on USA higher education Course Instructors Course offering-based Closed from outside world Web-based Integrated enterprise system Only handle courses with 999 or less students http://flickr.com/photos/wildlifebiologyguy/3085729458/ Based on scarcity – must provide all
  43. 43. http://flickr.com/photos/cloud_nine/15354825/ most commercial systems require the institution to modify its existing practices to accommodate the system (Dodds, 2007)
  44. 44. we should change people's behaviour because information technology systems are difficult to change .. (Sturgess and Nouwens, 2004) http://flickr.com/photos/elycefeliz/3211943653/
  45. 45. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
  46. 46. http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ Remember this quote? By adopting a single domineering concept of method all our thinking…becomes imprisoned by this one concept…..It limits not only our understanding , but our empirical observations …. can cause us to ignore activities that do not fit within a methodical frame (Truex, Baskerville & Travis, 2000)
  47. 47. http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/ It’s about software development methods By adopting a single domineering concept of method all our thinking…becomes imprisoned by this one concept…..It limits not only our understanding , but our empirical observations …. can cause us to ignore activities that do not fit within a methodical frame (Truex, Baskerville & Travis, 2000) There are alternatives
  48. 48. http://flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/ Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems and use them (Jones and Lynch, 1999)
  49. 49. http://flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/ Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems and use them (Jones and Lynch, 1999) Build it and they will come
  50. 50. Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems and use them (Jones and Lynch, 1999) Build it and they will come The new product will automatically replace inferior products or systems (Surry and Farquhar, 1997) http://flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/
  51. 51. http://flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/459020985/ Developer-based methods Assume adopters will see benefits of new systems and use them (Jones and Lynch, 1999) Build it and they will come The new product will automatically replace inferior products or systems (Surry and Farquhar, 1997) Product focus
  52. 52. http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological design process (Introna, 1996) Attributes Teleological Ultimate purpose Goal/purpose Intermediate goals Efficiency Design focus Results Designers Explicit designer Scope Part Process Problem solving Problems Complexity/conflict Management Centralised Control Master plan
  53. 53. http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to set and achieve objectives, it is to be purpose driven… Setting goals and achieving them is the essence of &quot;success&quot; in the teleological society
  54. 54. http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to set and achieve objectives, it is to be purpose driven… Setting goals and achieving them is the essence of &quot;success&quot; in the teleological society Strategic planning
  55. 55. http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to set and achieve objectives, it is to be purpose driven… Setting goals and achieving them is the essence of &quot;success&quot; in the teleological society Strategic planning Mission statements
  56. 56. http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/ Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to set and achieve objectives, it is to be purpose driven… Setting goals and achieving them is the essence of &quot;success&quot; in the teleological society Strategic planning Mission statements Quality assurance
  57. 57. Teleological-based design (Introna, 1996) To be teleological is to set and achieve objectives, it is to be purpose driven… Setting goals and achieving them is the essence of &quot;success&quot; in the teleological society Strategic planning Mission statements Quality assurance Information systems development and governance http://flickr.com/photos/genemoo/2498690521/
  58. 58. Time Cost Analysis & Design Maintenance Replacement Big up front design (BUFD) (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1999) http://flickr.com/photos/i-marco/244541946/
  59. 59. Foundations based on the idea of modernism where human rationality and methods of inquiry can achieve their ultimate purpose of discovering and identifying universal truths (Baskerville, Travis & Truex, 1992) http://flickr.com/photos/michaelsarver/23033010/
  60. 60. Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1998) http://flickr.com/photos/michaelsarver/23033010/
  61. 61. Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1998) http://flickr.com/photos/michaelsarver/23033010/ Podcasts
  62. 62. Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1998) http://flickr.com/photos/michaelsarver/23033010/ Podcasts Blogs and Wikis
  63. 63. Foundations Assumes the aim is to develop stable systems with primary goals of low maintenance and long life spans (Truex, Baskerville and Klein, 1998) http://flickr.com/photos/michaelsarver/23033010/ Podcasts Blogs and Wikis Second Life
  64. 64. http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ Alternatives?
  65. 65. http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ (Introna, 1996) Attributes Teleological Ateleological Ultimate purpose Goal/purpose Harmony Intermediate goals Efficiency Homeostasis Design focus Results Means/process Designers Explicit designer Participant Scope Part Whole Process Problem solving Local adaptation Problems Complexity/conflict Time Management Centralised Decentralised Control Master plan Rules/regulators
  66. 66. http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ (Seely Brown & Hagel, 2005) Push Pull Demand anticipated Demand uncertain Top-down design Emergent design Centralised control Decentralised control Procedural Modular Tightly coupled Loosely coupled Resource centric People centric Restricted participation Open participation Focus on efficiency Focus on innovation Few major re-engineering efforts Rapid, incremental innovation Zero-sum rewards Positive-sum rewards
  67. 67. http://flickr.com/photos/vernhart/1422048648/ (Kurtz & Snowden, 2007) Idealistic Naturalistic Achieve ideal state Understand a sufficient of present to stimulate evolution Privilege expert knowledge, analysis and interpretation Favour enabling emergent meaning at the ground level Separate diagnosis from intervention Diagnosis and intervention intertwined with practice
  68. 68. http://www.flickr.com/photos/zamario/338382819/
  69. 69. http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
  70. 70. http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
  71. 71. http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
  72. 72. http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
  73. 73. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions A summary
  74. 74. Mismatch http://flickr.com/photos/danielkongos/2790446307/
  75. 75. http://flickr.com/photos/danielkongos/2790446307/ E-learning Orthodoxy Product E-learning Reality Process People are not rational Massive change It is a wicked problem …… Universities aren’t a business Academics are knowledge workers Place Purpose Pedagogy Past Experience People
  76. 76. http://flickr.com/photos/danielkongos/2790446307/ The emphasis on rationality, linearity and clarity of purpose embodied within planned change models means that they are unlikely to be successful within higher education …… (Kezar, 2001) Place
  77. 77. The Technology Alliance http://flickr.com/photos/cote/36400135/ (Geoghegan, 1994)
  78. 78. http://flickr.com/photos/autanex/808866285/ How does the mind work? http://www.cognitive-edge.com/blogs/dave/2008/05/a_keynote_in_perth.php People
  79. 79. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Place Pedagogy Process Purpose Product Past Experience People
  80. 80. http://flickr.com/photos/joits/225824796/ Use the Ps Framework To highlight the moon-walking bear To understand
  81. 81. http://flickr.com/photos/tonymangan/754511201/
  82. 82. http://flickr.com/photos/rcstanley/30366555/
  83. 83. http://flickr.com/photos/fatmandy/267252461/
  84. 84. http://flickr.com/photos/blakeimeson/2743011812/
  85. 85. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions
  86. 86. http://flickr.com/photos/victornuno/467298464/ Research aims to generate knowledge Expressed as theory
  87. 87. http://flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/ (Gregor, 2006) Type Question Examples <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul>What is? Taxonomies (e.g. Bloom's), frameworks <ul><li>Explanation </li></ul>How & Why? Structurational model of technology (Orlikowski 1992) <ul><li>Prediction </li></ul>What will be? Org size predicting innovativeness, Moore's Law <ul><li>Explanation & Prediction </li></ul>What is, how, why and what will be? Most traditional view of theory, General system theory, TAM <ul><li>Design & Action </li></ul>How to do it? Codd's theory of relational database design
  88. 88. Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Socio-political (Gregor, 2006)
  89. 89. Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Socio-political (Gregor, 2006) Is it interesting to information systems? What are the boundaries?
  90. 90. Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Socio-political (Gregor, 2006) Scholars in Information Systems can offer vision on structures and processes to effectively implement technology-mediated learning initiatives (Alavi & Leidner, 2001)
  91. 91. Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Socio-political (Gregor, 2006) What is theory? How is theory expressed? What is a contribution to knowledge?
  92. 92. http://flickr.com/photos/themadlolscientist/2543882652/ (Gregor, 2006) What is theory? Type Question Examples <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul>What is? Taxonomies (e.g. Bloom's), frameworks <ul><li>Explanation </li></ul>How & Why? Structurational model of technology (Orlikowski 1992) <ul><li>Prediction </li></ul>What will be? Org size predicting innovativeness, Moore's Law <ul><li>Explanation & Prediction </li></ul>What is, how, why and what will be? Most traditional view of theory, General system theory, TAM <ul><li>Design & Action </li></ul>How to do it? Codd's theory of relational database design
  93. 93. Kernel Theories Meta- Requirements Meta- Design Design Method Testable design product and process hypotheses (Walls, Widmeyer, El Sawy, 1992) How is theory expressed? http://flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/380814854/
  94. 95. Empirical plane Theory plane Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Theory scope Principles of form/constructs Justificatory knowledge Principles of generation If X has property Z then Q If Y has property Y then P Instantiation Artifact mutability Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Artifact Testable hypotheses (Lyytinen, 2008) http://flickr.com/photos/wallyg/438188176/
  95. 96. Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Socio-political (Gregor, 2006) What is a contribution to knowledge?
  96. 97. Design-science research guidelines (Hevner et al, 2004) Design as artifact Problem relevance Research contributions Design evaluation Research rigor Design as a search process Communication of research http://flickr.com/photos/ross/63787005/
  97. 98. Principles for theory building (Gregor, 2008) Artifact centrality Artifact purposefulness Artifacts are systems Design research variants Differing logics Types of theory Mid-range theorizing Interior and exterior modes http://flickr.com/photos/moonwire/830986515/
  98. 99. Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Socio-political (Gregor, 2006) How is theory constructed?
  99. 100. http://flickr.com/photos/nnova/2236873782/ 2 generations action research 1996-2008 Reflect Plan Act Watch Webfuse 7 publications 27 publications ISDT PsFramework
  100. 101. Design research and action research are “historically, practically, ontologically, epistemologically and methodologically quite different” (Iivari, 2007) http://flickr.com/photos/jacksonboyle/516196211/
  101. 102. http://flickr.com/photos/zhushman/3040818512/ Design research != Design theory
  102. 103. Questions about knowledge Domain http://flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/310965213/ Structural/ontological Epistemological Socio-political (Gregor, 2006) Is there agreement? Are there ethical issues?
  103. 104. http://flickr.com/photos/zhushman/3040818512/ Design research != Design theory
  104. 105. Socio-political and design research Emphasis on utility (Cole, Purao, Rossi & Sein, 2005) Increase relevance (Hevner, March, Park and Ram, 2004) http://flickr.com/photos/broken_simulacra/95706899/ Role of theory and artifact Is it a paradigm? Is it CS or IS? Yes (Hevner, et al, 2004) Lack of consensus on objectives and outputs of design research (Vaishnavi and Kuechleer, 2004) Is it consulting? (Gregor, 2008) (Venable, 2006) Role of kernel theory (Iivari, 2007)
  105. 106. http://flickr.com/photos/stephenliveshere/483840217/ Is it core?
  106. 107. It is absolutely clear that design science research cannot be (value-free) (Iivari, 2007) Means-end oriented Interpretive Critical http://flickr.com/photos/wonderlane/2090966628/
  107. 108. http://flickr.com/photos/wonderlane/2090966628/ It is absolutely clear that design science research cannot be (value-free) (Iivari, 2007) Means-end oriented Interpretive Critical achieve a rich understanding of how an IT artifact is really appropriated and used and what its effects are, without confining the focus on the given ends of its initial construction
  108. 109. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions
  109. 110. (Jones and Gregor, 2004) Action Research Cycles http://flickr.com/photos/garon/2238688001/ Period Title Description 1996 to now Build it and they will come System based on hypermedia templates 1999 to 2004 Give them a reason to come Diffusion theory, design patterns for requirements 2000 to 2004 Build what they want, faster Agile development, design patterns for architecture
  110. 111. http://flickr.com/photos/garon/2238688001/ (Jones and Gregor, 2004) Action Research Cycles Period Title Description 1996 to now Build it and they will come System based on hypermedia templates 1999 to 2004 Build what they want, fast Diffusion theory, design patterns, agile development
  111. 112. By early 1999 60 full-time staff users Total staff???
  112. 113. Only 5 made significant use
  113. 114. 1998/99 49% of content requests for 2 courses (1 staff member)
  114. 115. T1, 1998 83% of content was for 1 course
  115. 116. 425 teaching staff employed by Infocom (2001-2004)
  116. 117. 353 (83%) used system
  117. 118. And 445 from outside Infocom
  118. 119. http://flickr.com/photos/maktownkid/2199965525/
  119. 120. I identify myself as coming from the technophobic extreme of the faculties (I have an Arts background) but even I find the systems the team have set out relatively easy to use ..the precedent of other IT systems made available in Infocom (…) suggests that it would be extremely user friendly for people with very limited computer competence/confidence. (Behrens, Jamieson, Jones and Cranston, 2005)
  120. 121. (Jones, Cranston, Behrens and Jamieson, 2004) The key to easy use of OASIS is that it is not a off the shelf product that is sooooo generic that it has lost its way as a course delivery tool.
  121. 122. the best thing about teaching and learning in this faculty in 2003 would be the development of technologically progressive academic information systems that provide better service to our students and staff and make our teaching more effective. Webfuse and MyInfocom development has greatly assisted staff to cope with the complexities of delivering courses across a large multi-site operation. (CQU, 2004, p21)
  122. 123. http://flickr.com/photos/druclimb/282597447/ Overview The Question The Hole The Method <ul><li>The cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Build it and they will come </li></ul><ul><li>Build what they want, fast </li></ul>Reflections, implications & conclusions
  123. 124. http://flickr.com/photos/oberazzi/318947873/ How do you design , implement and support an information system that effectively and efficiently supports e-learning within an institution of higher education ?
  124. 125. Hypermedia templates, software wrappers, COTS, OO & design patterns http://flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/380814854/ Distance education and e-learning literature – Ps Framework Diffusion theory, design patterns, agile and ateleological dev. Non func: variety, change, integration. Fun: info dist, communication …. Adopter-focused dev; pattern mining, XP Kernel theories Meta-requirements Design method Hypermedia tmpl, platform indep, open source, design patterns Possible to construct a system using templates as COTS/wrappers. Instantiations will be more flexible, open and customizable. Instantiations will be more acceptable leading to greater adoption. Instantiations will become specific to needs of host organisation Meta-design Hypotheses
  125. 126. Recognition by senior management http://flickr.com/photos/dougtone/3009783534/ Great staff adoption Inside Outside Greater flexibility and resilence Innovation Customisation to context Increased trust
  126. 127. E-learning Ps Framework Pre-evaluating innovations (Jones, Jamieson & Clark, 2003) (Jones, 2008; Jones et al, 2008; Jones et al, 2005; Jones et al, 2007) ISDT IS Practice Scarcity and Abudance IS Research Anatomy of Design Theory (Gregor and Jones, 2007) DT, practice and learning Innovations (Jones, 2002; Jones, 2006) Shadow systems (Jones, Behrens, Jamieson, Tansley, 2004) (Jones & Behrens, 2003) Practice, understanding of ISDT versus ISDR http://flickr.com/photos/voxtheory/2192019057/ ISDT Web App design (Jones & Lynch, 1999)
  127. 128. http://flickr.com/photos/sineout/2491569707/ Action research Impartiality of researcher Lack of discipline Consulting? Context-dependency (Nielsen, 2007) E-learning Not sufficient learning emphasis
  128. 129. http://flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/202872717/
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