THE SPORTEDUCATION MODELCreated by: Daryl Siedentop
FEATURES OF SPORT EDUCATION Basic Premise: Instruction is carried out in a way which simulates an athletic team and season. Timing – this model is utilized at both the middle and high school level. West Hartford, SSW Middle school sport ed mostly focuses on traditional team sports which are less lifetime oriented. Lifetime activities are typically taught in high school. What are some examples of non-lifetime activities, focusing on team sports?
POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES – MIDDLESCHOOL Basketball Field Hockey Fitness Football Hockey Lacrosse Soccer Softball Tennis Track & Field Volleyball Weight Training Wrestling
FEATURES OF SPORT EDUCATION1. Seasons (not units) Seasons typically last a minimum of 12 lessons. This promotes more in-depth understanding of the material (more depth, less breadth). Teacher selects sport/activity. May also have students vote on choices.2. Affiliation Students quickly become members of teams, the rosters for which are constant throughout a season.3. Formal Competition Sports seasons include formal schedules. Typically, competitions are interspersed with practices.
FEATURES OF SPORT EDUCATION1. Culminating Event A competitive event highlights the season and provides goals for players to work towards.2. Keeping Records Records are publicized that provide feedback, define standards, and establish goals for players and teams.3. Festivity The festive atmosphere of sport enhances its meaning and adds an important social element for participants.
ROLES OF STUDENT Students are increasingly responsible for leadership, instruction, assessing, and performing. Potential student roles (all students practice and play in competitions) Captain – functions as coach, runs practice/games Statistician – record and post team and individual results on bulletin boards Fitness Instructor – leads warm-up and possibly cool down (should be specific to the activity) Manager – distributes and collects equipment, sets up playing field/court, arranges substitute for absent players Referee – Referees games and is acquainted with rules and etiquette of the sport/activity. Several team members are assigned the role of referee which trades-off throughout the season. Player – no assigned role, participating member of team. Scorekeeper – may designate to unprepared students Other roles: assistant captain, reporter…
TEACHER ROLE Teachers shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction. Teacher must establish strong managerial system with rules and routines. Teacher then has time to instruct, facilitate, and assess student learning more effectively. Model works especially well in a team- teaching scenario
TIMELINE OF A SAMPLE UNIT Day 1 Awarding of the captain’s position Festive – announce with clapping Team roster is announced for each captain Captains and team members are selected in advance by teacher. May also have captains select in private. Class breaks into teams and fills out captain’s packet Instruct/remind students of behavioral expectations and responsibilities for each role. Discussion of sport’s rules, etiquette, etc by teacher(s) Day 2 – 5 (5 is used for this example, may be > or < days) Each team practices separately (teacher checks off each skill once it has been satisfactorily completed) Who leads practice? – two choices
Timeline of a Unit: Day 2 – 5 (Practice Only Days)Teacher: Captain:Explains practice Captains develop practice plansequence and activities at home. Plans are reviewed byat start of class which teacher prior to each class.captains them Teacher should provide materialsimplement. (books, internet addresses, handouts of Itis suggested that suggested activities). May provide a reward/incentive for teacher provide all directions at start captains (bonus points, free PE t-shirt, instead of providing release time to prepare, letter home) direction prior to each Other incentives? practice activity. Teacher picks captain for each team Teacher rotates helping each team’s practice. ***May do a combination of the two – some portions of practice are teacher led, others are captain led
Timeline of a Unit: Day 6-11 Day 6 Written assessment of rules, etiquette, and strategies (may include other elements) Formal competition Competition schedule is set by teacher Day 7 Practice Captains focus on deficiencies identified by the 1st day of competition. Day 8 Formal competition Day 9 Practice Day 10 Formal competition Day 11 Practice Day 12, 13 Formal competition
Timeline of a Unit: Day 14 Day 14 Culminating Event Should be festive and fun. Announce the championship over the school PA, Ss can bring in food/drinks, teacher distributes awards (most improved, coach of the unit…) May include rewards such as a T-shirt May invite students from around school to attend Competition Three options: 1. Round-robin where all teams play one another in a tournament format. May need two days to complete 2. All teams are assigned an opponent with the top two teams playing one another in the championship. 3. Just the top 2 teams play one another while the other teams watch. 1. May need to give assignment to spectators.
SCORING Teams with most points play in the championship (depending on how you structure the culminating event). Points are based upon the following: Motor skill performance of team members Based upon psychomotor assessments of students Great model for authentic assessment (more time for assessment in this model) Competition performance (wins v. losses) Sportsmanship Attendance Proper warm-up
CAPTAIN’S PACKETImportant Points Distributed the first day Teams cannot move to the next skill without being checked off by the teacher. Includes an advise sheet for captainsSAMPLE PAKCET
OCCURENCE Within individual classes (just your class) Within a class period (classes from multiple teachers) Across classes (your classes, different periods) Can only compete outside of class during lunch, intramurals, before/after school. The usual scenario is to have a competition between the champions from each class.MODIFIED SPORTS Competition/sport rules may be modified to promote participation. You do not need to play the “full” sport using all rules and regulations. Some modifications include: 6 vs. 6 soccer 3 vs. 3 volleyball 3 vs. 3 basketball Team tennis
SETTING UP THE MODEL Teach students about the roles prior to start of each season. Can invite guest speakers such as a “real” coach, AT, referee, etc. Address handling conflicts between students Teacher should conduct mini-workshops for jobs needed during team practices or another appropriate time Trainings might include rules for referees, field/court set- up for managers, score keeping for statisticians Amount of teacher direct instruction will vary depending on grade level (older students may get more autonomy) The more ownership students have in the season’s success, the more they will be motivated to achieve their goals.
SETTING UP THE MODEL Make necessary modifications to rules and competition format Teacher may want to write a “job description” for each role Equity – all team members get to play the same amount of time. Balance make-up of teams by gender, ability, behavior, & others May preview teams with captains and allow for limited “trading” Identify what skills each team must check off.
BENEFITS Allows students to be a part of a team (makes team membership more likely as adults) Captains get to develop leadership skills and experience the role of being a coach. Inclusive learning environment (everyone participates, not just highly skilled) More student centered, utilizes different “voice” besides the teacher. Better avenue for monitoring and promoting personal growth among all players. Teachers and student enjoy this model
LIMITATIONS AND CAUTIONS Introducing the sport ed model for the 1st time - Start with a highly popular sport/activity to get the model rolling Start with one class instead of all classes to get your feet wet Class management skills needed Use caution when implementing with a “difficult” class. Interpersonal conflict Conflict among students is the